Terms in this set (75)
Distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees. The equator is 0 degrees and the North Pole is 90 degrees north latitude.
Distance east and west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees. The prime meridian is 0 degrees longitude
map that shows a small amount of detail of a large area
map that shows a large amount of detail of a small area
Theory that states that the earth's outer shell consists of plates that move causing earthquakes, volcanoes, Mountains, and the formation of new crust
Types of Rock
Metamorphic, Igneous & Sedimentary
7 Landform Regions of Canada
Canadian Shield, Interior Plains, Great Lakes-St.Lawrence Lowlands, Hudson Bay-Artic Lowlands, Appalachian mountains, Innuitian Mountains, Western cordillera,
LOWERN (Factors that effect multiple choice)
Latitude, Ocean currents, Winds and air masses, Elevation, Relief, Near water
Study of population numbers, distribution, trends and issues
To loose your culture and adopt the culture of the larger group within which you live
Multiculturalism is multicultural- characteristics of a society that is made up of many different cultures
Types of immigrants
Economic immigrants, Family immigrants, Refugees
Figure calculated by dividing the population of a region by the region's area.
Settlement pattern and different types Settlement pattern and different types of settlement patterns of settlement patterns
Distribution of homes, farms, villages, towns, and cities in an area
They tend to be along rivers and roads, gravitating towards minerals and resources
Long lot system
Settlement pattern in southern Quebec ad some other areas of Canada where individual lots tend to be long and narrow and extend back from major rivers or roads
How urban, suburban, or rural land is and can be used
Planning for land use/ development of an urban area
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
Industry that deals with the production of primary products such as minerals that are mined or quarried, or an agricultural product that is harvested in its raw state
Industry dealing with manufacturing or construction
Industry that provides services rather than goods
Highly specialized (and usually expensive) Knowledge based technological and support services.
The study of earth's physical and human systems and the relationships among them.
Metamorphic rock is formed from either igneous rock or sedimentary rock, through heat and pressure, also referred to as Metamorphism. An example of metamorphic rock is Gneiss.
Igneous rock is formed through Lava/ Magma cooling. An example of igneous rock is Granite
Sedimentary rock is formed through the compression of the sediments, such as sand and small pebbles. An example of sedimentary rock is Limestone
The Precambrian era
The Precambrian era, this took place between 4600 million years ago and 570 million years ago, a total of 4030 million years. The major geologic events in this era are; Precambrian shields, such as the Canadian shield, Brazilian shield, African shield, and Australian shield are formed. The major biological events in this era are; the first multi-celled organisms and single-celled organisms
The Paleozoic era
this took place between 570 million years ago and 245 million years ago, a total of 325 million years. The major geologic events in this era are; periods when large parts of North America are covered by shallow seas and the Appalachians are formed. The major biologic events of this time are; the age of amphibians and fish, the first insects, large swamps- coal formed from this vegetation, and the first plants and animals appear on land.
The Mesozoic era
The Mesozoic era, this took place between 245 million years ago and 66 million years ago, a total of 179 million years. The major geologic events of this period are; formation of the rocky mountain, begins innuitian mountains formed, shallow seas in the interior of North America at various times. The major Biological events of this era are; age of reptiles, such as dinosaurs, first flowering plants, and first birds and mammals.
The Cenozoic era
The Cenozoic era, this era took place between 66 million years ago and present day, a total of 66 million years and counting. The major geological events of this era are, ice sheets covered up much of North America, continents take on their present shape, and the formation of the rocky mountains are completed. The major biological events of this time are; human beings develop, age of mammals and modern forms of life evolve.
The Canadian Shield
The Canadian Shield covers most of Canada. Lots of metallic minerals are in the Canadian Shield, such as lead, gold, nickel, copper and zinc. The bedrock is impervious. Metamorphic and igneous rock makes up most of the Canadian shield.
The Interior Plains
The interior plains are mainly made of sedimentary rock. The interior plains have lots of oil. The landscape is composed of rolling hills and deep, wide river valleys, and other areas that are very flat. The land gently slopes downward from west to east.
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, these two parts are separated by a thin wedge of Canadian Shield that juts across Kingston, Ontario. The bedrock is sedimentary. The characteristics are a rolling landscape, with flat plains, glacial hills and deep river valleys. This is the most southern area in Canada. It is also great for agriculture because of the excellent soils and warm climate.
Hudson bay-arctic lowlands
Hudson bay-arctic lowlands. Hudson Bay lowlands are located around the shore of Hudson Bay and St. James bay. This area is a very flat, low are covered by a swampy forest. This region has sedimentary rock on top of the ancient rock of the Canadian Shield. The arctic lowlands harsh climate permits very little farming and the ground is frozen during most of the year. This area has a gentle rolling landscape, the sedimentary rock contains; coal, oil, and natural deposits.
Appalachian mountains are the oldest highland region in North America, formed when North America collided with Europe and northern Africa during the formation of Pangaea. This area is made of sedimentary rock, and is a rich deposit of non-metallic minerals, such as coal. Certain areas of the Appalachians are igneous and metamorphic rock, plateaus of this rock can contain metallic minerals such as iron and zinc. The area is rolling hills with large harbours
Innuitian Mountains are very high altitude, and are usually frozen. They were formed by the shifting of the North American plates moving forward. The land is barren and has jagged peaks, because they are so new erosion has had no time to wear them down. The region contains similar minerals to the Appalachians
Western cordillera is on the west edge of the continent. It is a range of mountains separated by plateaus and valleys. They formed when the pacific plate collided with the north American plate, and a relatively new. The mountains run north south, and because they hinder population, the area is lightly populated
weather conditions of a place averaged over a long period of time
Combination of temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and winds experienced daily.
Latitude Rule (LOWERN)
The closer to the equator, the warmer
Ocean currents (LOWERN)
The air above the current gets pushed with the current depending on where the current is coming form it can be warm or cool
Winds and air masses (LOWERN)
a large volume of air that takes on the climatic conditions of where it is formed, so an air mass from a warm area would be warm, and an air mass from a cold area cold
The higher a point, the cooler. This is caused by low air pressure. Usually 1 Celsius degree for every hundred meters
The air is pushed up the windward side of the mountain, and as it rises, cools, and condenses. It will create cool relief precipitation. On the leeward side of the mountain, the air goes down and as the air goes down, in becomes warmer. The result is a warm leeward side called the rain shadow and a wet cold windward side
Near water (LOWERN)
Continental/away from bodies of water climates are warm and dry. Maritime/close to bodies of water climates are cool and wet
The temperature at sea level is 12 degrees Celsius, what would the temperature be at 2700m?
The temperature decreases 1 degree for every 100 m so 2700/100 = 27 so 12 - 27= - 15 degrees
Pattern showing where people live in an area. For example, a scattered distribution along a coastline or road.
Canada's population distribution is all around cities. The population density is the number of people divided by the area in square km.
Figure calculated by dividing the population of a region by the region's area
Central Business District. Bloor and Younge St. is Toronto's CBD
sources such as coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity.
sources such as solar, wind, and biomass energy
using the different temperature underground as opposed to above ground for energy.
electric generating station - Place where energy, in the form of heat, is generated by splitting atoms of radioactive materials then is used to generate electricity.
factors such as war, absence of human rights, poor economic and educational opportunities, religious persecution, terrorism and natural disasters that encourage people to emigrate from their country.
Factors that draw immigrants to a country such as job opportunities, freedom of speech and religion and lower taxes
Multiculturalism is multicultural- characteristics of a society that is made up of many different cultures.
cultural mosaic is where all the cultures are mixed together Ex. Canada
A melting pot is when all the cultures loose their culture and are assimilated (absorbed) into the new culture Ex. Usa
Direct Statement scale
Direct Statement scale uses words to describe a relationship between distances
Ex. 5cm to 10 km
Line scales use a ruler that is divided into units that represent distances on the surface of the Earth
Representative fraction Scale
Representative fraction scales use a ratio to represent the compared distances
Ex. 1cm: 500 000cm
What is the difference between a six figure and a four figure military grid reference?
The difference is that a four figure military grid is less exact than a six figure grid because a six figure grid goes into decimals. Ex. On a grid 34,12 is a less exact version of 348,124. In the example 8 at the end means it is 8 tenths of the way to 35 and 4 at the end means 12 is 4 tenths of the way to 13. think of it as 34.8 and 12.4, but it is not written that way.
What bearing would a SW direction have?
Sw: 225 degrees North: 000 degrees East; 090 degrees.
Contour lines on a map represent height and show the land from a birds eye view. The closer the lines are the steeper the change in height. The farther apart the mellower
A rain shadow is associated with what type of precipitation?
to leave your country of origin to live permanently in another country. To leave a country
To move permanently to a country other than one's native country. To go into a country
Location of Markets (Industrial Location Factor)
Market: majority of customers situated in the area
Delivery costs kept low
Manufacturing has moved overseas (China- cheap labour)
Fresh Water and Power (Industrial Location Factor)
Steel and oil refineries use a lot of fresh water for cooling and cleaning purposes. Available cheap power is key in determining location of a factory
Labour Supply (Industrial Location Factor)
Industries with low-cost labour have decreased greatly in Canada compared to Mexico and China
Companies in Canada are more likely to need high skilled workers
Transportation (Industrial Location Factor)
Companies require access to international airports and seaports to ship the products
Political Factors (Industrial Location Factor)
Various levels of government make decisions that improve the business climate and attract new companies
They make decisions encouraging companies to locate in their area lowering taxes or loans
They improve the city's infrastructure by creating new highways to transport goods
Name 5 land uses in any city
(1) 40% Residential- Housing, apartments, condominiums.
(2) 32% Transportation- Highways
(3) 10% institutional and public buildings- Del
(4) 7% undeveloped- park
(5) 6% Industrial- factories
(6) 5% commercial- stores/malls
Where is Canada's storehouse of minerals located?
The shield is Canada's storehouse for metallic minerals, due to large deposits of lead, gold, nickel, copper, zinc and other minerals
Categories often used in the immigration point system are
- Language ability
- Work experience
- Arranged employment
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