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Exam 2 - Human Growth and Development
covers chapters 12, 11, and 13
Terms in this set (38)
What are the basics of children's reading levels? How do they change over time?
the emerging pre-reader (typically between 6 months to 6 years old);
the novice reader (typically between 6 to 7 years old);
the decoding reader (typically between 7 - 9 years old);
the fluent, comprehending reader (typically between 9 - 15 years old); and.
the expert reader (typically from 16 years and older).
What causes the increase of fine motor skills in early school aged children compared to pre-school aged children?
Young children need time to practice using their fine motor skills in everyday situations. ... These activities will help develop hand-eye coordination, develop finger control and help children learn how to manipulate objects
Why are children becoming more unhealthy, overweight, and obese?
genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of these factors.
What happens for children in the concrete operational stage? What achievements do they make?
7-11 years; builds on and masters abstract thought. During this stage, the child acquires the ability to develop and apply logical, concrete rules to objects (but not to abstract concepts)
What are the basic pieces of the information processing theory?
It refers to what we are experiencing through our senses at any given moment. This includes what we can see, hear, touch, taste and smell. Sight and hearing are generally thought to be the two most important ones.
What Vygotsky theories were impactful in early childhood? Why?
it is a form of social constructivism, based on the idea that cognitive functions are the products of social interactions. Vygotsky emphasized the collaborative nature of learning by the construction of knowledge through social negotiation.
What are self-care children and how do they fare compared to other children?
They are often referred to as the activities of daily living (ADL's). While these are typically supported by adults in young children, it is expected that children develop independence in these as they mature.
What are the facets of James Marcia's identity development?
there are four identity statuses, or stages, in developing who we are as individuals. These stages are achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion
What are the gender differences in friend groups for boys and girls in childhood?
Male-to-male friendships tend to be "side-to-side", fostered and maintained through shared activity while female-to- female friendships are more frequently "face-to-face" and are fueled by investment in the friendship and by more communication, personal connection and mutual support.
What are the pluralistic, melting pot, multicultural identity models?
What does self-concept look like in adolescence? How does this differ from early childhood?
What is social competence?
the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others
What is puberty?
the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction. It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads: the ovaries in a girl, the testes in a boy.
What does risk and impulse have to do with brain development?
This is because the self-monitoring, problem-solving and decision-making part of the brain - the prefrontal cortex - develops last. Hormones are also thought to contribute to impulsive and risky behavior in teenagers. Teenagers need to take risks to grow and develop.
Does sexual orientation come from genetic makeup, social interaction, environmental changes?
Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates - childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI).
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