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growth and development
Terms in this set (43)
When does birth length double?
By 4 years
When does the child sit unsupported?
When does a child achieve 50% of adult height?
When does a child throw a ball overhand?
When does a child speak 2-3 word sentences?
When does a child use scissors?
When does a child tie his/her shoes?
List 2 contraindications for live virus immunization
Immunocompromised child or a child in a household with an immunocompromised individual.
List 3 classic signs and symptoms of measles
2. confluent rash that begins on the face and spreads downward
3. Koplik spots on the buccal mucosa
List the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency
Anemia; pale conjunctiva; pale skin color; atrophy of papillae on tongue, brittle, ridged, or spoon-shaped nails; and thyroid edema
Identify food sources for Vitamin A.
Liver, sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach, peaches, and apricots
What disease occurs with vitamin C deficiency?
What measurements reflect present nutritional status?
Weight, skinfold thickness, and arm circumference.
List the signs and symptoms of dehydration in an infant.
Poor skin turgor, absence of tears, dry mucous membranes, weight loss, depressed fontanel and decreased urinary output.
List the laboratory findings that can be expected in a dehydrated child.
Loss of bicarbonate/decreased serum pH, losso f sodium (hyponatremia), loss of potassium (hypokalemia), elevated Hct, and elevated BUN
How should burns in children be assessed?
Use the Lund-Browder chart, which takes into account the changing proportions of the child's body
How can the nurse BEST evaluate the adequacy of fluid replacement in children?
Monitor urine output.
How should a parent be instructed to "child proof" a house?
Lock all cabinets, safely store all toxic household items in locked cabinets, and examine the house from the child's point of view.
What interventions should the nurse do FIRST in caring for a child who has ingested a poison
Assess the child's respiratory, cardiac, and neurological status
List 5 contraindications to administering syrup of ipecac
Coma, seizures, CNS depression, ingestion of petroleum-based products, and ingestion of corrosives.
What instructions should be given by phone to a mother who knows her child has ingested a bottle of medication?
Administer syrup of ipecac if the child is conscious. Bring any emesis or stool to the emergency room. Bring the container in which the medicine was stored to the emergency room.
Describe the purpose of bronchodilators
To help open the airways by relaxing the bronchial muscles: to reverse bronchospasm
What are the physical assessment findings for a child with asthma?
Expiratory wheezing, rales, right cough, and signs of altered blood gases.
What nutritional support should be provided for the child with cystic fibrosis?
Pancreatic enzyme replacement, fat-soluble vitamins, and a high carbohydrate, high protein, moderate fat diet.
Why is genetic counseling important for the cystic fibrosis family?
The disease is autosomal recessive in its genetic pattern.
List 7 signs of respiratory distress in a pediatric client
Restlessness, tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, flaring nostrils, retractions, and grunting
Describe the care of a child in a mist tent.
Monitor child's temperature. Keep tent edges tucked in. Keep clothing dry. Assess child's respiratory status. Look at child inside tent.
What position does the child with epiglottis assume?
Upright, sitting, with chin out and tongue protruding ("tripod" position).
Why are IV fluids important for the child with an increased respiratory rate?
The child is at risk for dehydration and acid/base imbalance.
Children with chronic otitis media are at risk for developing what problem?
What is the most common post-operative complication following a tonsillectomy? Describe the signs and symptoms of this complication
Hemorrhage; frequent swallowing, vomiting fresh blood, and clearing throat.
What are the physical features of a child with Down syndrome?
- Simian creases of palms, hypotonia, protruding tongue, and upward/outward slant of eyes
6. State the 3 main goals in providing nursing care for a child experiencing a seizure
Maintain patent airway, protect from injury, and observe carefully.
Describe the signs and symptoms of a child with meningitis?
Fever, irritability, vomiting, neck stiffness, opisthotonos, positive Kernig's sign, positive Brudzinski's sign. Infant does not show all classic signs, but is very ill.
What antibiotics are usually ordered for bacterial meningitis?
Ampicillin, penicillin, and/or Chloramphenicol
acute glomerulonephritis (AGN)
gross hematuria, recent strep infection, hypertension, and mild edema.
severe edema, massive proteinuria, frothy-appearing urine, anorexia
What antecedent event occurs with acute glomerulonephritis?
Beta-hemolytic strep infection
Describe safe monitoring of prednisone administration and withdrawal
Long term should be given every other day.
Signs of edema, mood changes, and GI distress should be noted and reported. The drug should be tapered, not discontinued suddenly.
What are the priorities for a client with Wilms' tumor?
Protect the child from injury to the encapsulated tumor. Prepare the family/child for surgery.
Describe the post-op nursing care for an infant with pyloric stenosis.
Maintain Iv hydration and provide small, frequent oral feedings of glucose and/or electrolyte solutions within 4-6 hours. Gradually increase to full strength formula. Position on right side in semi-Fowler's position after feeding.
Describe why a barium enema is used to treat intussusception.
A barium enema reduces the telescoping of the intestine through hydrostatic pressure without surgical intervention.
Describe the pre-op nursing care for a child with Hirschsprung's disease
Check vital signs and take axillary temps. Provide bowel cleansing program and teach about colostomy. Observe for bowel perforation; measure abdominal girth.
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