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Chapter 13 Phys Ex Exam 4
Terms in this set (49)
What is overload?
when the body adapts overtime by changing intensity, duration, and frequency
[e.g., training at a intensity level higher than usual]
What is specificity?
regarding muscle fibers, energy systems, velocity, and contraction type
What is reversibility?
the removal of overload after training stops
What is VO2 max?
the maximal volume of O2 a person can transport and consume
What is the Fick equation?
VO2 = Q x A-VO2 diff
What is the transportation portion of the Fick equation?
Q - cardiac output
What is the consumption portion of the Fick equation?
Why do males have a higher VO2 max than females?
Males have a larger heart [left ventricle]
-have more muscle mass
-have more hemoglobin
How Frequent should one exercise to maintain VO2 max?
3-5 days a week
How Intense should one exercise to maintain VO2 max?
50-85% of repmax
How long should one exercise for to maintain VO2 max?
-20 to 60 minutes each session
What Type of exercise should one be doing to maintain VO2 max?
-those that require the use of large muscle groups in a continous, rhythmic fashion
-EX: row, stairmaster, etc...
How much does VO2 max increase as a result of training?
on average, 15% but it can range any from 2-50%
How much influence does genetic predisposition play in determining VO2 max?
What factor is impacted by genetics?
-sensitivity to training
[due to genetics some people are predisposed to be able to increase their mitochondrial DNA]
What has the greatest effect in changing VO2 max?
What are the 3 main factors that will elicit a change in stroke volume?
What is EDV?
"preload" or volume coming into the ventricles
What influences preload?
Plasma Volume [200-300L]
Filling Time [lowers heart rate]
Ventricular Volume [volume overload]
What increases cardiac contractility to increase SV?
The SNS and calcium
What is afterload?
peripheral resistance in which the heart contracts against
What causes the decrease in resistance?
a decrease in SNS due to the dilation of vessels
How does A-VO2D change with training?
there is a increased capacity of the muscle to extract the O2
Why does training increase the capacity of the muscle to extract oxygen?
-there is a increase in muscle blood flow
-there is a decrease in diffusion distance to the mitochondria
-increase in capillary density
What factors increase while endurance training is increasing?
1. number of mitochondria
2. capillary density
3. Oxidative enzymes for Kreb's cycle, Beta oxidation, and ETC
What is the oxidative capacity?
the ability to produce ATP aerobically
How long does it take the oxidative capacity of the muscle to increase with training?
it increases within the first 6 weeks
How does those changes lead to a faster achievement of steady state?
ADP increases as a signal to jump start the bodies energy producing systems therefore there is a greater number of mitochondria therefore there is less ADP buildup required to trigger the energy which allows oxidative phosphorylation to begin sooner which means steady state is reached faster
Why is the oxygen deficit lower following endurance training and why is this positive?
Our body has less ADP concentration which results in less stimulation of glycolysis which results in lower lactate levels
What is PFK stimulated by?
Why is PFK less stimulated following training?
What does it result in?
there is a decrease in ADP build up which results in a reduction of glycolysis which results in a less reliance on anaerobic glycoylsis [less lactate formation]
What allows the sparing of the limited CHO stores and a greater reliance on FAT?
1. move FFA into muscle
2. transport FFA from cytoplasm to the mitochondria
3. increase in betaoxidation enzymes
What must happen to the Plasma FFA before it is used as an energy source in Beta Oxidation?
Plasma FFA must be transported from the capillaries into the cytoplasma and then into the mitochondria
How does the increase in capillary density allow trained individuals to transport a greater amount of FFA into the muscle than untrained individuals?
It slows the blood flow and allows for more FFA to be transported
What other adaptions helps with transporting more FFAs?
An increase in F.A binding proteins to transport more FFA in the blood
How are FFA transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria?
Carnitine transferase enzyme
What happens to the cartinine transferase enzyme during training?
Why is the c. transferase enzyme increasing a positive?
it allows FFA to be transported to the mitochondria at a faster rate
Blood lactate levels rise due to what?
An increase in production or a decrease in removal
What organ is the primary site of lactate removal?
What is the time frame of the initial decrease of VO2 max after untraining and what contributes to this?
1-12 days and there is a decrease in SV due to a loss in plasma volume
What factors of VO2 max decrease following 21 days of detraining?
A-VO2 max and the number of mitochondria one has
How long does it take to lose 20% of the training effect?
What is muscular strength?
the maximal force one can generate
What is muscular endurance?
the ability to repeat contractions and sustain contractions
Neural adaptions account for early/rapid strength increases within the first _____ weeks
What is muscular hypertrophy?
enlargment of the muscle cell size without changing the number of muscle fibers
What is muscular hyperplasia?
generation of new muscle fibers
What adaptation allow more blood to be diverted to the liver following training?
following training, muscles require less blood flow which allows more blood to be diverted to the liver
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