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HIS242 Final Examination Short Answer Questions
Terms in this set (46)
Name an important event that happened in Russia in 1905
The 1905 Revolution occured as a revolt against the prior autocracy of the Tsars. This was also known as the first revolution and it would be considered a precursor to the 1917 Boshlevik Revolution. Its main motives were to have a political upheaval which included labor strikes, and stripping of property by the peasants.
Name the participants of the Balkan Wars in 1912-1914
The paricipating countries during the Balkan wars in 1912-1914 included The Ottoman Empire for which Italy declared war on. This was proposed to fight for independence from the Ottoman Empire which included states of Greece, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro, and Albania
Who was killed in Sarajevo in 1914.
The individual who was assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914 was known as Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand who was prominently known for starting World War I because of his death. The group that assassinated him was known as the Black Hand which was a Bosnian revolutionary group. The motives for this assassination was to stop the transformation of Franz Ferdinand becoming emperor.
Why was Istanbul an important object in Russian imperial plans before 1914?
Istanbul was a key factor in Russian imperial plans before WW1 because it was a way to open the Strait of Bosporus—from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. This is crucial because prior to this Russia had no access to European seas for which Instanbul allowed a pathway between these two areas. In addition, Russia would gain power by controlling the pathway between Asia and Europe.
Name the allies of Germany during the First World War.
In the First World War, the Allies of Germany contained many powerful countries which included The Ottoman Empire which joined in October 1914 due to its great fear of Russia. Austria-Hungary was already a part of Germany in 1879. In addition, Bulgaria was an ally as well
When (year) did the United States enter the First World War?
The United States entered WW1 in 1917 because of how German Forces threatened to sink all of their merchant vessels found in the British isles or in the Mediterranean. Lastly, Wilson was against German aggressiveness so they joined to war in order to make the world safe for democracy.
When (exact date) was the armistice of Compiegne signed?
The exact date of when the armistice of Compiegne was signed was on November 11th, 1918. The implication of this signage was that firing ceased on the Western Front. The reason why the armistice was signed was because that the Germans believed peace would be made in relation to Wilson's fourteen points.
What country was affected by the Treaty of Trianon?
Hungary was primarily affected by the Treaty of Trianon. This treaty resulted in problems for Hungary which included losing 75% of its territory for which half its population was taken by Romania and Transylvania. In addition, Slovakia became apart of Chez which was Hungarian for many years. Overall, this Treaty was extremely embarrassing for Hungary.
What was the Little Entente?
The Little Entente was the alliance of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania. This was proposed from France in order to balance German power in the east by its own diplomatic alliances. In addition, it was directed against Hungarian domination. Overall these were acts of mutual defense between the three countries.
Explain the acronym Comintern.
Comintern is an acronym for The Third International which was mass rallying of Marxists from countries that believed the Bolshevik Revolution was the true form of Marxism. It was created during the Year 1919 for which it had its first congress and its second was in 1920. In addition those who a part of this organization sought to dismiss moderate socialists and to bring world domination in relation to the leadership of the world's working class. The Comintern Organization was abandoned in 1943 due to wartime cooperation.
What was the most important point of the Treaty of Locarno in 1925?
The key factor of the Treaty of Locarno in 1925 was proposed at Switzerland Locarno. The main purpose of the treaty of Locarno in 1925 was voluntary signage of the security and preservation of their respective frontiers. This was destined to create peace settlements, and potential agreements. Although its main point was to secure and guarantee the boarders after the first WW1.
When (year) did Adolf Hitler come to power?
Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany on January 30th, 1933 for which his cabinet consisted of members of the Nazi Party and other Nationalists. This occurred because the high amount of economic crisis that occurred in Germany during the prior years. The response to this was that the ideas of his Nazi ideology would be limited due to his leadership.
When (year) did the Munich conference take place?
The Munich Conference took place in September 1938. The conference took place between a variety of world leaders including Neville Chamberlain from England, Edouard Daladier, the French Premier, and Italian Dictator Mousollini
Why did the Czechs consider the Munich conference an act of treason?
The reason why the Czechs considered the Munich conference an act of treason was because #1 the point of the conference was to discuss a solution to the problems of the Czech. The main reason why it was treason because the Chamberlain gave away the Sudatenland to the Germans
Name the Spanish dictator after the civil war in Spain.
The Spanish Dictator after Spain's civil war was known as Fransisco Franco. Like Adolf Hitler, Franco was very anti-communist as well, for which he blamed the republicans for Bolshevism. Lastly, Franco was the leader of the Facist Nationalists, which was opposed and overthrew the Democratic-Republicans
Name the policies of the Western Powers toward Germany before 1939?
Before WW2 in 1939, there was a variety of policies against Germany which included the policy of the British and France appeasement from Neville Chamberlain which was meant to avoid war with Germany. In addition, this was destined to stop the pain of WW1 and so stop the supposed injustices of the Versailles Treaty. This policy was meant to give in to Germany which was to hope that Hitler would not give in to the idea of war. This was a part of the Munich Agreement which allowed Germany to annex Bohemia. Britain and France also permitted Hitler's demand for the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia.
12. When (exact date) did Germany attack Poland and start the Second World War?
Germany started the Invasion of Poland and Started the Second World War on September 1st, 1939 which included speed, and power for which they wanted to invade Poland.
Name the British Prime Minister during the Second World War.
The British Prime Minister during the Second World War was named Winston Churchill who replaced Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister in May 1940. Churchill made many promises during regarding the war which was to destroy Adolf Hitler for which he called his regime a monstrous tyranny. Lastly he strived to influence America to help Britain.
Name the European countries attacked and occupied by Germany in 1940.
In 1940, the countries that attacked and were occupied by Germany in 1940 primarily included, Norway which was attacked and occupied on April, 9th, 1940. On this day, Denmark was also overrun and occupied by Germany as well. On May 10th, 1940, the Germans occupied the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France.
Name the European countries occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939-1941.
During 1939-1941 the countries that were occupied by the Soviet Union included , Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. In addition they attacked Finland in November of 1939. Lastly, they attacked Poland two weeks after the German Invasion in 1939. Lastly, the Soviets Romania and incorporated it into a soviet public.
When (month and year) did Nazi Germany invade the Soviet Union?
The Nazi's invaded the Soviet Union during June 22nd 1941. One of the reasons this was caused because Stalin ignored Hitler's multiple warnings. This operation was a surprise attack rather than priorly known.
How many Jews (approximately) were murdered by the Nazis and their allies during the Second World War?
During WW2, the deceased Jews in the amounted to approximately 6 million for which they were killed in Concentration Camps, and other forms of tyranny.
Name at least two Nazi extermination camps were Jews were murdered.
One of the most prominent Concentration camps that the Jews were murdered in was Auschwitz Birkenau. In addition, many Jews were slaughtered at Buchenwald, for which more than 40,000 Jews were brutally murdered.
Name the battle that stopped and reversed the Nazi aggression against the Soviet Union in 1942-1943.
The Battle of Stalingrad was a fight that led the Nazi's away from Soviet Territory during 1942-1943. In August 1942, over 750,000 German soldiers assaulted Stalingrad for which they were successful at occupying until the Red Army attacked back which was led by General Zhukov. The Germans surrendered on February 1943.
Where did the Allies land on June 6, 1944?
On June 6th, 1944, the allies of Western Europe landed on the coast of Normandy France directly across the Channell from England. The allies that landed at this location included the Americans, Canadians, British. Lastly, there were 130,000 allies on the first day and 1 million within a month.
Name the leaders of the great powers who participated in the Yalta conference.
During the Yalta conference in February 1945, the participants consisted of United States President Franklin D Roosevelt, Soviet Leader, Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Lastly each of the men had different motives. For example, Roosevelt saw himself as a peacekeeper between Churchill and Stalin.
How many occupational zones were established in Austria in 1945 and what states were in charge of them?
In 1945 there were four occupational zones established in Austria. The states that were in charge of these zones were the United States, The United Kingdom, The Soviet Union, and, France.
Who was Konrad Adenauer?
Konrad Adenauer was the first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government. Adenauer served as chancellor of West Germany from 1949-1963 and his policies played a big role in establishing and reconstructing democratic principles in West Germany.
12. Who was George Kennan?
George Kennan (1904-2005) was an American Diplomat and was known for being a prominent Russian Specialist as well. Advoate for the the Policy of Containment.
When (years) did the Soviets block Berlin?
The Soviets blocked Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949 in order to prevent western transports and trade which includes the blockage of all road and rail access to Berlin. The reason why it was lifted in May 1949 was due to the massive airlift proposed by the allies. In addition the massive pressure from the import of thousands of food items from the west pressured the soviets to avoid conflicts which made them lift the blockade.
When (year) did Joseph Stalin die?
Joseph Stalin died in March of 1953. His death led to many implications in the USSR which includes the uprising in Gulags due to the notion that communism was near its demise. In addition, this was the beginning of destination and new policies. Other consequences included collective leadership and the release of prisoners.
What does the acronym NATO stand for?
NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which is a network of political military organizations which was led by United States president Dwight D Eisenhower.
When (year) did the Soviet Union invade Hungary?
The Soviet Union invaded Hungary on November 4th 1956 with tanks, guns and armored vehicles and organizations of large bombers which included many soldiers.
Explain the term "Brezhnev Doctrine".
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a doctrine that permitted Soviet's to intervene from any forces opposing proletarian internationalism in communist countries in order to defend "socialism" against external or internal oppositions and to prevent the uprising and reform of capitalism. This doctrine took place in 1968 and was used to justify soviet intervention in Chezeslovakia.
Name the members of the European Coal and Steel Community.
The members of the European Coal and Steel Company included France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. The organization was formed in 1952. In addition, the objective of this organization was to eliminate import duties and quotas on coal and steel.
What decade did Margaret thatcher become prime minister?
Margaret Thatcher became prime minister during the 1970s. In particular she became prime minister during 1979 as the conservative leader. Her main points were the opposition against a welfare state for which she called it wasteful.
Name the Soviet leader who initiated the Perestroika and Glasnost policies.
The Soviet Leader who initiated the perestroika and glasnost policies was known as Mikhail Gorbechav who was the last leader of the Soviet Union and also the most progressive. Glasnost was the policy of economic reform and allowed criticism and Perestroika was the reform of the central planned communist economy.
When (year) did communism fall in East Central Europe?
In East Europe, communism collapsed during the fall of the Berlin Wall which occurred in 1989 in East Germany. The Wall came down on Nov. 4 1989.
When (year) did the Soviet Union cease to exist?
The Soviet Union completely collapsed on December of 1991.
Name the Russian enemy during the war of 1904-1905
The enemy in Russia in 1904-1905 were the Japanese which occurred in the Japanese-Russo War. This war occurred for a variety of reasons which includes the Japanese starting a naval attack on Russian installations on Port Arthur.
What did happen in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908?
In 1908, Russia favored the Austria annexation of Bosnia. In addition, Austria proclaimed the annexation without any prior conference. This really pissed off the serbs who believed that Bosnia was theirs.
Name the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina where Archduke Francis Ferdinand was killed in 1914.
The capital of Bosnia-Hezegovina where Archduke Francis Ferdinand was killed in 1914 was known as Sarajevo.
Name the members of the anti-turkish coalition during the first Balkan war of 1912
The Anti Turkish members of 1912 included Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro. These countries hoped to annex certain Balkan territories for which they believed they had a right to.
Name the foreign minister's III Reich and the Soviet Union who signed the agreement known as the Hitler-Stalin Pact.
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that enabled those two powers to partition Poland between them.
What was EFTA
It was the European Free Trade Association. Switzerland, United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Portugal. It was a trade Union and wanted to compete with the European Union
Who was Ludwig Erhard
- Oct 1963 replaced Adenauer as chancellor
- Continued to support development of eco and social policies that were widely approved during Adenauer's reign
- 1965 elections forms new coalition with FDP
- Eco was improving with prod. figures up by 8% and wages by 8.5% by 1964
- Launched new socio and eco prog. encouraging growth of co-operation in social market economy → hindered by eco recession in 1965 caused by excessive public spending leads to inflation, reduction in spending plans and raising interest rates
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