MSK Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumors

46 terms by alxmd2014

Create a new folder

Like this study set?

Create a free Quizlet account to save it and study later.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

___ is an intermediate filament common to mesenchymal tissues. ____ protein is also common to mesenchymal tissues, in particular sarcomas.

Vimentin, S-100

Myoglobin is specific to ___ ___ .

skeletal muscle

Mesenchymal tumors tend to be ___ rather than ___ . Nonetheless, they tend to be more frequently malignant among ___ than among ___ .

benign, malignant, children, adults

Usually risk for developing a sarcoma increases with ___ age and tends to be higher in ___ than in ___ . Signs usually include a ___ growing mass that often metastasizes by the time of clinical diagnosis.

advancing, men, women, rapidly

___ are the most common soft tissue mass in adulthood. Grossly it is a soft, yellow, and encapsulated mass.


___ are common among adults in their 50s or 60s. The most common type is a ___ ___ which is frequently associated with a ____ translocation.

Liposarcomas, myxoid liposarcoma, t(12;16)

All liposarcomas tend to recur unless they have been properly excised; however, ___ tumors are difficult to excise and even when they are, they tend to recur with subsequent involvement of vital organs.


Grossly, myxoid liposarcomas are ___ , ___ and have many ___ . Microscopically, myxoid liposarcomas contain small, uniform undifferentiated mesenchymal cells with a variable number of ___ , all set in an abundant ___ matrix and often seen with a branching network of ___ .

soft, mucoid, cysts, lipoblasts, mucoid, capillaries

___ ____ represents a reactive lesion that may arise secondary to ___ and may be mistaken for a sarcoma. However, because it is a reactive lesion the mass does not recur post ___ .

Nodular fasciitis, trauma, excision

Nodular fasciitis tends to occur in ___ adults, specifically on the __ side of the forearm or on surfaces superficial to either ___ or ___ .

young, volar, fascia, muscle

Grossly, nodular fasciitis masses have poorly defined ___ . Microscopically they appear as highly cellular lesions with plump, immature appearing ___ that are randomly arranged in whirls or fasicles with a richly vascular myxoid background showing evidence of extravasated ___ and ___ .

margins, fibroblasts, RBCs, lymphocytes

___ ____ are also known as ___ fibromatoses, and are most commonly seen in ___ up to adults in their ___ . These are usually ___ tumors - typically ____ - and tend to recur after excision but do not metastasize.

Desmoid tumors, desmoid, teenagers, 30s, deep, intramuscular

Desmoid tumors can be divided into 3 types: (1) __ (2) __ and (3) simply ___ . Grossly, demoid tumors appear ___ and ___ while microscopically, they appear as plump, long sweeping fascicles of ____ infiltrating ___ tissue.

extra-abdominal, intra-abdominal, abdominal, grey, rubbery, fibroblasts, adjacent

___ ___ ___ are the most common type of sarcoma in adults. These type of tumors may occur at any age but are more frequently diagnosed in ___ ___ .


Malignant fibrous histiocytomas usually arise de novo, but some may be __ to other conditions. They may present as either a ___ ___ malignancy or more rarely as an ___ lesion.

secondary, soft tissue, intraosseous

Malignant fibrous histiocytomas may occur anywhere in the body, but have a predilection for ___ planes of the ___ extremities and also the ___ .

deep, proximal, retroperitoneum

Malignant fibrous histiocytomas may be divided into ___ clinically and prognostically relevant histological types. The most common type is referred to as ______ which usually presents at ___ plus years of age and its prognosis is ___ ___ relative to the five year survival rate of patients with a liposarcoma.

five, storiform-pleomorphic, 60, less favorable

Grossly, MFHs appear as ___ masses with areas of ___ and or ___ . Intra-osseous lesions often demonstrate extensive destruction of the underlying ___ .

tan-white, hemorrhage, necrosis, bone

Microscopically, the storiform-pleomorphic type is composed of plump, pleomorphic ___ cells arranged in a ___ pattern. Some cells may resemble ___ laden histiocytes.

spindle-shaped, whirling, lipid

Treatment for patients with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma includes surgical ___ , and both ___ and ___ therapies.

excision, radiation, chemo

Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common type of sarcoma in ___ and ___, but occur rarely in ___ .

children, adolescents, adults

Rhabdomyosarcomas can be divided into three clinically and prognostically relevant types with the most common being referred to as ___ which typically presents by the age of ___ and arises in either the (1) ___ (2) ___ region or (3) ___ .

embryonal, 10, head, genitourinary, retroperitoneum

Grossly, rhabdomyosarcomas are soft, gray white ___ masses that might demonstrate evidence of ___ and or ___ .

infiltrative, hemorrhage, necrosis

Microscopically, the embyronal subtype appears as a collection of ___ striated muscle cells with abundant ___ cytoplasm in a variably myxoid stroma.

undifferentiated, eosinophilic

Morphologically, characteristic elongated rhabdomyoblasts, also known as ___ cells, with cross-sections are a feature of ___ differentiated forms.

strap, better

A ___ is a relatively common, benign, intraosseous tumor characterized by the production of abundant mature hyaline cartilage.


A chondroma is referred to as a ___ when the tumor arises in the medullary cavity.


Chondromas/enchondromas typically present in patients ___ to ___ years of age with an ___ sex distribution. Chondromas typically present as ___ masses located in the ___ region of ___ bones, particularly in the small bones of the ___ and ___ .

20, 50, equal, solitary, metaphyseal, tubular, hands, feet

A syndrome in which multiple enchondromas arise, either in one or several bones, is called ____ or ___ disease.

enchondromatosis, Olier

If endochromatosis is associated with soft tissue hemangiomas, the disorder is referred to as ___ syndrome. Patients with this syndrome are at risk for other ____ .

Maffucci, malignancies

Patients with a chondroma or enchondroma tend to be ___ , although sometimes patients may have associated ___ and even pathological ___ .

asymptomatic, pain, fractures

Grossly, chondromas appear as masses that are smaller than ___ centimeters, colored ___ , are ___ when raised to light, well circumscribed with focal areas of ___ .

3, grey-blue, translucent, calcification

Microscopically, chondromas appear as nodules of well-circumscribed cartilage with a ___ matrix and irregularly scattered neoplastic ___ - cartilage undergoes enchondral ossification at the nodular ___ while the center of the lesion tends to ___ and ___- .

hyaline, chondrocytes, periphery, calcify, die

A ___ is a malignant tumor of cartilage cells that tends to affect __ more commonly than __ and typically presents in a patient's __ to __ .

chondrosarcoma, men, women, 40s, 60s

Chondrosarcomas can be __ or __ grade, and are subclassified according to their __ (e.g. __ or __ ) and histology. The most common type is __ __ chondrosarcoma which has a typical distribution that involves the ___ portion of the skeleton including the ___ , __ long bones, and __ . They are typically __ and progressively __ masses.

low, high, site, intramedullary, juxtacortical, intramedullary conventional, central, pelvis, proximal, ribs, painful, enlarging

Grossly, an intramedullary conventional chondrosarcoma is __ , has a __ __ color, and varying degrees of __ intermixed with firmer, ossified areas.

bulky, gray-white, translucence

Microscopically, grade 1 and 2 chondrosarcomas demonstrate innocuous __ __ with __ cells containing __ , pyknotic nuclei and usually __ mitoses.

hyaline cartilage, sparse, dark, no

Treatment for chondrosarcomas includes __ __ and ___; the five year survival rate for grades 1 and 2 are generally ___ ___ .

surgical excision, chemotherapy, very good

Both osteoid osteomas and osteoblastomas are ___ tumors with __ histological features, but ___ presentations.

benign, identical, different

Osteoid osteomas are ___ common than osteoblastomas and are less than __ centimeters in diameter. They tend to occur more frequently in ___ than in __ particularly amongst ___ and patients in their __ , frequently arise in the ___ extremity and are painful which is caused by excess production of ____ __ .

more, 2, males, females, teenagers, 20s, lower, prostaglandin E

Osteoblastomas are ___ common than osteoid osteomas, are larger than __ centimeters, and typically occur in patients in their ___ to ___ with an __ sex distribution. Osteoblastomas arise in the __ or __ as well as in the ___ , are ___ , but unlike osteoid osteoblastomas, they do not respond well to ___ .

less, 2, teens, 30s, equal, hands, feet, spine, painful, aspirin

Osteosarcomas are the __ __ malignant bone tumors with a ___ distribution. __ of __ cases occur during adolescence while the remainder occur among the elderly. More __ than __ are affected.

most, common, bimodal, 3, 4, men, women

Osteosarcomas are strongly associated with a mutation in the __ gene.


Osteosarcomas tend to arise in the __ of __ bones and are sub-classified based on where they arise, for example ___ vs. ___ .

metaphyses, long, intramedullary, extramedullary

Approximately 1 in 2 patients that present with an osteosarcoma tend to also have an elevated __ __ __ level.

serum, alkaline, phosphatase

Grossly, osteosarcomas appear as bulky, ___ , gritty masses with varying degrees of __ , __ , and __ degeneration. Microscopically, osteosarcomas vary, however, osteoid is commonly seen as laid down in a ___ fashion.

grey-white, hemorrhage, necrosis, cystic, haphazard

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set