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Exam 3 - Nursing 140

Terms in this set (77)

---> child often displays a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity & impulsivity.

- difficult to diagnose ADHD before the age of 4; around the age of 4, children start to enter into an organized school setting (pre-school, or pre-k class), so once a child is in school, the symptoms of ADHA are more recognizable.

- is more common in boys.

- may occur in 10.2% of school age children.

- if ADHD persists into adulthood, 25% of individuals from the 10.2% will go on to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder.

- we see a higher incidence of ADHD in chaotic & dysfunctional family systems.

- 20% of individuals diagnosed with ADHD will also have a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, 30% will experience depression, 20% will experience bipolar disorder, & up to 50% will experience oppositional defiant disorder.

- substance abuse is typically a problem in ADHD patients; stimulants (Cocaine) is highly addictive in these patients.

*** early detection & treatment of ADHD =
- improves social skills & peer relationships.
- improves academic achievements.

---> 3 Subtypes of ADHD:

1) Combined Type:
- the majority of kids with ADHD fall into this subtype.
- to be diagnosed, kids must meet at least 6 symptoms of the predominantly inattentive type, & 6 symptoms of the predominantly hyperactive/impulsivity type, with these symptoms crossing the line of social occupational functioning for greater than 6 months.

2) Predominantly Inattentive Type:
- to be diagnosed, you have to have 6 or more symptoms of inattention that are crossing the line of social occupational functioning (school) for greater than 6 months.
-> inattention symptoms include......
- not paying close attention to details; making
careless mistakes.
- difficulty remaining focused on a conversation
or lesson plan.
- often fail to finish their chores or school work.
- have difficulty organizing their tasks or
belongings; they are very disorganized.
- reluctant to engage in any activity that requires
sustained mental effort (ex: hw assignments).
- often loose the things they need in order to
complete their task (ex: school supplies).
- very easily distracted.
- often very forgetful (about hw or daily tasks).

3) Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive Type:
- to be diagnosed, you have to have 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity that are crossing the line of social occupational functioning (school) for greater than 6 months.
-> hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms include..........
- difficulty staying seated/still when expected to.
- making unnecessary noise/over interacting
with others.
- consistently on the go.
- driven by motor, they talk excessively.
- they often interrupt in a conversation.
- they can't wait their turn or stay in place in line.
---> repetitive & persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms/rules are violated.

- 40% of boys & 25% of girls with conduct disorder will develop antisocial personality disorder.

- comorbid disorders include ADHD, mood disorders, learning disorders, & substance use disorders.

- more common in boys.

- up to 10% of the population could meet the criteria for conduct disorder.

- physical aggression in common & peer relationships are disturbed.

-> predisposing factors include..........
- parental rejection or peer rejection.
- tremendous economic stressors within the family.
- inconsistent management with harsh discipline (the child makes the same mistake multiple times, but the parents give really radical punishments that vary each time).
- early institutional living (foster care, etc).
- frequent shifting of a parental figure.
- frequent shifting of residences.
- parents with antisocial personality disorder or
substance abuse within the home.
- marital conflict or divorce w/ poor communication.
- parental permissiveness (parents give no
discipline, but also no praise).

*** the different between conduct disorder & oppositional defiant disorder is that conduct disorder is violating the rights of others.

---> 2 Subtypes:

1) Childhood Onset Conduct Disorder:
- more severe.
- when the symptoms of violating the rights of others are present before the age of 10.
- these are the individuals who often go on to develop antisocial personality disorder.

2) Adolescent Onset Conduct Disorder:
- less severe.
- these individuals tend to become passive-aggressive adults w/ communication problems.