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258 Exam 3 Review
HEENT, elimination, I&O, genital/reproduction, Oral & topical meds, Sterile gloving, Med administration, Dosage Calc
Terms in this set (21)
Facial symmetrical movements means what cranial nerve is intact?
Toddlers: Head > than expected means?
Toddlers: head < than expected mean?
microcephaly or genetic factors
In newborns, head may be asymmetrical due to?
Once children reach school age, head is no longer... prominent?
prior to 36 months old, what is the purpose of skull sutures?
to permit brain growth
When palpating fontanels for NB/infants, what are you feeling for?
what is expected? what are some unexpected findings?
*they should feel flat and firm
* anterior fontanel is diamond-shaped & closes @ 12-18 months (14 month average)
* posterior fontanel (if present @ birth) <1cm and closes @ 2 months
- Bulging= intracranial pressure
- Sunken= dehydration
How is CN V tested for toddlers, school aged and adolescents?
- Bite down & feel for contraction of temporal & masseter muscle
- Close eyes, light touch on forehead/cheek/chin with cotton ball
When inspecting the neck, what are you looking for? what is unexpected?
- masses, lumps, visible veins= increased pressure from pulmonary or cardiac disorders
Toddlers-Adolescents: what is the sequence for palpating the neck?
around ears (pre&post auricular), under jaw (tonsillar, sub mandibular, sub mental), occipital, cervical chain of neck (anterior, posterior, deep cervical)
NB: eye inspection
*may not be possible right after birth due to eyelid swelling
- Inspect iris (brown w dark skin tones) & (gray, blue with light colored or pale skin)
- internal structure of infants= limited to eliciting a red reflex (bright/uniform)
What does PERRLA stand for?
pupils are equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation
How can eye muscles be tested? which CN are tested?
CN III, IV, & VI
- Use snellen eye chart
* check extraocular movement (EOM) & corneal light reflex
What are the age groups for eye charts? what are the different types of eye charts used?
- snellen tumbling E= 6 yrs and up
- Lea symbols= under 5 yrs
- Allen chart
School age & adolescent:
- Snellen letter chart
- Snellen tumbling E= difficulty w/ reading
when inspecting the ear canal for under 3, how do you position the ear? over 3?
*Straighten ear canal by pulling up & back for older than 3
* Straighten ear canal for 3 & under by pulling down and back
Tympanic membrane should be what color normally?
shiny & pearly gray
CN VIII assess what?
- test this by rubbing fingers lightly behind ear, whispering
- for an infant, stand 2 ft behind them and make a gentle noise with rattle, they should turn toward noise
When inspecting mouth in infants, what can white coating on the tongue mean?
- Milk: easy scrap off with tongue blade
- Fungal infection Thrush: not easy scrape off with tongue blade
If uvula rises with "ahhh" what cranial nerves are intact?
CN IX, X=good
*look for redness, exudate on tonsils (note size & gag reflex)
what are the 6 cardinal fields? what does this test?
- symmetrical eye movement
1. move finger up to right
2. move finger back to midline
3. move finger laterally to right
4. back to midline
5. move finger down to right
6. back to midline
* repeat on left side
When collecting a specimen from a catheter, where should you collect it from? what is the sterile process?
- between catheter tubing port and NOT catheter bag due to bacteria growth providing false data
1. clean port with an alcohol swab, use sterile syringe to draw directly from tubing
*use surgical asepsis
3. transfer to a sterile cup
- label with name, DOB, date/time
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