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Arts and Humanities
PHIL 131 Midterm
Terms in this set (30)
In brief, what is Singer's main argument against classical (anthropocentric) Utilitarianism?
-Humans have a direct duty to animals (as opposed to Kant's view)
-If pleasure is the only thing that matters then it doesn't matter who feels pleasure
Briefly, distinguish "inherent" (IH) and "instrumental" (IS) value.
Instrumental value is when something only has value if its able to perform a useful task whereas inherent value is granted in and of itself regardless of any external benefit
In brief, according to Baier, what four goods do we owe future generations?
1. The use of resources in an unpoisoned state
2. shares of goods from past generations
3. minimize population growth
4. Compensation for having too large a population
Briefly distinguish "egalitarian" (EG) and "nonegalitarian" (NE) theories of inherent value
EG: all that have inherent value have it equally
NE: value comes in degrees
Briefly, what is Regan's argument for the claim that "All who have inherent value have it equally"?
No good basis for assigning different levels of value to different species. Using this logic could allow for justification for racism, classism, sexism, ableism, etc.
Briefly, what are three of Mary Warren's main criticisms of 'strong' animal rights theory (SAR), as developed by Regan?
1. No good definition of inherent value
2. line drawing problem
3. inherent value is the only value that doesn't come in degrees
In brief, according to Hill, why is disrespect for the environment morally troubling?
Not respecting nature indicates some significant character flaws in humans like lack of humility, respect for each other, appreciation of aesthetics, etc.
According to Mill, what role should "Nature" play in determining what is morally good or right?
It shouldn't play a significant role because that would allow justification for immoral actions like killing. Decisions should be made based on rationality and reason.
According to Devall and Sessions, what is "the intuition of biocentric equality"?
Every individual has the right to live, grow, and strive for self-realization
According to Callicott and Leopold, to whom do humans have the strongest moral duties?
the biotic community
According to Callicott, does Leopold's concern for the land community replace or supplement other moral concerns?
Briefly, according to Warren, in what circumstances is it morally permissible to kill a sentient being?
With good reason when its done humanely
According to Schonfeld, how (logically) does Kantian ethics entail sustainable environmental policies?
Categorical imperative. An action is moral if it could occur universally and be practical and sustainable. like wise if an action is unsustainable it should not be permissible universally
According to Golding, what are the main limits on our obligations to future generations?
We can only account for what future generations need so far out because eventually their lives will look significantly different from our own
According to Bookchin, what are three (3) of the most important failings of deep ecology (DE)?
1. Removes issues from their social context
2. It pits humans against nature which is contradictory to their principle of humans being part of nature
3. It is not a coherent moral theory and draws from a wide range of contradictry thinkers
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