Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (81)
who you are attracted to and who you want to sleep with
degrees of attraction to both sexes, sexual attraction, emotional attachment, definition of self. Difficult to define because it is such a large term.
Which gender is much more likely to report being bisexual?
Women, possibly because there is more stigma around men liking men. 11% of women report same sex experiences while only 6% men report this.
T or F: Women have a high sex drive report increased attraction for both sexes?
T or F: Studies find that women are more likely to have sexual feelings for other women?
Film clips were used with different sexual situations (lesbians, gay men, heterosexuals, masturbation, and some sort of monkey). Both heterosexual and homosexual men reported being aroused by their orientation while women reported being aroused by everything.
where women perform lesbian acts in order to arouse their male partner
lack of sexuality, individuals that do not feel sexually attracted to anyone. They can/will still masturbate and feel sexual aroused they just don't have any interest sharing that with anybody. This is a part of who they are and their self identity.
when one has sexual attraction to individuals of the same sex
How many people are homosexual?
We do not know because it depends on the definition. Possibly 10% of the population.
a person who's sexual orientation shifts over time, shifting one way and then back. Fluid.
Who tends to be more sexually fluid?
Women, again maybe less stigma with women than with men.
Late 90's study done by a women named Diamond. Longitudinal study where researcher had 80 young adult women between the ages of 18-25 and she followed them for 10 years. All the women at beginning identified as either lesbian, bisexual or unlabeled. After 10 years Diamond found that 1/3 of women stayed consistent, specifically those who identified as lesbian. While 2/3 changed how they identified.
Models of sexual orientation
Dichotomous model, Unidimensional continuum model, and multidimensional model
Oldest model. Has 2 poles, says you are either straight or you are gay. Any kind of homosexual experience makes you gay. Very simple and limited model. States that if you are gay you are flamboyant while if you are lesbian you are butch. This is not used anymore.
Unidimensional continuum model
Early 50's, think Kinsey. Only includes sexual experiences/behaviors. Far left (0) exclusively heterosexual and far right (6) is exclusively homosexual. 1-2 heterosexual-flexible and 4-5 homo-flexible. Lots of issues with his research, but it did show that the dichotomous model doesn't exist and that sexuality is gray.
takes into account behavior, self-identification, fantasy, sexual attraction, lifestyle, and preferences for emotional/social relationship. Take into account every aspect of sexual orientation there is.
Problems that arise during multidimensional model research
This can become very messy. Like what about someone who is straight but has gay fantasy? How do we define and measure? Most of the time people will focus on one or two of these because it makes data collection easier. It is difficult to put people into groups if they are different on every aspect.
Children are Abel to/have the capacity to be straight or gay. Believed that the experiences we had a child greatly molded who we became. By age 6 your personality and orientation would be discovered and developed.
Until about age 4 male children are jealous of their fathers and love their mothers. Fraud didn't talk much about women, same idea for little girls. Having attraction to opposite sex parent and wanting sole possession of their love and affection. When people don't resolve this complex in a "healthy way" they may become gay or lesbian.
Healthy Resolution of the Oedipus complex vs Unhealthy
Healthy Resolution: despite wanting to have sole possession of mom, little boy identifies with dad and decides he is going to be like his father; girls identify with mom and adopt her behaviors; so heterosexuality is the result.
Unhealthy Resolution: Becoming fixated at this stage because something went wrong. If a little boy had a domineering, rejecting mother that did not provide him with emotional support, he would turn to his father for love and that pattern persists and he is therefore gay.
Anna Freud (Freud's daughter)
She suggested this unhealthy resolution in girls (Freud didn't write about girls) is the little girl identifies more with dad, despite loving mom, and the little girl does more of dad's behaviors. So she thinks she needs to love of a good woman and becomes lesbian
Is the Oedipus complex true?
No, the research doesn't support this idea. Not all gay men have cold mothers and not all lesbians have male-like behaviors.
Social Learning (sexuality)
the idea that we learn to have a specific orientation; we learn to be gay or straight
"by default" myth
the reason why people are homosexual is because they never had a positive heterosexual experience so by default they are gay
Is the "by default" myth true?
No, research doesn't support it. Most people of the LGBT community have had opposite sexual experiences that were positive
young people become gay/lesbian because they have been seduced by an older homosexual person (usually teacher)
Do people believe the seduction myth?
2005 poll found that 43% of Americans didn't think a gay/lesbian teacher should teach elementary and 62% said they shouldn't be teachers in high school. Afraid the teacher would seduce their children. Poll was redone in 2019 and 81% said that gays/lesbians should be able to teach in elementary and 83% said it's okay in high school.
Is the seduction myth true?
No. Research says that most gays/lesbians first sexual experiences with people closer to their age and typically these young adults knew they were gay/lesbian before getting far into school.
Biological factors of sexuality
Genetic factors, imaging research, gender nonconformity, finger length.
To be clear, SOME may have merit.
how many of twin sets match on any given condition being studied
Genetic factors: twin studies on sexual orientation
Australian study (2000) on sets of twins and have a twin registry. Australia is small and can keep track of twins born there. The study asked about sexual behavior, attraction and fantasy. Concordance rates of male identical twins was 20% in matching in homosexuality, fraternal twin sets had a concordance rate of 0%. Female identical twins had a rate of 24% and female fraternal twins was 10.5%. This male difference indicates that there is something genetic about sexual orientation, the female rates are less significant but females tend to be more fluid then males.
2008 study using fMRI to see how the brains functioning for different groups of people.
The groups were Heterosexual men, heterosexual women, homosexual men, and homosexual women.
Study focused on amygdala, important in the limbic system. They found that the heterosexual women and homosexual men had very similar imaging indicating similar function. This was not the same between homosexual women and heterosexual men.
The result suggest that homosexual men and heterosexual women are more similar in function.
gay men commonly report they liked to play with dolls and girliertoys, lesbians reported being more tom boy-ishand wanted to play with their brothers over their sisters. this is just a trend, not all boys who play with dolls are going to homosexual.
Gender nonconformity study
Since memory can be distorting, this study chose to use home videos for their research. They collected home videos from the childhood of men and women (both gay and straight). Then brought in strangers to show them the clips, they asked the strangers to rate the children on how nocomforming they were. Individuals who were later identified as gay or lesbian were more likely to be rated noncomforming in their video clips.
2D4D (2nd digit and 4th digit). The ratio between the lengths is dependent on the hormones you were exposed to prenatally.
Feminine pattern = 2D and 4D are the same length.
Masculine pattern = 2D is shorter than the 4D.
Lesbians tend to have a more masculine petter when compared to heterosexual women. Gay men have an exaggerated masculine pattern.
Is there any truth to the theory that gay men lack testosterone and lesbians lack estrogen?
DES was a medication given between 30s-70s to prevent miscarriages, basically a lot of estrogen. Research found that the use of DES while pregnant with a girl, the girl reported higher rates of same sex fantasies. Any kind of deviation from normal levels of hormones, it appears you can develop different sexual tendencies than "normal"
What do we know about female fetus' being exposed to androgens?
Those girls were more likely to report interest in boys toys and boy activities, and more likely to report being bisexual or lesbian
heterosexuality is considered superior to homosexuality, there are systematic degradation stigma for any non-heterosexual behavior. This societal idea is changing slowly.
broad term for anti-gay responses.
Three components: emotional, cognitive and behavior
Emotional component: Homophobia
individual feels fear, disgust, uncomfortable, anger, aversion to homosexuality or a homosexual person
may feel discomfort being around homosexuals. May not show any type of affection to same sex friend in fear of people thinking they are gay.
How can you decrease homophobia?
Increase contact with homosexual people
Why are people homophobic?
May not be able to accept differences in people. People have a hard time accepting that being different doesn't make some inferior. Strongly identify with gender roles. May be a homosexual themselves but cannot accept that/themselves
Which gender tends to be more homophobic?
Men. Study done to measure level of homophobia. Men were exposed to gay porn to measure the physiological arousal and subjective arousal. Compared high and low homophobic men, the high homophobic participants said they were not aroused but physically they were, there wasn't a difference found in low homophobic men.
attitudes people have towards lesbians and gay men
Which is more acceptable, to be a lesbian or a gay man?
Being a lesbian. Research done with college students to see how they feel about gay men and lesbians, found that both men and women have similar positive attitudes towards lesbians while men had more negative attitudes towards gay men than women.
Why are lesbians more accepted in society?
Perhaps because lesbians are seen as sexual objects while gay men aren't. Lesbian porn is more normalized then gay men porn.
Do strict gender roles have an effect on attitudes towards homosexuality?
Yes, you are more likely to have homonegativity
Does religion have an effect on homosexuality?
Yes, specially Christianity and Judaism. The Old Testament suggest that there is a prohibition of same-sex sex, so condemnation of homosexuality is common in Christianity and Judaism
Are young people agreeing with the Church on homosexuality?
Not completely, young people tend to be more open about sexuality and less negative towards homosexuality. The Church however stays solid in that homosexuality is a sin.
Can a negative experience with someone who is gay/lesbian/transgender effect their attitude?
What was homosexuality considered until 1973?
a psychiatric disorder
Did HIV/AIDS have an effect on the attitude towards homosexuals?
Yes, many people associate the disease with gay men.
Do people disprove of gay marriage because marriage is for reproduction?
Do people believe that gay people molest children?
Do people believe that gay men want to be women and lesbians want to be men?
Does the behavioral component involve discrimination?
Will people leave the room if a gay person comes in?
Yes, they act on their attitudes towards gay people
1998: Matthew Shepard
He was beaten to death because he was gay; tied to a fence and beaten to death for being gay
Bullying: behavior result of negative attitudes
Jamie R. committed suicide after years of bullying. Every year hundreds of transgender people are lost because of bullying
LGBT organizations don't really like to have bisexuals as part of their organizations because they believe that these individuals are denying their true nature and they are truly gay, also discriminated against by straight community for having gay tendencies
4 Stages of Coming Out
1. Self-acknowledgment 2. Self-acceptance 3. Disclosure 4. Telling the family
Some knew from a very young age that something made them different; others are so afraid of acknowledging it that they remain closeted for years—can get married and have children before acknowledging their sexuality. Once acknowledged, they must deal with their own internal homophobia
once internalized negative attitudes have been overcome. Harder for some individuals than others.
Do families throw out their kids for being gay?
Sometimes. more likely with gender stereotyped families.
Telling people about your sexuality. Involves facing rejection every time they tell someone, even though society is more tolerant the risk is still there. Some people tell, and others live their life and let people figure it out.
scariest part, especially with parents. Usually tell mom first. If they have a family then it is harder, having to tell their children and spouse
What do some parents worry about after their kid says they are homosexual?
That they did something wrong, that their child is gay because of them. This is not true.
Do racial and ethnic groups have a different attitude towards homosexuality?
Yes, some groups tend to be less accepting so those homosexuals will stay in the closest longer or never come out at all. This is because their culture is more restrictive (African Americans, Latinx, Asian)
Stonewall Incident (1969)
figurative start of gay rights movement. A riot that occurred in 1969 at the Stonewall Inn (a gay bar in NYC)—regularly raided and harassed by police because it was known that it was full of gay men. The parsons fought back which caused a riot that made national headlines. The beginning of forming organizations to improve the lives of gay men and lesbians.
When was homosexuality taken out of the DSM and no longer a disorder according to APA?
Harvey Milk (1977)
first openly gay elected official from San Francisco, was elected to board of supervisors. He was assassinated in 1978 by Dan White, another member of board. This incident made headlines about gay rights and discrimination against the gay community.
Goals of Gay Rights Movement
Decriminalize private sexual behavior (sodomy laws). Support antidiscrimination legislation. Same-sex marriage (2015).
When was Danica Room elected to state official in Virginia?
T or F: the last two Olympics (2016,2018) have held openly gay and lesbian athletes competing
Who is Pete Buttigieg?
He ran a successful 2020 presidential campaign and has been confirmed as the Secretary of Transportation. First openly gay cabinet member.
T or F: 2020 SCOTUS expanded the rights of the LGBTQ community protecting the community from discrimination of pretty much anything
Who is Dr. Rachel Levine?
first transgender person to serve in a federal office. Serves as the Asst. Secretary of HHS as of 2021.
T or F: Arkansas just passed a law that made it legal in the state for doctors to discriminate against individuals based on their sexuality
Why are people concerned about transgender females competing in sports with cis-females?
They are worried about some sort of advantage
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Archeology Exam Three
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
37 - EVOLVE + Textbook Qs
Topic 9: Intro to Historical Context for Environme…
Dispositions, Billing, and Coding
AQA GCSE Physics - Electricity