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Neuro Week 1 PP
Terms in this set (86)
What type of neurons are motor neurons?
which type of neurons are sensory neurons?
what type of cells are supporting cells & non-neuronal?
what do astrocytes aid in?
vascular supply & metabolism of neurons
what do oligodendrocytes aid in?
myelination of neurons in CNS
what is the purpose of Schwann Cells?
These cells are responsible for myelinating neurons of the PNS
what do Microglia act as?
Act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system
What lines the ventricles in the brain & helps move CSF?
what is released by presynaptic neurons that cause an action or inhibits an action if received by a post synaptic neuron?
Which neurotransmitter enables muscle action, learning, and memory?
Which neurotransmitter is needed for smooth movement, attention, & motivation?
what neurotransmitter is secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response; aka "fight or flight" response?
what are the 2 different types of catecholamines?
- ephinephrine (adrenaline)
- norepinephrine (serotonin)
What does serotonin do?
controls mood & pain
What neurotransmitter inhibits synapses of the brain & glutamate?
what neurotransmitter is an excitatory & plays a role in the growth & death of neurons?
what 2 neurotransmitters main purpose is to modulate pain?
enkephalins/endorphins & Substance P
what are the 3 main portions of the brain?
cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem
What connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain?
name the 4 cerebral lobes
frontal, temporal, occipital, & parietal
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
what is the purpose of the post central gyrus?
primary sensory cortex
what is the purpose of the pre-central gyrus?
primary motor cortex
what separates the pre & post central gyrus?
which lobe of the brain is responsible for thought processes, behavior, personality, & emotion?
which lobe of the brain is responsible for hearing, understanding speech, & language?
which lobe of the brain is responsible for body sensations and visual & spatial perception?
which lobe of the brain is responsible for vision?
Where and what is Broca's area?
located in the frontal lobe & responsible for language expression
Where and what is Wernicke's area?
located in the temporal lobe & is responsible for language comprehension
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
Balance and coordination
what is the cerebrum responsible for?
higher mental functions such as conscious thought processes, intellectual functions, & memory
what part of the brain is the relay & processing center for sensory info?
what part of the brain is the center for controlling emotions, autonomic functions, & hormone production?
what is the function of the midbrain?
-processing of visual and auditory data
-generation of reflexive somatic motor responses
-maintenance of consciousness
A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
What part of the brain controls breathing, digestion, & your heart beat?
what structure of the brain deals with motor planning, regulation of posture & tone, and cognition?
what is the purpose of the hippocampus?
what is the purpose of the amygdala?
deals with anger, danger, and fear responses (emotions)
What is the limbic system?
neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions, sexual drives, and memory.
what produces & circulates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
what covers the brain & provides space for the CSF to circulate?
list the meninges from outer to inner
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
What is grey matter?
cell bodies of neurons
what is white matter?
tracts that axons run in
of the spinal cord, the dorsal (posterior) portion deals with ________
of the spinal cord, the ventral (anterior) portion deals with ________
how many pairs of spinal roots are there?
spinal roots are a part of the PNS as soon as they leave the ____________
The PNS is divided into the ____ and ____.
somatic and autonomic
which section of the PNS involves voluntary control?
which section of the PNS involves involuntary movements?
How many cervical spinal roots are there?
How many thoracic spinal roots are there?
How many lumbar spinal roots are there?
How many sacral spinal roots are there?
How many coccygeal spinal roots are there?
What structures are involved the autonomic system of PNS?
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
what are the 2 divisions that the autonomic nervous system splits into?
parasympathetic & sympathic
Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations; "fight or flight"?
Where does the sympathetic nervous system start?
in the T-spine & L-spine
Where does the parasympathetic nervous system originate?
in the brainstem & S-spine
(specifically cranial nn III, VII, IX, & X)
Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, stimulating acetylcholine, and "Rest & Digest"?
Which artery is on the lateral surface of the brain and deep parts of the frontal & parietal lobes and is also the most common site for a cerebral infarction?
middle cerebral artery (MCA)
What major artery lies on the superior border of the frontal and parietal lobes?
anterior cerebral artery (ACA)
what is the circle of arteries at the base of the brain that supply blood to the brain?
circle of willis
what is an area of skin that is innervated by 1 nerve root?
what is an area of skin that is innervated by a branch nerve of named nerve?
peripheral nerve distribution
_______ causes decline in all sensations
what are the superficial sensory receptors called?
(pain, light touch, pressure, temp)
what are the deep sensory receptors called?
(kinesthesia, vibration, proprioception)
which type of sensory receptors are located in the skin & subcutaneous tissue that provide information about the external environment such as pain, light touch, pressure, & temp?
which type of sensory receptors are located in the muscles and joints, that provide information about body position and movement?
identify an object without sight
Perceive the weight of different objects in the hand
ability to recognize writing on the skin purely by the sensation of touch
2 point discrimination
ability to distinguish the separation of 2 simultaneous pinpricks on the skin
double simultaneous stimulation
application of stimuli to one or both sides of the same body location, identify between one or two
what type of sensory receptor recognizes light?
what type of sensory receptor recognizes mechanical deformation of an area?
what type of sensory receptor recognizes temp changes?
what type of sensory receptor recognizes noxious stimulus?
what type of sensory receptor recognizes chemical substances?
What 3 components of the afferent tracts?
dorsal column, spinothalamic tract, and the spinocerebellar tract
the dorsal column crosses the brainstem to get to the opposite side of the thalamus, then to the _____
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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Anatomy and Physiology
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