What is motivation according to the lecture? How is this different from the books definition?
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In class, we said motivation is a measure of the strength of the reinforcer associated with a certain behavior or condition. The definition of motivation given in the book said that it is an inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
Rules are verbal directions that we are taught that specify the reinforcement and punishment contingencies that govern our behavior, even if we don't contact the contingencies directly. An example would be telling a child not to touch the stove or else he will burn his hand. He doesn't have to actually touch the stove to learn this rule
How do cultural expectations and prejudice affect our ability to succeed? Give an exampleThe expectations and prejudices of a society affect the opportunities that people come in contact with, but if certain groups of people cannot control which opportunities are available, motivation has nothing to do with it. An example is in cultures where girls are not allowed to attend school. Their illiteracy is due to a lack of opportunities outside of their control, not a a lack of motivation