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The characteristic that all microorganisms have in common is that they are too small to be seen with the _____ eye?
Hornando Cortes brought infectious disease such as _____ and ______ to Native Americans?
small pox, measles
Warfare and infectious diseases are connected because of poor _______ and _____, exposure to vulnerable diseases. In addition, wound related bacterial infections such as _____ and _____ are a constant threat?
Sanitation and malnutrition/ tetanus and gas gangrene
The six subgroups are not closely related but are grouped together because of their ____ size as well as the techniques used for identifying them, cultivating them, and studying them?
Some bacteria are chemotrophic which means they obtain their nutrients from ______?
inorganic substances like sulfa
Some bacteria can live in freezing temperture while other can live in __?
110 degrees celcus (higher than boiling water)
Archaea live in hostile environment such as extreme heat, acidic environments, and areas of high concentrations of _____?
A microbe is discoveredin a local waterway. Testing this water reveals its high temperature and high acidity. The microbe produces bubbles in the water. It does not cause human disease. It probably belongs in the group _______?
Phytoplankton are microscopic found on the surface of _______ and ______ water environments?
In Pasteur's experiments on spontaneous generation the purpose of the curve in his flasks containing meat broth was to ____?
permit the circulation of air
A researcher attempts to duplicate the experiments on spontaneous generation conducted by Pasteur. Nutrient broth is sealed in glass flasks with curved necks and is sterilized with heat. The broth is cooled to room temperature. After 48 hours the research observes that bacteria populate the broth in the flask. The best explanation for this observation is that the bacteria studies can form _____?
Koch's postulated were formulated while he was studying ______, a disease of sheep, cattle, and humans?
List Koch's Postulates?
a. Identify microbial cells that are present in the blood of all infected animals
b. Culture the microorganism in a petri dish outside of animal
c. Inject a healthy animal with the culture bacterial cell
d. Observe the infected animal and examin its blood from the same microorganism that had infected the original animal.
e. If the microorganism is the same then it provides proof that a particular microorganism causes a particular disease.
agar mixed with meat broth forming a solid nutrient rich medium for cutting pure bacteria
Edward Jenner was the first to develop a way to induce _____ to a disease without actually getting the disease?
What disease did Jenner help prevent by inoculating an 8 year old boy with fluid from a cowpox blister?
Pasteur made a vaccine by culturing disease-causing microorganisms and then -___ (weakened) them by heat?
A bacterial culture can double its number of cells every 30 minutes. One bacterial cell place in nutrient broth leads to the production ____cells in one hour?
Improved sewage disposal and clean drinking water has helped to prevent outbreaks of many diseases, including _______ and ____?
cholera and typhoid fever
Paul Ehrlich, a German physician- chemist, is known as the father of chemotheraphy because he established ____ toxicity?
The first inner shell can contain ____ to __ electrons? The second shell can contain up to ______ electrons? The third shell can contain up to ______ electrons?
1 to 2; 8; 8
If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 25 then the neutron number would be ____?
Isotopes are important in medicine: List several ways indicating how they medicine?
i. used to label and trace biological structures
ii. Radioactive tracers can be used to determine imagery such as DNA in bacteria body stuctures such as thyroid or cancer cells
Ionic bonds occur by either ____ or ____ an electron (ions). Ionic bonds are held together by _____ charges?
gaining or losing; opposite
List three factors which determines a reaction rate?
amount of reactants, temperature, and presence of a catalyst
Catalysts _____ the rate of a chemical reaction by ___ the amount of energy needed for the reaction. For example, enzymes.
List seven reasons why water is important?
a.its capacity to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules
b. its polarity (H+ and OH)
c. high boiling point (100 degrees celcuis) 212 degrees Farentheight)
d. lower freezing point (0 C) 32 F
e. form gas evaporation of water takes up enough heat to cool cells
g. cohesiveness( draw water to tops of trees)
When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydroxyl ionss the solution becomes a ____?
Salts are compounds that dissociate in water but do not add _____ or _____?
hydrogen; hydroxide ions
The best definition of an organic molecule is one that contains carbon (carbon dioxide is an exception). All other non-carbon-containing molecules are called?
List the four main classes of organic macromolecules.
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are insoluble in ______ but soluble in nonpolar solvents, such as gasoline, or kerosene?
With a typical compound microscope the objective lens that will provide the largest, overall field of view is ___ for a total magnification of 40x.
What is the total magnification of the ocular lens (10x) and the oil-immersion lens (100x)?
Most cell structures in one microorganism are three to five nanometers apart. The details intracellular makeup of the microbe can be studied with the ___?
What are mordants?
are not dyes, but are used ti intensify staining by increasing a cell affinity for a dye
After the four steps of the Gram stain is applied, a bacterium has a somewhat deep violet color. This because it retaind Gentian violet and safranin and is Gram ____?
A bacterium retains safranin after the decolorizing agent removes the previously applied Gentian violet of the Gram stain. The bacterium is Gram ___?
The purpose of a serial dilution is to reduce the number of bacteria for counting purposes and for viewing colony ___?
The requirement for sterilizing most microorganisms by moist heat is ___ Celsius for ____ minutes?
121 degrees; 20
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