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Microbiology is the study of___?


The characteristic that all microorganisms have in common is that they are too small to be seen with the _____ eye?


Pathogenic means ______?

disease causing

The bacterium that causes the bubonic palque is ____?

versinia pestis

The Irish potatoes famine was caused by a fungus called ____?

phytophtora infestans

Hornando Cortes brought infectious disease such as _____ and ______ to Native Americans?

small pox, measles

Warfare and infectious diseases are connected because of poor _______ and _____, exposure to vulnerable diseases. In addition, wound related bacterial infections such as _____ and _____ are a constant threat?

Sanitation and malnutrition/ tetanus and gas gangrene

List the six subgroups in microbiology?

bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses

The six subgroups are not closely related but are grouped together because of their ____ size as well as the techniques used for identifying them, cultivating them, and studying them?


Microbes are characterized by being either a ______ or ______?

prokaryote; eukaryote

Prokaryotes do not have true ____ or membrane-bound organelles?


List two examples of a prokaryote?

archaea; bacteria

Eukaryotes do have a true _____ and membrane-bound organelles?


List four examples of a eukaryote?

Protist, fungi, plant, and animals

List the shapes of bacteria?

rod, spherial, helic, comma- shaped, star and square

Some bacteria are autotrophic which means that they make thier own food thru _____?


Some bacteria are heterotrophic which means they obtain their nutrients from ____?

organic sources

Some bacteria are chemotrophic which means they obtain their nutrients from ______?

inorganic substances like sulfa

Some bacteria can live in freezing temperture while other can live in __?

110 degrees celcus (higher than boiling water)

Some bacteria have _______ while others are not capable of moving?


Some bacteria are pathogenic while others are ___?


Ancient bacteria are called?


Archaea live in hostile environment such as extreme heat, acidic environments, and areas of high concentrations of _____?


A microbe is discoveredin a local waterway. Testing this water reveals its high temperature and high acidity. The microbe produces bubbles in the water. It does not cause human disease. It probably belongs in the group _______?


Archaea are non ____?


Algae are eukaryotic organism that undergo ____?


Phytoplankton are microscopic found on the surface of _______ and ______ water environments?

marine; fresh

Are fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic?


Are fungi autotrophic or heterotrophic?


In humans some fungi may cause ring worms, atlete's foot, or ____?

pneumocystis carinni

List examples of fungi?

mycelium, yeast, and mold

Protozoa means first ____?


Are protozoa autotrophs or hetertrophs?


List two diseases caused by protozoa?

malaria; African sleeping sickness

Viruses contain either RNA or _____ that is surrounded by a protein coat called a ___?

DNA; Capsid

What kind of microscope is used to view a virus?

electron microscope

Are viruses a cell?


List three diseases caused by viruses?

small pox, yellow fever, and HIV, polio

Helminthes are worms that belong to the _____ kingdom?


List two types of disease-causing helminthes?

flatworm and roundworms

Van Leeuwenhoek invented the first hand held?


What is spontaneous generation?

formation of living things from nonliving matter

Francesco Redi rejected?

Spontaneous generation

In Pasteur's experiments on spontaneous generation the purpose of the curve in his flasks containing meat broth was to ____?

permit the circulation of air

A researcher attempts to duplicate the experiments on spontaneous generation conducted by Pasteur. Nutrient broth is sealed in glass flasks with curved necks and is sterilized with heat. The broth is cooled to room temperature. After 48 hours the research observes that bacteria populate the broth in the flask. The best explanation for this observation is that the bacteria studies can form _____?


Koch's postulated were formulated while he was studying ______, a disease of sheep, cattle, and humans?


List Koch's Postulates?

a. Identify microbial cells that are present in the blood of all infected animals
b. Culture the microorganism in a petri dish outside of animal
c. Inject a healthy animal with the culture bacterial cell
d. Observe the infected animal and examin its blood from the same microorganism that had infected the original animal.
e. If the microorganism is the same then it provides proof that a particular microorganism causes a particular disease.

What is agar?

A powder made from seaweed used for thickening jam

Describe nutrient?

agar mixed with meat broth forming a solid nutrient rich medium for cutting pure bacteria

Edward Jenner was the first to develop a way to induce _____ to a disease without actually getting the disease?


What disease did Jenner help prevent by inoculating an 8 year old boy with fluid from a cowpox blister?

small pox

Pasteur made a vaccine by culturing disease-causing microorganisms and then -___ (weakened) them by heat?


A bacterial culture can double its number of cells every 30 minutes. One bacterial cell place in nutrient broth leads to the production ____cells in one hour?


Improved sewage disposal and clean drinking water has helped to prevent outbreaks of many diseases, including _______ and ____?

cholera and typhoid fever

One important method of personal hygiene is ______?

hand washing

Paul Ehrlich, a German physician- chemist, is known as the father of chemotheraphy because he established ____ toxicity?


What does selective toxicity mean?

the drug must kill the microorganism, but not the patient

What was the first medically useful antibiotic and who discovered it?

penicillin; Alexander Fleming

List the three subatomic particles of an atom?


Protons have a ____ charge and are located in the ___ of an atom?

positive; nucleus

Neutrons carry no charge and are located in the_____ of a nucleus?


Electrons carry a ______ charge and are located outside the _____?

negative; neucleus

The number of electrons usually equals the number of _____?


The first inner shell can contain ____ to __ electrons? The second shell can contain up to ______ electrons? The third shell can contain up to ______ electrons?

1 to 2; 8; 8

Valence electrons are the number of _____ in an atom's outermost shell?


The atomic number is the number of ___ an atom contains?


The atomic weight or mass is the number of _____ and _____ an atom contains?

protons and neutrons

Isotopes contains the same number of protons, but different number of _____?


If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 25 then the neutron number would be ____?


Isotopes are important in medicine: List several ways indicating how they medicine?

i. used to label and trace biological structures
ii. Radioactive tracers can be used to determine imagery such as DNA in bacteria body stuctures such as thyroid or cancer cells

List the four most abundant elements in living organism?

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen

Two or more atoms joined together create a ____?


Covalent Bonds form when two atoms _____ pairs of electrons?


Ionic bonds occur by either ____ or ____ an electron (ions). Ionic bonds are held together by _____ charges?

gaining or losing; opposite

If an atom loses two outer-shell electrons its charge becomes?

positive two +2

What type of bond does sodium chloride (table salt) have?

ionic bonds

Which of the following would be an incorrect association?

Covalent/ ions

Hydrogen bonds are ____ bonds but important to living things?


List three factors which determines a reaction rate?

amount of reactants, temperature, and presence of a catalyst

Catalysts _____ the rate of a chemical reaction by ___ the amount of energy needed for the reaction. For example, enzymes.

increase; lowering

Water is essential for _____ and forms about _____ of the weight of microorganism?

life; 70%

List seven reasons why water is important?

a.its capacity to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules
b. its polarity (H+ and OH)
c. high boiling point (100 degrees celcuis) 212 degrees Farentheight)
d. lower freezing point (0 C) 32 F
e. form gas evaporation of water takes up enough heat to cool cells
f. solid
g. cohesiveness( draw water to tops of trees)

Most vital chemical reactions occur only in a ____ environment?


Hydrophilic are those molecules that ____ in water?


Hydrophobic are those molecules that do not _____ in water?


Write one example of a colloid that is used in microbiology?


When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydrogen ions it forms an ____?


When a substance dissociates in water and forms additional hydroxyl ionss the solution becomes a ____?


Salts are compounds that dissociate in water but do not add _____ or _____?

hydrogen; hydroxide ions

A ph of 5 is considered an ___. A pH of 9 is considered a ____?

acidic; basic or base

A pH of 7 is?


Buffers help to maintain a stable _____?


The best definition of an organic molecule is one that contains carbon (carbon dioxide is an exception). All other non-carbon-containing molecules are called?


Carbon atoms can form _____ covalent bonds with other atoms.

four 4

By dehydration synthesis water is ____ and a chemical bond is formed?

taking away

The addition of water to break a polymer into monomers is call?


List the four main classes of organic macromolecules.

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

The most abundant macromoolecules in cells are ______?


Denaturation changes the _____ (structure) of the protein destroying its biological activity?


List three example that would cause denaturation?

temperture, pH, and osmotic strenght

List two types of nucleic acid?

Deoxyrionucleic acid (DNA); Riboniucleic acid (RNA)

DNA encodes a cell's ___ information?


Ribonucleic acis (RNA) is critical in building _____?


Monosaccharides are simple ____?


Disaccharides consist of ____ monosaccharides?


Cellulose occurs mainly in cell _____ of plant and algae?


Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are insoluble in ______ but soluble in nonpolar solvents, such as gasoline, or kerosene?


Phospholipids have a glycerol backbone with ____ fatty acids?


Fatty acid tails are ____ and insoluble in water?


The phosphate head is ____ and soluble in water?


Phospholipids are an essential component of membranes in plants, animals, and _____?


Microscopes depend on what three factors?

magnification, contrast, and resolution

A compound microscopes has ___ lenses which are the _____ lens and the objective lens?

two; ocular

With a typical compound microscope the objective lens that will provide the largest, overall field of view is ___ for a total magnification of 40x.


What is the total magnification of the ocular lens (10x) and the oil-immersion lens (100x)?

100; 1000x.

Most cell structures in one microorganism are three to five nanometers apart. The details intracellular makeup of the microbe can be studied with the ___?


Stains ingrease contrast so you can see the microorganism's___?


What are mordants?

are not dyes, but are used ti intensify staining by increasing a cell affinity for a dye

Stains are grouped into what three classes?

simple, differential, and special stains

What type of stain is a basic dye used to make cells visible?


What are the three steps used in differential stains?

primary stain, destaining, and counter stain

Counterstaining is used to reveal the cell or partss of cells that have been ___?


What two stains are used extensively in Microbiology?

Gram stain and Acid-fast stain

Who developed the Gram stain?

Christian Gram

What is the primary stain used in a Gram stain?

crystal violet

What is the mordant that is used in a Gram stain?


What is the counterstain used in a Gram stain?


After the four steps of the Gram stain is applied, a bacterium has a somewhat deep violet color. This because it retaind Gentian violet and safranin and is Gram ____?


A bacterium retains safranin after the decolorizing agent removes the previously applied Gentian violet of the Gram stain. The bacterium is Gram ___?


Acid-Fast strain are especially important test for the genus ___?


The primary stain for the acid fast stain is ____?

carbol fuchsin

The counterstain for the acid-fast stain is ____?

methylene blue

A Petri dish is used to hold nutrient ___?


Coliform bacteria makes acis from _____ , and turns neutral red?


Blood agar is a ____ growth medium?

complex media

The purpose of a serial dilution is to reduce the number of bacteria for counting purposes and for viewing colony ___?


A pure culture consist of a ____ type of microorganism?


The requirement for sterilizing most microorganisms by moist heat is ___ Celsius for ____ minutes?

121 degrees; 20

Tuberculosis is caused by the genus ___?


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