Module 10 Lecture - FSHN 120

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Let's discuss micronutrients with respect to their roles with...
→ ____ and bone
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Terms in this set (44)
∙ the presence of oxalic acid
→ binds calcium
- Heather - How does Heather's tea drinking habit affect her bioavailability? Oxalic acid in tea, risk for low calcium bioavailability
∙ fiber-mineral interaction
→ fiber can bind certain minerals
∙ mineral-mineral interaction
→ similarity in size and charge causes competition for absorption
∙ vitamin-mineral interaction
→ some vitamins can ↑ bioavailability of minerals
- vitamin C and iron
Food sources of iron∙ ex: wheat Chex, fried claims ∙ RDA for women is 18 ∙ RDA for men is less than half thatTrue/False: If a woman in this class is struggling with anemia, going on oral birth control or having an IUD inserted could help improve her iron status.TrueIron needs∙ RDA: → 8 mg/day for adult male → 18 mg/day for female age 19 to 50 ∙ Daily Value is 18 mg/day ∙ average intake exceeds RDA for men; low for some women ∙ upper level is 45 mg/dayIron toxicity∙ very serious (and deadly) → especially for children ∙ seen with children who take their parent's nutrient supplements and iron pills ∙ signs: → diarrhea, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain → causes death due to respiratory collapse (shock)Zinc∙ enzyme function → blood health → enzymatic reactions ∙ structural functions → stabilize the structure of proteins ∙ regulatory functions → gene expression regulationCopper∙ important component of ceruloplasmin (protein important for iron transport) ∙ in many foods (nuts, dairy, cereals, meats)which of the following minerals helps in blood formation? a) iron b) zinc c) copper d) all of the above aid in blood formationall of the above aid in blood formationFunctions of vitamin KCoagulation (blood clotting) is a MAJOR function of vitamin KSources of vitamin K∙ brussels sprouts ∙ cooked broccoli ∙ turnip greens ∙ spinach ∙ cauliflower ∙ deep green lettuce ∙ note: most of the good sources of vitamin K are dark green veggies!vitamins and minerals needed for structure (ex: skin, bone, ligaments, tendons)∙ vitamin C → collagen ∙ calcium and phosphorous → structure of bones ∙ vitamin D → calcium uptake and deposition ∙ magnesium → component of bone ∙ fluoride → bone and dentin ∙ vitamin K → bone remodeling? but data is inconclusiveterms associated with vitamin C∙ ascorbic acid → another term for vitamin c ∙ vitamin c deficiency is scurvy → livid spots → spongy gums → bleeding mucous membranes → looks pale → feels depressedScurvy dogs, pirates, and limeys∙ pirates and sailors suffered from scurvy ∙ how did they systematically find out how to treat scurvy? → first controlled clinical trial; tried seawater, sulfuric acid, lemons and oranges, etc ∙ solution: giving pirates citrus (lemons and oranges)Which of the following is a function of vitamin C? ∙ acts as an antioxidant ∙ aids in the absorption of iron ∙ plays a vital role in immunity ∙ needed for the formation of collagen ∙ all of the aboveall of the aboveFoods high in vitamin c∙ NOTE: foods high in vitamin C have a bite to them → kids often state "that food is spicy" → the foods often taste very bad when consumed following tooth brushing with fluoride toothpasteCalcium∙ Where is it in our body? → 99% is in bones and teeth → makes up 40% of all the minerals in the bodyFood sources of calcium (we often under consume)∙ Examples of good sources of calcium? → dairy → collard greensCalcium absorption∙ calcium content in the body is dependent on the amount absorbed ∙ calcium absorption requires → slightly acidic environment → vitam in D ∙ calcium is absorbed in upper part of small intestine → it is normal to absorb only 25% of calcium in food → however, you can increase Ca absorption to around 60% during time of need - pregnancy -InfancySally is a 19 year old young woman. What can she do to increase calcium bioavailability?take a vitamin D supplementWhat has a negative impact on calcium absorption?∙ rapid intestinal motility → diarrhea ∙ high fiber intake ∙ excess phosphorus intake ∙ vitamin D deficiency ∙ polyphenols (tannins) in tea → Heather ∙ menopause ∙ agingTrue/False: Calcium is an important mineral for the sole(only) reason that it is incorporate into bones and teeth.falseVital functions of calcium in the body∙ bone formation and maintenance ∙ blood clotting ∙ nerve impulse transmission ∙ muscle contraction ∙ cell metabolism → activates various enzymesWhich of the following hormones decreases blood calcium levels?calcitoninA diet rich in calcium and physical activity decreases your risk of osteoporosis∙ osteoporosis is a disease characterized by → low bone mass → deterioration of bone tissue → fragile bones, leading to bone fractures → compaction of bone; decreased height → shortening and hunting of the spine: Dowager's humpPhosphorous∙ functions of phosphorous → critical to mineral composition of bone → required for proper fluid balance → component of lipoproteins, cell membranes, DNA and RNA, and several energy molecules ∙ found in: → high protein foods → food additive → soft drinksMagnesium∙ 25g in the body and 50-60% in our bones ∙ helps with the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals in bone ∙ also a cofactor in many enzymatic reactionsFluoride∙ 99% of the body's fluoride is stored in teeth and bones ∙ role in prevention of dental caries → helps tooth enamel resist acid → inhibits bacterial growthCan you over consume fluoride?yesFluoride sources and needs∙ fluoridated water ∙ tea, seafood, seaweed ∙ toothpaste ∙ RDA for women 3 mg/day ∙ RDA for men 4 mg/dayFluoride toxicity (fluorosis)∙ mottling of teeth in children occurs with an excessive intake of fluoride ∙ limit toothpaste to pea size for children → high amounts can weaken teeth ∙ upper level: → 1.3-2.2 mg/day for children → 10 mg/day for older children and adultsWhich organ is needed to produce vitamin D from sun exposure? a) skin b) kidney c) liver d) allallFunctions of vitamin D∙ metabolism regulation ∙ calcium balance in the bodyGood sources of vitamin d→ cod liver oil → salmon, pink, cannedVitamin D∙ What if you consume too much vitamin D? → occurs with vitamin supplements, not excessive exposure to sunlight → results in Hypercalcemia - high blood calcium ∙ What if you don't consume enough vitamin D? → occurs with diseases that reduce intestinal absorption of fat and limited exposure to sunlight → rickets - occurs in children; inadequate mineralization or demineralization of bones → osteomalacia - loss of bone mass in adultsWhat is the name of the deficiency seen in the image of bone deformations in a child?rickets