Chapter 19 chem
Terms in this set (38)
Acids taste sour, will change the color of an acid-base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution.
What are the properties of acids?
Arrhenius said that acids are hydrogen-containing compounds that ionize to yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution. He also said that bases are compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions (OH−) in aqueous solution.
How did Arrhenius define an acid and a base?
The Brønsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a hydrogen-ion donor, and a base as a hydrogen-ion acceptor
What distinguishes an acid from a base in the Brønsted-Lowry theory?
Lewis proposed that an acid accepts a pair of electrons during a reaction, while a base donates a pair of electrons
How did Lewis define an acid and a base?
For aqueous solutions, the product of the hydrogen-ion concentration and the hydroxide-ion concentration equals 1.0 × 10−14.
How are [H+] and [OH−] related in an aqueous solution?
A solution in which [H+] is greater than 1 × 10−7M has a pH less than 7.0 and is acidic. The pH of pure water or a neutral aqueous solution is 7.0. A solution with a pH greater than 7 is basic and has a [H+] of less than 1 × 10−7M.
How is the hydrogen-ion concentration used to classify a solution as neutral, acidic, or basic?
An indicator is a valuable tool for measuring pH because its acid form and base form have different colors in solution
What is the most important characteristic of an acid-base indicator?
In general, the reaction of an acid with a base produces water and one of a class of compounds called salts.
What are the products of the reaction of an acid with a base?
The point of neutralization is the end point of the titration
What is the endpoint of a titration?
any solution in which the hydrogen-ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide-ion concentration
a basic solution
a substance that can act as both an acid and a base
any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration
a solution in which the pH remains relatively constant when small amounts of acid or base are added; a buffer can be either a solution of a weak acid and the salt of a weak acid or a solution of a weak base with the salt of a weak base
a measure of the amount of acid or base that may be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs
the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion; NH4+ is the conjugate acid of the base NH3
conjugate acid-base pair
two substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion; ammonia (NH3) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) are a conjugate acid-base pair
the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion; OH- is the conjugate base of the acid water
any acid that contains two ionizable protons (hydrogen ions); sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a diprotic acid
the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
the point in a titration where the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions
hydronium ion (H3O+)
the positive ion formed when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion
ion-product constant for water (Kw)
the product of the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water; it is 1 X 10-14 at 25°C
any substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
any acid that contains one ionizable proton (hydrogen ion); nitric acid (HNO3) is a monoprotic acid
an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions are equal; it has a pH of 7.0
a reaction in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water
a number used to denote the hydrogen-ion concentration, or acidity, of a solution; it is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution
a term describing the reaction in which two water molecules react to produce ions
a solution of known concentration used in carrying out a titration
an acid that is completely (or almost completely) ionized in aqueous solution
a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
process used to determine the concentration of a solution (often an acid or base) in which a solution of known concentration (the standard) is added to a measured amount of the solution of unknown concentration until an indicator signals the end point
any acid that contains three ionizable protons (hydrogen ions); phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is a triprotic acid
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
a base that reacts with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
Bases taste bitter, feel slippery, will change the color of an acid-base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution.
properties of bases?