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Developmental psychology module 1
Terms in this set (27)
Why is it important to study human development across the lifespan?
It would be inaccurate to say that change, or development, only occurs in childhood. Particularly when one considers the various aspects of development (aging, growth, maturation), it is evident that development is lifelong.
What does it mean that development is multidirectional?
Multidirectional development means that the changes that are body and mind go through can either make a positive or negative impact. This means that although someone might be improving or having a positive change with one aspect of their life/body, there could also be a negative or decline in another aspect. These positive and negative impacts can either happen one at a time or both appear at once.
Why is lifespan development multidisciplinary? Is there a reason why various disciplines study lifespan development?
Lifespan development is multidisciplinary because the changes that humans undergo are not all in one category and different disciplines are able to specialize and focus more on their own category. For example, health sciences focus the most on physical or biological and emotional changes, education focuses most on cognitive changes, and social sciences focus most on social changes.
: This dimension includes all things physically changing and developing with the body. This dimension can include physically growing, developing new physical skills, puberty, and aging into an older adult.
This dimension holds all changes and developments with a humans communication towards others and how they interact in certain situations.
This dimension is how our brain and emotions develops over time and how the brain's reactions to stimuli change with development.
: This dimension includes all mental developments, such as learning to talk, gaining common sense, and learning in education.
development from conception to birth
infancy and toddlerhood
birth-2 years; dramatic changes in the body and brain support the emergence of a wide array of motor, perceptual, and intellectual capacities and first intimate ties to other
11-18 the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
65 years and older
Nature is a way to describe human behavior based on how they were born. Nature is explaining that a certain human behavior happens that way because it is biological and we were born with that behavior.
Nurture is a way to describe human behavior based on what the person is around and exposed to. Nurture is stating that a human behavior happens due to the fact that a person is in a certain environment or influenced by certain people.
Which theorist believes in nature or nurture
Freud, Erikson, and Skinner lean more toward nurture and Piaget believes in both nature and nurture. Piaget believes that human development can not happen without having behaviors that you were born with and behaviors you learn from experiences. Freud, Erikson, and Skinner believe that all human behaviors are learned through things around them and watching others.
Continuity is when the developments happen right after one another and the different periods flow together.
Discontinuity is when there is a obvious start to a period of new developments and a obvious end as well.
Which theorist believes in discontinuity
Freud, Erikson, and Piaget all view development as being discontinuous. They all believe that you have to complete one phase before another could start. Skinner viewed development as being continuous. He believed that learning flowed through all of development and there were no stages.
Freud stages of development
: There are five psychosexual stages in Freud's theory including oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital. He believes that the psychosexual energy is what causes different behaviors. He believes in discontinuity and that if the child does not have proper nurturing during a stage that they can be stuck in that stage.
Piaget stages of development
There are four stages in Piaget's theory including sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. He focuses on how children gain intelligence and the nature of intelligence as well. He believes in discontinuity and structure of each stage.
Erickson stages of development
: There are eight developmental stages that build on each other, with a crisis unfolding in each phase in Erikson's theory. The eight phases include, trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation, ego integrity vs despair. He believes in discontinuity and overcoming the crisis of each stage before moving to the next.
Information-processing is a theory where people need to process information instead of just reacting to stimuli.
Sociocultural is a theory that examines how the society impacts a persons development individually.
Ecological is a theory that examines the relationships a child has and how that is affected with their environment and how that as a whole affects their development.
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