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Name the primary uses of ampicillin + amoxicillin
gram- rods = HELPS (H flu, E coli, Listeria, Proteus, Salmonella)
Name the primary uses of 2nd generation cephalosporins
HEN PEcKS = H flu, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Proteus, E coli, Klebsiella, Serratia
Name the primary uses of tetracyclines
MR CHuB = M. pneumo, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, H. pylori, Borrelia; also atypical pneumo
Name the primary uses of macrolides
Atypical pnemo (mycoplasm, chlamydia, legionella)
gram+ cocci (Strep, Neisseria)
Name the primary uses of metronidazole
GET GAP = Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardnerella vaginalis, Anaerobes, h. Pylori; also C. difficile
What drugs are used to treat Pseudomonas?
Pipercillin, 3rd-4th generation cephalosporin, imipenem, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides
What drugs are used to treat gram- rods?
Amp/Amoxicillin, 3rd generation cephalosporin, aztreonam, imipenem,
Name the anti-TB drugs
Isoniazid (INH), Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, Ethambutol
What drugs are used for anaerobes (e.g. Bacteroides)?
metronidazole, 2nd gen cephalosporin, pipercillin, imipenem, tetracycline, linezolid
What drug is used for expanded activity against a community acquired pneumonia with an unknown agent?
cefuroxime (2nd gen cephalosporin)
What drug has the adverse side effect of redman syndrome and how can this be avoided?
vancomycin, avoided by slowing infusion rate
What drug cannot be used during pregnancy because of the endocrine side effects?
azoles (ketoconazole, fluconazole)
What drug inhibits viral DNA polymerase but must be activated by thymidine kinase for activity?
What drug inhibits viral DNA polymerase but does not need thymidine kinase for activity?
What are the principle resistance mechanisms to penicillin?
B-lactamase hydrolysis of ring
Alteration of PBP site
Alteration of permeability
What is the principle resistance mechanism to macrolides?
23S ribosomal RNA binding site mutations
Plasma-mediated inactivating enzymes
What are the principle resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides?
transferase enzymes inactivate drug
What is the principle resistance mechanism to sulfonamides and trimethoprim?
Altered dihyropteroate synthetase, decreased uptake, increased PABA
What is the principle resistance mechanism to fluoroquinolones?
chromosome encoded DNA gyrase mutation
What side effects are common with cephalosporins?
disulfiram-like reaction with ethanol
What side effects are common with vancomycin?
generally well-tolerated, does NOT have many problems:
NOT = nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombophlebitis
also redman syndrome
What side effects are common with aminoglycosides?
Nephrotoxicity (esp with concurrent cephalosporin)
What side effects are common with tetracyclines?
Tooth discoloration and bone growth inhibition
What side effects are common with macrolides?
What side effects are common with SMX?
Kernicterus in infants
What side effects are common with fluoroquinolones?
Tendonitis and tendon rupture
What side effects are common with isoniazid?
Vitamin B6 deficiency
What side effects are common with amphotericin B?
antibiotics to avoid in pregnancy?
SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care
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