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Metabolism - Lecture 4 - Part 1
HaDPop Lecture 1
Terms in this set (36)
Complete oxidation of glucose yields how much ATP and GTP?
2ATP & 2GTP
What happened to the energy when we degrade/oxidize glucose?
That energy is still carried by the carriers (NADH & FADH2).
NADH + O2 -> NAD + H2O [energy release (ATP)]
FADH2 + O2 -> FAD + H2O
oxidative phosphorylation represents how many processes? and what are they?
1.Oxidation of NADH and FADH2 in the electron transport chain.
2.Phosphorylation of ADP to produce ATP.
What is the final pathway in aerobic cells?
Electron transport chain (ETC)
What is the Electron transport chain (ETC)?
electrons derived from various substrates are liberated to oxygen (O2) which is reduced to H2O and the energy is used for phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
Where is Electron transport chain (ETC) located?
ETC is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
In how many ways we can bypass (Complex 1) and what are they?
1. Succinate dehydrogenase FADH2 complex II
2.Fatty Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase FADH2
3. Glycerol-P Shuttle FADH2
What is Barbiturates? What is Rotenone
Barbiturates is a drug.
Rotenone is an an insecticide also a drug.
What inhibits (Complex 1) ?
Barbiturates & Rotenone
What happens when Complex 1 inhibited ?
ATP will still be produced without Complex 1, but its amount would be lower.
Cause NADH releases more energy than FADH2.
Is Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) is A. protein B. lipid C. aminoacid
What does Coenzyme Q do ?
increases the ability to transfer electron down the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
Why do electrons lose their energy when they are transferred? what happened to that energy?
The energy is used to pump hydrogen from inner membrane of mitochondria to cytoplasm side
What happens when hydrogen is pumped from inner membrane of mitochondria to cytoplasm membrane?
There will be a proton gradient in the cytoplasm, and they want to go back to inner membrane to maintain equilibrium.
What does Complex 4 do?
When the electrons reach Complex 4, The Fe+3 with electron becomes Fe+2, and the Fe+2 will give the electron to the oxygen with the Hydrogen from proton gradient transferred back to to the mitochondrial matrix, converts to h2o and Fe comes back to a +3 state.
Cyanide binds to an Fe of what state?
CO binds to an Fe of what state?
What inhibits complex 4?
Cyanide & CO
What does F0 and F1 channel do?
They act like a channel for protons to go to the mitochondrial matrix
The energies that are lost as heat? Are they wasted heat?
No, they're heat to keep the body temperature constant
What are the uncouplers?
•aspirin (high dose)
What does complex 1 do ?
NADH dehydrogenase, Electrons carried by NADH are transferred to complex I.
What does complex 2 (cytochrome bc1) do?
Succinyl dehydrogenase oxidizes FADH2 and transfers electrons to coenzyme Q.
What does complex 3 do?
Complex III (cytochrome bc1): it accept electrons from ubiquinone to cytochrome c.
What does complex 4 (cytochrome a/a3) or cytochrome oxidase do?
it transfer electron to O2 to form water
What complexes act as a proton translocating complexes as well?
Three of the complexes (Ι, III, and ΙV)
What energy is used to move protons from the inside to the outside of the inner mitochondrial membrane?
Inhibitors of ETC and oxidative phosphorylation are? and what do they do?
cyanide and CO
1.Decrease oxygen consumption
2.Increase intracellular NADH/NAD and FADH2/FAD ratio.
3.Decrease ATP production
What does Cyanide do?
It is a deadly poison because it bind Fe+3 in complex IV preventing electron transfer to O2, electron flow will stop and no ATP generation.
What does CO (carbon monoxide) do ?
CO binds to Fe+2 in complex IV , it also bind to hemoglobin displacing O2.
What does uncouplers do to ATP synthesis, Proton Gradient, Oxygen Consumption, Oxidation of NADH, FADH2 ?
1.Decrease proton gradient
2.Decrease ATP synthesis
3.Increase oxygen consumption
4.Increase oxidation of NADH, FADH2
when rate of ETC increases, with no ATP synthesis, energy is relased as?
What are the types of uncouplers? and what are their examples?
Some substances like dinitrophenol (DNP) and dinitrocresol increase the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to protons electron flow continues, ATP synthesis stops and energy is dissipated as heat.
2.Thermogenin (physiological uncoupler) is a natural uncoupling protein found in brown adipose tissue. it allows energy loss as heat to maintain basal body temperature around the kidneys, neck, breastplate, and scapula in newborns.
During oxidative phosphorylation, ____________________ are produced as a by-product.
reactive oxygen species
•Mitochondria produces superoxide radicals (O2 - ) which may be converted to _______
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 )
Some superoxide radicals react with nitric oxide to form _______________ and ___________ ?
peroxynitrite (ONOO-) & hydroxyl radicals (•OH)
Do cells have antioxidants?
cells usually have an abundant supply of antioxidants which can react with ROS to deactivate them.
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