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Terms in this set (67)
Athletes who train at high altitudes increase their red blood cell count and thus increase their oxygen supply during exercise. Increased oxygen supply results in
longer aerobic respiration
Cardiac muscle has very little capacity for regeneration because it lacks
As you are lifting a box, someone places extra weight on top of it. For your muscle to continue contracting and lifting the box, the muscle must __________.
recruit more muscle fibers
Resistance exercise will most likely cause muscle to
How many somatic motor neurons stimulate one muscle fiber?
Shortening a muscle while it maintains constant tension is called __________.
an isotonic contraction
Where would you expect to find numerous gap junctions in muscular tissue?
the intercalated disks of cardiac muscle
Which of the following marks the boundaries of a sarcomere?
Which of the following is predominately made up of myosin?
The process of engaging more motor units to increase the strength of a muscle contraction is called
What is the purpose of the triad?
The triad allows for Ca2+ release when a muscle fiber is excited.
To stimulate muscle contraction, acetylcholine is released from the ____ into the synaptic cleft.
What happens when acetylcholine stimulates its receptors in the neuromuscular junction?
The permeability of the sarcolemma to Na+ increases
Loss of muscle mass from lack of activity is called
Aerobic respiration produces a net yield of approximately ___ ATPs per glucose
The absence or inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at a synapse would lead to
Which of the following contains overlapping thick and thin filaments?
Which of the following best describes the resting membrane potential (RMP)?
The intracellular environment is negatively charged
If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fiber has only partially relaxed from the previous twitch, the most likely result will be ____. This can only be achieved in the laboratory.
Which muscle(s) can contract without the need for nervous stimulation?
Smooth and cardiac muscle
The triads of a muscle fiber consist of
two terminal cisternae and one T tubule
Why does one continue to breathe heavy after rigorous physical activity has stopped?
The body requires more oxygen to restore levels of ATP and creatine phosphate
The minimum stimulus needed to cause muscle contraction is called the
Which fibers are primarily responsible for producing lactate?
Type IIB fast glycolytic fibers
In skeletal muscle, the term that describes the alternating light and dark bands is
The protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal muscle is
If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fiber has only partially relaxed from the previous twitch, the most likely result will be
Drugs called calcium channel blockers may be used to lower blood pressure by causing arteries to vasodilate. How do you suppose these drugs work?
They prevent calcium from entering smooth muscle, thus allowing the muscle to relax.
All muscle types will respond to an electrical stimulus because all muscle cells are _________.
Where is dystrophin, the protein that is defective in muscular dystrophy, normally found?
Between the outermost myofilaments and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber
The opening of ____ gates produces an ___.
Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyperpolarize when at its RMP?
An inflow of chloride
Where do most local potentials form in a neuron?
When the voltage of a plasma membrane shifts from +35mV towards 0 mV, the cell is __________.
An inhibitory local potential causes which of the following?
Hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane
During the absolute refractory period which of the following is true?
No stimulus of any strength will trigger a new action potential
Parkinson disease is a progressive loss of motor function due to the degeneration of specific neurons. These neurons secrete an inhibitory neurotransmitter that prevents excessive activity in motor centers of the brain. What neurotransmitter is this?
If the potassium leak channels were suddenly blocked in a resting neuron, what would happen to its resting membrane potential?
it would become more positive
A neuron can receive thousands of EPSPs from different neurons, and responds by triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called
All of the following are typical characteristics of neurotransmitters except
they are released into the bloodstream before reaching the postsynaptic cell
Local potentials are ______, meaning they vary in magnitude according to the strength of the stimulus
The term "nerve fiber" refers to an
A neuron can receive thousands of EPSPs from different neurons, and responds by triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called __________.
Which glial cell is found wrapped around nerve fibers in the PNS?
What is the primary site on a neuron for receiving signals from other neurons?
Which of these happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission?
G protein dissociates from the NE receptor
Which of these does not contribute to the cessation of the signal in a synaptic transmission?
Synaptic vesicles secrete neurotransmitter by exocytosis
In a neuron, the opening of sodium gates typically leads to
depolarization of the plasma membrane
Local potentials are ______, whereas action potentials are
graded; all or none
In which part of a neuron is the postsynaptic membrane usually found?
Conduction if nerve impulse would be the fastest in which of the following?
a large diameter myelinated fiber
Which of the following ions has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential?
Which of the following is most likely to cause a rapid depolarization?
Opening of sodium channels
What type of neural circuit is best for producing a prolonged output?
A reverberating circuit
Which of these happens first in a cholinergic synaptic transmission?
the synaptic vesicles release acetylcholine
Which if the following ions has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential?
Which of the following are effectors?
A neuron receives a stimulus. Which of the following events happens next?
A local potential develops
In an action potential, which event directly follows repolarization?
Hyper-polarization of the membrane
Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyper-polarize when at its RMP?
An inflow of chloride
Which of these is an example of an EPSP in a typical neuron?
A voltage from -70mV to 69.5 mV
Some ____ neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.
When the voltage of a plasma membrane shifts from +35mV toward 0mV, the cell is
Which cells form myelin in the spinal cord?
Some antidepressant drugs act by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO). What is the function of this enzyme?
it breaks down monoamines
Place the following event in synaptic transmission at a cholinergic synapse in order: A - A postsynaptic potential is produced; B - Voltage-gated calcium channels open and calcium enters the cell; C- ACh is released and diffuses across the axon terminal; D - A nerve signal arrives at an axon terminal; E - Ligand-gated sodium open and sodium enters the cell.
D, B, C, E, A
What causes hyper polarization of a neuronal membrane?
Potassium leave the cell
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