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Most missed Questions from Exam 2
10 will be on exam 3
Terms in this set (26)
beta-glucose and alpha-glucose, respectively (in the order listed)
The cellulose and amylose bio-polymers are made up of
building blocks/monomers of__________
Glucose is commonly referred to in a clinical or medical setting as
commonly referred to as "table sugar" and consists of dextrose and fructose/levulose
Environment A is anaerobic. Environment B is aerobic
Environment A: Yeast infections in the bladder in humans can produce ethanol ("auto-brewery" syndrome) and in some humans this results in detectable concentrations of alcohol in the urine.
Environment B: However, yeast in bread will cause bread dough to "rise" from the CO2 produced.
arginine (on the end of a protein) has ____?___ pKa value(s).
-thiamin (Vitamin B1)
-riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
-pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
these vitamins/co-enzymes participate in the function of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase
-lactate or acetyl-CoA only 14
- acetyl-CoA or alanine only 6
Pyruvate can be directly converted with an enzyme in various species to
pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Transaminase enzymes use vit B6 to convert alanine, aspartate, and glutamate to what intermediates
how many different steps with how many different enzymes/enzyme complexes are used during conversion of glucose-1-phosphate carbons to citrate
The first half of glycolysis [BEFORE glucose carbon number is split in half] produces ADP
What is true about glycolysis?
Substrate level phosphorylation
In the glycolysis and citric acid pathways, ATP/GTP are synthesized by this method
Activation of pyruvate kinase by fructose-1-6-bisphosphate (F1,6 BP)
What is the "feed forward" activation step in glycolysis?
Reduction of pyruvate and oxidation of NADH
An important immediate and direct consequence of lactic acid (lactate) production from pyruvate is:
Pyruvate undergoes reduction to ethanol and NADH is oxidized.
Which of the following describes the process of anaerobic glycolysis in yeast?
covalently modified by the same two enzymes which add and remove phosphate groups on these two proteins' hydroxyl groups
Glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase proteins are:
Stimulating the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase
Epinephrine plays an important role in glucose metabolism by:
phosphoenolpyruvate and CO2
In the second step of gluconeogenesis with energy from GTP, oxaloacetate is directly converted to
FADH2 and NADH and GTP and Coenzyme A and malate
Which of the following are directly produced as products in various reactions of the citric acid cycle?
-Facilitate the conversion of certain amino acids via oxaloacetate into glucose 8
-Generation of metabolic intermediates for fatty acid synthesis
-Generation of metabolic intermediates for amino acid synthesis
-The oxidation of carbohydrates 11
The following are all major goals of the citric acid cycle in mammals
4 GTP, 16 NADH, 12 CO2 and 4 FADH2
Starting with four pyruvate molecules and proceeding four times through the citric acid cycle,
these products are produced in the following amounts:
It allows the conversion of certain amino acids to oxaloacetate and eventually gluconeogenesis
During prolonged fasting when glycogen stores are depleted, what role does the citric acid cycle play in gluconeogenesis?
the glyoxysome of plants and
cytoplasm of bacteria
The glyoxylate cycle occurs in which location
Which enzyme is used in gluconeogenesis in some species, but NOT in glycolysis or the glyoxylate
phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase
Which 2 enzymes involved in glycolysis form ATP from ADP
-increases CO2 concentration in the blood
Oxygen binding affinity to hemoglobin decreases with:
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