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Arts and Humanities
World History// Module 11: Lesson 4 - Absolute Rulers of Russia
Absolute Monarchs in Europe
Terms in this set (26)
A landowning noble
What was Ivan the Terrible's young life disrupted by?
Struggles for power amongst boyars.
When was Ivan's Good Period and describe events that occurred?
1547 to 1560: He won great victories, added lands to Russia, gave Russia a code of laws, and ruled justly.
What triggered Ivan's bad period?
Anatasia's, his wife's, death; Ivan believed she was poisoned by the boyars so he turned against them.
What did Ivan the Terrible's police force do?
They hunted down and murdered people Ivan considered traitors. They dressed in black and rode black horses. The police also executed boyars, their families, and the peasants that worked their land.
What did Ivan the Terrible do with the boyar's estates after he seized them?
He would give them to a new set of nobles who either had to remain loyal or lose their land.
What were the long-term consequences of Ivan the Terrible's decision to kill his oldest son?
1st potential answer: First, Russia was weakened by a weak czar, then it experienced turmoil as several struggled to gain power, and finally the Romanov dynasty was established.
2nd potential answer: The "Time of Troubles" began where boyars struggled for power and heirs for czars died under weird conditions. Imposters also tried to claim the throne.
How did Romanovs restore order to Russia?
They strengthened government by passing a code of laws and putting down a revolt.
Peter the Great (1672-1725) / Peter the I
Peter the Great was the Czar of Russia from 1682 to 1725; he transformed Russia into a modern state. He was an absolute monarch who brought the ways of Western Europe to Russia and made various reforms that continued increasing the czar's power.
When Peter I come to power, Russia was still a land of:
1. Boyars and serfs
2. Serfdom in Russia lasted into the mid-1800s
3. Russian landowners wanted serfs to stay on the land and produce largest harvests
4. Landowners treated serfs like property
5. Landowners could give serfs away as presents/pay debts
6. Laws that made it illegal for serfs to run away
In the Middle Ages, Russia looked up to ________, not ____________ for leadership
Constantinople; not Rome
Who cut Russia off from the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration?
Explain the religious differences between Western Europe and Russia?
Russians adopted the Eastern Orthodox branch and Western Europeans were mostly Catholic or Protestants, so Russians viewed them as heretics.
Peter the Great believed only by _________ people would change.
1697: Peter the I embarks on the "Grand Embassy" journey which is....
A long visit to Western Europe where he desired to learn of European customs and manufacturing techniques because he was very passionate about modern tools and machines for the ships/sea.
What did Peter believe Russia' future depended on?
On Russia having a warm-water port to make trade accessible.
Why was Russia culturally different from Western Europe?
It had a feudal rather than a commercial economy; it had been influenced by Constantinople and the Mongols; it followed a different form of Christianity
Inspired by Peter' western trip, he returned with a goal of WESTERNIZATION
Westernization: an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western - especially European or American countries.
Describe 5 of Peter' Westernization Reforms:
1. To force change upon his state, he increased absolute power
2. He brought the Russian Orthodox Church under state control
3. Abolished the office of patriarch, head of the Church
4. Set up the Holy Synod to run the Church under his direction
5. Like Ivan the T, he reduced the power of the great landowners and recruited men from lower-ranking families → then promoted them to positions of authority and rewarded them w/grants of land
What were additional attempts Peter took to westernize Russia?
1. Introduced potatoes, which became a staple of the Russian diet
2. Started Russia's first newspaper
3. Raised women's status by having them attend social gatherings
4. Ordered the nobles to give up traditional clothes for Western fashions
5. Advanced education by opening a school of navigation and introducing schools for
the arts and sciences
How did Peter modernize his army?
He hired European officers and taught them successful tactics using European weapons (bought using heavy tax money). He also made being a soldier a lifetime job.
Peter also believed __________ was a key to Russia' progress: How did he implement it?
Subjects were not permitted to leave the country, and instead had to devout themselves to studying.
To promote growth and education, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West: How did it (St. Petersburg) come to be?
After 21 years of war, Russia won the "window on Europe" which included a new city on Swedish lands. In 1703, he began building on the swampy-site which ultimately allowed ships to sail down the Neva River into the Baltic Sea and on to Western Europe. Peter had the army and thousands of serfs to work on St. Petersburg which became a deadly project.
T/F: Peter DID NOT order Russian nobles to settle in his new capital so that it would become a busy port.
F: Peter DID order them to live there.
About how many people died from working on St. Petersburg?
25 - 100 thousand people
Which of Peter's actions in building St. Petersburg show his power as an absolute monarch?
He ordered peasants to work there, and he ordered nobles to move there
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