Skeletal and Muscular System Notes

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The bones, cartilage, and connective tissue that hold bones together make up the ______ system.
skeletal
Functions of the Skeletal System:
1. Protection
2. Movement
3. Storage
4. Blood Cell Formation
Bones are made of cells called ________
osteoblasts
Osteoblasts work in _____ to form the living part of the bone.
groups
Those groups of cells deposit minerals, such as _________, into the mineralized portion of the bone.
calcium
______ Bone
a. Rigid and _____ with no open spaces
b. Contains tiny canals where _____ ______ are located
compact
a.dense
b.blood vessels
_____ Bone
a. Has many ________
b. Provides _____ and ______ for the bone
spongy
a.open spaces
b.strength and support
_____ is the soft tissue inside of bone
marrow
There are ___ kinds of marrow.
a. ____ marrow- makes red and white blood cells
b. _____ marrow- stores fat
two
red, yellow
_____- Soft tissue of your skeletal system
cartilage
When you are born, you don't have much true bone, it's mostly
_______
cartilage
As you grew, cartilage was replaced by _____
bone
Some cartilage covers the _____ of bones for cushioning
ends
Some cartilage is ____ replaced by bone (end of your ____, top of your ___ )
never
nose,ear
The place where two or more bones meet are _____
joints
a. _____ joint- bones glide over each other for some flexibility (Examples: ____ and ____ )
b. ______ joint- allows movement in all directions (Ex: ____ and ____)
c. Hinge joint-allows backward and forward motion,or flexion and extension (Ex: ___ and ____)
Gliding- wrist and hand
Ball and socket- shoulder and hip
Hinge- knee and elbow
Joints are held together by ______
ligaments
Ligaments are strong bands of ________
connective tissue
Ligaments connect ____ to _____
bone to bone
Remember, cartilage covers the end of bones to provide ______ where bones meet.
cushion
_________- one or more bones moves out of place
dislocated joint
________- a ligament is stretched too far or torn
sprain
_______ -or Broken Bone (no explanation needed)
fracture
_________- a disease in which bones become less dense, become more weak, and break easily
osteoporosis
Muscles that allow you to move make up the _____ system.
muscular
If all of your muscles rested at the same time, you would _____
collapse
3 Types of Muscle
a. _____ muscle- in the digestive tract and walls of blood
vessels
b. _____ muscle- found only in the heart
c. ______ muscle-attached to your bones for movement and helps
protect inner organs
a. Smooth
b. Cardiac
c. Skeletal
______ muscle action is under your control
Examples: ____________________
Voluntary
Ex.-waving, smiling, and winking
________ muscle action is NOT under your control
Examples: ____________________________
Involuntary
Ex.-heart beating and peristalsis
Some actions could be _____ voluntary or involuntary.
Ex: You can ____ your eyes, but your eyes will also blink automatically.
either, blink, blink automatically
When you want to _____ (type, walk, talk, etc), a chain of events occurs extremely fast to make that motion happen.
1- A nerve _____ , or message, travels from your brain to the skeletal muscle.
2- The muscle cells ____, or get shorter. !
3-The muscle contraction ____ the bones in the direction they need to move.!
move
1- impulse, brain to the skeletal muscle
2-contract
3-pulls
Tendons are tough ______ tissue that attach ____ to _____
connective
muscle to bone
When a muscle that ________ to bones contracts, or shortens, the bones are pulled _____ to each other.
connects, closer
For example: Tendons attach the biceps muscle to a bone in your _____ and to a bone in your ______. When the biceps muscle contracts, your forearm bends ________ your shoulder.
shoulder, forearm, toward
Because muscles only _____, not push, they work in ______.
pull, pairs
Usually one muscle ______ and the other ________
bends, straightens
A muscle that bends a part of your body is a _____.
flexor
A muscle that straightens a part of your body is an _________.
extensor
In the arm, ______ are flexors and ________ are extensors.
biceps, the triceps
Exercise helps muscles keep their strength and endurance
a. endurance means working ____ without getting _____.
longer, tired
2 types of exercise
a. ______ exercise- working against the resistance, or weight, of an object can maintain or build muscle ______.
Example: pull ups use your ____ weight for resistance
a.resistance, strength
own
______ exercise-steady, moderately intense activity strengthens the _____ and increases endurance
Example: walking, _____, swimming, ______.
aerobic,heart
Example: jogging, cycling
______- Muscle or tendon is overstretched or torn
strain
______- tendon becomes inflamed due to over-exercising without enough time to heal
tendinitis
Some people take _______ ______ to increase muscle strength, but they can damage the heart, liver, and kidneys and cause high blood pressure.
anabolic steroids