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World History// Module 11: Lesson 5 - Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
The Big Idea: Absolute rulers in England were overthrown and Parliament gained power.
Terms in this set (41)
What was the biggest obstacle keeping English rulers' from being absolute monarchs?
Parliament's financial power
James Stuart became King James I of England in 1603 --> England and Scotland now shared a ruler
What were some of the unsettled issues of Elizabeth's reign that James had to face?
1. Struggles with Parliament over money
2. James offended the Puritan members of Parliament
What did the Puritan members of Parliament hope James would do?
They hoped he would enact reforms to stop Catholic practices in the English church.
What did James eventually do that pleased the Puritans?
He agreed to a new translation of the Bible.
Charles I (1600-1649)
*he replaced James Staurt
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 to 1649. His conflict with Parliament started the English Civil War. He was beheaded in 1649.
Charles needed money since he was at war with Spain and France. How did Parliament respond?
In 1628, Parliament refused to grant him any money until he signed the Petition of Right.
With the Petition of Right, the King agreed not to:
1. Imprison subjects w/o due cause
2. Levy taxes w/o Parliament's consent
3. House soldiers in private homes
4. Impose martial law in peacetime
Why was "imposing martial law in peacetime" incredibly important?
It was critical because it set forth that the LAW was GREATER than the king; contradicted theories of
Charles IGNORED the document. Explain how so.
In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and refused to call it back into session, thus, he rebelled against Parliament and begun imposing high fines and fees on the English people to pay his wars.
Why did Charles defy Parliament continuously?
They wouldn't give him the money he wanted.
How did Charles offend the Puritans?
He continued to uphold the rituals of the Anglican Church.
Why did the Scottish rebel, assembly an army, and threaten to invade England?
They rebelled because in 1637, Charles tried to force Presbyterian Scottish people to accept a version of the Anglican prayer book so both England and Scotland could follow one religion.
In Fall 1641: Parliament passed laws to limit royal power. How did Charles respond?
Charles tried to arrest Parliament's leaders but they escaped and a mob of Londoners raged
outside the palace.
Charles fled to London and raised an army.
With a loyal and capable army, what did Charles provoke?
The English Civil War that lasted from 1642-1649
English Civil War
a conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1649, in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England's monarchy.
Which individuals were loyal to Charles?
Which individuals opposed Charles and his supporters?
The Puritan supporters of Parliament
Puritan General: Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)
Lord Protector of England; in 1642 he led Parliament's forces in deposing King Charles I; he became ruler of England in 1653
What gave the Puritans an edge over the Cavaliers in the English Civil War?
Cromwell's New Model Army.
In 1649 Cromwell and the Puritans brought Charles to trial for treason against Parliament --> Verdict?
1. Found him guilty
2. Sentenced him to a public execution
T/F: Charles was one of the many reigning monarchs that had faced a public trial and execution.
F; Charles was the first one.
What did abolish in 1649 and what did he replace it with?
He abolished the monarchy and House of Lords, replacing it with a commonwealth form of government.
In 1653, Cromwell eliminated ___________
Cromwell's associate, John Lambert drafted a Constitution which labeled the government as _______ ___________ and made Cromwell the ______ of ____ State, with the title _________ __________
The Protectorate; Head of State as Lord Protector
Cromwell and Puritans fought to reform society in England by:
1. Making laws that promoted Puritan morality and abolished sinful activity such as the theater, sporting events, and dancing
2. Cromwell favoring religious toleration for all Christians except Catholics
3. Allowed Jews to return after expulsion in 1290
4. Promoted education by setting up new schools
5. Reduced punishments for minor crimes
What did Cromwell's rule have in common with an absolute monarchy?
He abolished the legislative
body and set himself above the law.
The English people were sick of military rule so Parliament voted to ask the older son of Charles I to rule England. What did Charles II do in response?
Began the Restoration period: He selected a new Parliament and restored the monarchy.
(1679 law):a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
- Gave the prisoner the right to obtain a writ or document ordering that the prisoner be brought
before a judge to specify the charges against the prisoner
- Judge would decide whether the prisoner should be tried or set free.
What made the Habeas Corpus act so important?
It protected people from being put in jail simply because they opposed the ruler in the
monarch + prisoners couldn't be held indefinitely w/o trials.
Charles' heir to the throne was James II, a Catholic.
How did James II offend his subjects? How did he violate English law?
He appointed several Catholics to high office. He violated English law by appointing several Catholics to high office.
In 1688, James' second wife gave birth to a son which could become the Catholic heir...so what did Parliament do to prevent that from happening?
7 members of Parliament invited William the Orange, prince of Netherlands and James sister, Mary (a Protestant believer) to overthrow James for the sake of Protestantism.
Parliament's actions led to the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his older daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
How was the overthrow of James II different from the overthrow of Charles I?
No execution of the king; the monarchy was not abolished
England with William and Mary was a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
A system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law
Under the constitutional monarchy, Parliament drafted a Bill of Rights (1689 England) to make clear the limits of royal power
1. No suspending of Parliament's laws
2. No levying of taxes w/o a specific grant from Parliament
3. No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
4. No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
a group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make the government decisions
-Ministers acted in the ruler's name and represented the major party of Parliament so they were the link
between the MONARCH and the MAJORITY party in Parliament
The Cabinet became the center of ________ and ____________
power and policymaking
The Cabinet System insured peace and compromise within the government by making sure that...
1688: No British monarch could rule w/o the consent of Parliament and vice versa
-If the two disagreed, the government would have to reach an agreement.
Under the cabinet system, the leader of the majority party Parliament heads is called the __________ _________
How does the U.S. government resembles the English reforms/institutions (5 main resemblances to modern American govt)
1. Right of Habeas Corpus, which prevents authorities from holding a person in jail w/o being charged
2. A Bill of Rights: guaranteeing rights such as freedom of speech and a freedom of worship
3. A strong legislature and strong executive (CHECKS AND BALANCES)
4. A cabinet, made up of heads and executive departments
5. 2 dominant political parties
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