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what is food preservation?
the process of treating and handling food to slow down spoilage, loss of quality or nutritional value and to allow food to be stored for longer.
what are the 5 reasons to preserve food?
- To achieve economic viability by reducing variations in sales and availability.
E.g manufacturers developing new products eg frozen meals
- To make perishable foods available to consumers all year round, providing variety for consumers. Make seasonal fruit cheaper
- To retain the nutritional value e.g freezing vegetables to lock in their nutrients eg frozen pea
- to maintain a form that is acceptable to consume and to reduce waste
- to keep it safe for human consumption
. to prevent consumers becoming ill from food borne illnesses
.Acceptability to consumers E.g when preserving food before it decomposes because of enzymatic action E.g canned apples
what is food spoilage?
Occurs when the quality of a food product deteriorates. Generally due to the activity of bacteria, molds rendering the physical and sensory properties of the food unacceptable or dangerous for consumption
what 6 factors affect the growth of microorganisms in food?
amount of time
what is an example of how reducing moisture in food?
salting (cured meats), sugar (canned fruit), and acids (vinegar) can change the way water acts, making it unsuitable for microbes to grow and reproduce
how does the addition of chemicals (pH) helpt to preserve food?
the lower the pH the more acidic the food, therefore the safer the product is from food poisoning bacteria as most food contaminating bacteria do not like acidic pH environments
what is an example of addition of chemicals?
preservatives such as sodium nitrate in bacon and cold cuts, BHA in cereals, citric acid in sodas
what is an example of the exclusion of air in preserving food?
gas flushing - inserting gases other than oxygen into packaging
What does pasteurization (heating) milk destroy?
Heat treating reduces the no. of disease causing microorganisms present in raw milk; it cannot fully sterilize the milk
What is another products undergo pasteurization?
fruit juice, chocolate milk, eggs in a carton, syrups, yoghurt, cheese
What is HTST?
HTST (or high temperature short time) is used for pasteurizing milk
product is heated to 72 degrees Celsius or 161 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 seconds and then cooled.
what are the advantages of pasteurization?
Kills specific pathogenic micro-organisms such as listeria, salmonella and tuberculosis.
how does canning preserve food?
Involves the application of heat and aims to destroy microorganisms and their endospores
what problems are possible problems if a can is bulging?
Bacteria may have entered or not been killed. Microbial action produces acid and gas in the can, which can make it bulge.
what are the advantages of canning?
Long storage life
Easy to store
Easy to transport
what are the disadvantages of canning?
Unable to view contents
What is the temperature range for refrigerating food + what does it do?
Chilling food to temps of 0-5*C slows down microbial growth (so slows done spoilage)
what is refrigeration typically used for?
storing perishable foods
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