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psych learning final exam
Terms in this set (215)
What is the difference between a reflex and a modal action pattern?
what is individual fitness?
Ability to survive and reproduce
The relative contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool
Natural selection helps the _________- to change not the __________
behavior is determined by causes of external to free will.
observed, measured, manipulated
behavior can be ____________,____________, and ________________
everything is a creation of the mind
there is a real world / reality
suspend judgement until you have an acceptable level of judgment
certain skills or ability are "native" or harried into the brain at birth
knowledge is derived from sense-experience
the study of behavior for behaviors sake
the study of cognition, or discrete internal mental state.
how does behavior work?
stimulus > cognitive response > emotional response > behavioral response > effect
theory of evolution and the impact of natural selection, naturalistic observation. most of his work was descriptive. Bred pigeons to demonstrate how dramatic the effects of selection could be.
Studied the digestive systems of dogs. Noted that dogs started to droll as lab assistants entered the training room. He created respondent conditioning.
Conditioned stimulus paired with unconditioned stimulus creates an
not present at birth rather acquired through experience (dog learning to salivate when it hears owner's footsteps on the floor)
inborn or permeant relent that is found in most species ( dog salivates when you put food in front of it)
What kind of reflex is acquired through experience?
Herman Von Helmhotlz
created an instrument to examine the inside of the human eye. This is called the ophthamoscope
placed hungry (thus motivated) cats in puzzle boxes.
"law of effect"
behavior leading to satisfying state of affairs are strengthened
John B. Watson
coined term "behaviorism" and two term contingency stimulus -> response. Complex behavior could be explained by long chains of S-R connections.
primarily focus on consequences and influence of subsequent behavior. Also the three term contingency S-> R-> S
behavior is amenable to scientific study using methods which have proven useful.
behavior and its causes are real-life physical events which can be observed, measured, and manipulated.
Rules of Scientific thinking
Parsimony, falsifiability, comprehensiveness, honesty, sufficiency
all simple explanations must be ruled out before more complex explanations are considered.
it must be possible to conceive of evidence that would make the claim false
the evidence offered in support of any claim must be exhaustive (all available evidence must be considered)
the evidence offered in support of any claim must be evaluated without self-deception.
extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence
selection by consequences
biology ( natural selection)
culture (benefits / costs to the survial groups)
relative contribution to the gene pool
Genotype vs. Phenotype
genotype : genes of the organism
phenotype: observable characteristic of organism
Modal (Fixed) Action Patterns
occur in all members of a species
releasers -> systemic response
once initiated, continue until termination
it is determined (determinism)
What do we mean when we say that behavior is lawful
IT has an empirical, physical cause
modal action patterns are initiated by events called
1. time /speed
2. inherent genetic variability
3. physical properties / low of physics
What are the 3 limitations on natural selection?
a change in behavior due to experience
calling my mom
not a behavior
receiving a text on the phone
cat meows for food
understanding behavior analysis
are a group design
single subject designs
What is the highest purpose of science?
extent to which Iv changes DV (did you actually do anything)
extent that findings generalize to other populations, settings, behaviors
Is internal or external validity the priority?
The _____________ variable is the manipulation intended to change behavior
it is determined
what do we mean when we say that behavior is lawful?
Modal action patterns are initiated by events called ____________
2. inherent genetic variability
3. physical properties/ laws of physics
three limitations on natural selection?
ability to survive and reproduce
What is individual fitness?
how might we operationally define " waving"
aspects of behavior measurement
topography: form, what behavior looks like
magnitude: force or intensity
count: number of responses
rate: number of responses over time
duration: amount of time start to finish
interresponse time (IRT): time between 2 instances of a behavior
objective: refers only to observable behavior
clear: readable and unambiguous
complete: deletes boundaries of what is and what is not an instance of behavior
What measurement represents the time from a signal or cue to the beginning of the response?
what are the three characteristics of good operational definitions?
what is on the X axis of a bar graph?
a flat line indicated no response. Changes in rate of responding are shown by the slope.
sleeper slope = higher rate.
zero rate of responding
what does a flat line on a cumulative record indicate?
who invented the cumulative recorder?
number of data points, level, variability, and trend.
Visual Analysis involved inspecting:
Variability in graphs means
range = highest data value point minus Lowest data point value
range does not equal variability
highest point (8) minus lowest point (1) = 7
calculate the range of data.
a horizontal line at the average value of the data point. they are always horizontal and Is calculated by sum of the values divided by the data points
the direction of the bath that shows the rae of behavior changing
what is the difference between latency and IRT?
latency is the time between a stimulus and response
IRT is the time between one response and another response.
short continuity, strong contingency
What makes for the best learning conditions?
Long temporal continuity, consequences too delayed.
Jessica is on a token system for chores. She makes her bed on Monday. Her mom forgets to give her the token until Friday. Mom says Jessica isn't cleaning her room.
Why do you think Jessica stopped cleaning her room?
mom replies not bad after cleaning. Why do you think Jessica stopped cleaning?
weak contingency - token not delivered
high effort for poor consequences
what kind of contingency is a reflex?
A fixed _________ of responses elicited by a specific stimulus
reduction, repeated exposure
Habituation: ____________ Is the strength of reflex response due to ______________ to the stimulus that elicits the response
increase, reflex response
Potentiation: temporary __________ in some dimension or intensity of a reflex response due to repeated presentation of an eliciting stimulus
Sensitization: tendency of ____________ ti eruct a reflex response following the elicitation of that response by a different stimulus
The horror movie I'm watching has a jump scare, in which a loud, sudden noise elicits a jerk. Following the jump scare, my cat nuzzles my leg. Normally this doesn't make me jump, but this time I do:
I am watching paranormal activity and startle at a jump scare. There's another jump scare, and another, and my startles are getting more intense.
This is an example of:
I installed cat shelves along the walls of the house. During the night, Khan runs up and down, making thudding noises. At first I startle at each thump, but as the night goes on I startle less and less, and eventually get to sleep.
This is an example of:
unconditioned stimulus -> unconditioned response makes an
conditioned stimulus -> conditioned response makes an
the crash - sudden noise, pain, touch
After a bad car accident, the sign of red beetles make my heart race. However, after driving past several without any further accidents, beetles no longer bother me.
What was the US?
The sight of the red beetle
After a bad car accident, the sight of red beetles makes my heart race. However, after driving past several without any further accidents, beetles no longer bother me
What was the CS?
activation syndrome, heart racing
After a bad car accident, the sight of red beetles makes my heart race. However, after driving past several without any further accidents, beetles no longer bother me.
What was the UR?
Using the red beetle example, what does this exemplify?
Once the pandemic hit, we left the house far less oftenn. I end up not driving anywhere for a few weeks! I see a red beetle again, I startle.
What does this exemplify>
what is another term for observational learning?
which of the 4 pillars of Bandura's social cognitive theory accounts for the ability to physical copy of the observed action?
age of learner, complexity of task , obsevers emotional state, consequences of the observers behavior, observers reinforcement history
name a factor that can control/influence observational learning
"rule governed" behavior refers to responses that are controlled by ________________
contingency antecedent -> behavior -> consequences
a rule is a verbal statement of a _________________
rule governed behavior
______________ ______________ _____________ is behavior that has been generated through exposure to the rules.
history of reinforcement and punishment
compliance to rule governed behavior is often dependent of the __________ _________ ________ and ___________ for compicance to following the rules
advantages are that it helps avoid trial and error and has faster change.
disadvantages are that rules may not be salient as "learning the hard way"
name and advantage and disadvantage of rule-governed behavior
3 ways rules can be conceptualized.
when a behavior is generated through exposure to rules, it is called
history of reinforcement and punishment for compliance to following the rules.
compliance with rules is often dependent on the
reinforcement for rule following
compliance with novel rules is dependent on a history of:
whats an advantage of rules?
faster learning/ change
avoid trial and error
supports delayed/ infrequent. consequences
contingency- specifying stimuli
rules haven been conceptualized as Sds and Mom and as
_______________ produces the tendency for learned behavior to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not another
_____________ _________________ is when an individual responds in the presence of an untrained or novel stimulus.
when an organism responds to a novel or untrained stimulus it is called
Sd -> area of excitation
S-delta - > area of inhibition
discrimination training leads to physiological changes in the brain
a pharaoh showing how the strength of response changes with similarity.
whose theory did spence modify?
50 Hz bc it is the most different
If a pigeon is trained to peck when it hears a 500 Hz tone, what tone would be least lively to evoke pecking?
Lashley -wade's theory states that generalization gradients depend on the organism's
a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced
a stimulus that indicates a response will not be reinforced
Which stimulus signals extinction?
Sd signals distinction
only humans are capable of complex discriminations, such as type of artwork
occurs when the rate, latency, or amplitude of a response is altered in the presence of an antecedent stimulus
Match to Sample MTS
a sample stimulus provides cues for selection of behavior guided by other stimulus that may be similar or different
in _______ training, stimulus are presented one at a time, whereas in _______ training, the SD and Delta are presented together.
e.g., socializing puppies or kittens
animals are likely to learn a particular kind of hehavior at certain (critical ) periods in their lives
an attachment developed for a moving object/organism present near birth.
what kind of behavior is not heritable?
1. fixed action patterns
what are the two types of behavior that are heritable?
the very ___________ of an animals body makes certain kinds of behaviors possible e and other kinds of behavior impossible
genetic differences can impact the _____________ learning
Lamarck's theory is called the inheritance of acquired
soil, water, paint
name one way children might come into contact with lead?
the passage of time alone doesn't account for all forgetting. The other cause of forgetting during retention intervals is
Animals that are________ have learning that is slow and unreliable
a drop in the generalization peak indicates
Animals that are________ have learning that is slow but steady
what is another name for the savings method measuring forgetting?
the tendency of an animal to revert to a fixed action pattern is called____________
this tendency to revert to a fixed action pattern - instructive drift - certainly sets limits on learning
if a new behavior appears without reinforcement, it is likely an example of_____________
conditioned taste aversion
the type of conditioning used to deter coyotes from eating lambs is known as
a stage in an organism's life during which learning a particular behavior is optimal is called ____________
preexposure lambs and coyotes
coyotes te lambs soaked in chemicals and when they got sick they did not eat lambs anymore
humans are too advanced to have critical periods
preexposure to a flavor decreases its novelty value
an aversion toward that flavor will develop slowly
continuum of preparedness Seligman (1970)
animals are differentially prepared to associate certain responses with certain stimuli
humans seem to be prepared to learn a number of behavioral as well, assuming typical pattern of development
continuum of preparedness
contra prepared = slow, unreliable
unprepared = slow , steady
prepared = fast, steady
Rats and Taste Aversion
rats got sick from noisy and bright water. then sweet water
dogs vs. wolves
almost identical genetics
differences in learning curves
genetic differences can impact the _________ learning
blue / sweet
visually oriented birds are more likely to learn ____ water is bad.
Taste-oriented rats are more likely to learn ____ water is bad.
small exposure: attention problems, irritability
larger exposure: learning problems, hearing loss, impaired growth
traumatic brain injury
thinking, sensation, language, emotion
teach variety of responses and use rules/ prompts
list two strategies for promoting generalization
what is new/untrained
stimulus generalization: respond to untrained stimuli
response generalization: emit untrained responses
What is the difference between stimulus generalization and response generalization?
current metaphor being used to explain how memory works
another term for episodic memory is _____ memory
declarative / explicit
_________ memories can be retrieved and reflected on consciously
input, processing output
sensory input > sensory memory > working memory > long term memory
Iconic (Tscope) subject recall best when they are given cues for structure
echoic similar to iconic, but auditory
many perceptive/ cognitive behaviors require little effort or attention. Does not require awareness
a conditional discrimination.
color + text+ contextual stimulus
different contextual stimulus _> different response
strong primacy= accurate recall of early list items
retroactive + new material interferes backward with your recollection of older items
strong recency = lots of items from end of lists
proactive interference = when older material interferes forward with your recollection of current items.
non declarative / implicit memory:
memory that can influence thought and behavior without conscious awareness
describing your third birthday
deterioration in learning behavior following a period without practice
free recall ,cued recall ,relearning method, recognition, extinction
where does sensory input go after the sensory memory
delayed matching to sample
organism given opportunity to perform previously learned behavior following rentention interval
consistent of presenting hints, or prompts, to increase likelihood that the behavior will be produced
relearning method =
flattening of generalization gradient, declines in the steepness of generalization gradient indicate forgetting
variables in forgetting
retention interval length
degree of learning
subsequent learning context
degree of learning
retention interval length
more trials = more learning
longer retention interval length = more forgetting
the ______ the interval length, the ______ more forgetting occurs.
forgetting that occurs during retention intervals is due to the passage of time and _________-
eye witness testimonies
car witness responses to questions different.
The broken headlight (implication) compared to A broken headlight
a rule is a verbal statement of a
rules have been conceptualized as Sds, as MOs, and as
faster acquisition/behavior change
avoid trail and error
what is an advantage of rules?
operant and respondent conditioning
what are the processes involved in two-process theory of punishment?
differential reinforcement of low rates
What does DRL stand for?
what are some variables that influence the effectiveness of a punisher?
Dollard and Miller's model of observational learning is based on the observers ________ _________
in bandora's theory of observational learning, steps taken during observation are called _______________
behavior, observing, model
observational learning = a change in _______ due to the experience of ________ a ____________
the tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced is called __________
observing the model receive a consequence of their behavior
another term for observational learning is
attending to the model (not the irrelevant stimuli) results in more learning
acts that the observer performs to aid in recall (of the model's behavior)
observer must have the expectation that an observed behavior will be reinforced or not likely to imitate it
age, learning history, characteristics of the model , observers emotional state, complexity of the task
variables affecting learning
tendency to imitate modeled behavior even
what animal was used on Herbert and harsh
another term for observational learning is imitation
the tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced isn called
social reinforcement (escape and attention)
most SIB is controlled by which kind of consequence?
cue > behavior > click > reward
in clicker training, does the click come before, or after, the behavior
putting the mask in the laundry hamper
"not throw it on floor" is not a behavior
when Steve comes home, he tosses his dirty cloth mask on the floor.
What would be an appropriate alternate response to teach Steve?
punishment is a stimulus change contingent on some aspect of a response that ________ the future probability of the response
adding something bad
what does the word " positive" refer to in the case of positive punishment
is the removal (loss) of a specific reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of R, which produces a decrease in the frequency of R
as a principle of behavior, punishment is not about punishing the organism
examples of positive punishment procedures
A child blurts out in clay and the teacher scolds him. As a result, the child blurts out more often.
What type of consequence is this?
a child throws a pencil and the teacher lectures them. As a result, the child throws pencils less often.
What type of consequences is this?
physically intervening as soon as the person begins to emit the problem behavior.
prevents or blocks the completion of the R
required to perform a response that is not topographically related tp the problem behavior. Making someone do 30 laps
when target behavior occurs, the individual must practice the appropriate alternative behavior
when target behavior occurs, the individual must return the environment to its original state or better
temporary loss of access to reinforcement contingent on the occurrence of a response, which produces a decrease in the frequency of response
types of time out
non exclusion: planned ignoring, contingent oberservation
exclusion: individual removed from time out environment
dissmised from dinner table
seclusion telling someone to go to their room
in order for time out to be effective you need a
removal (LOSS) of a sepcfifc reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of R, which produces a decrease in the frequency of R
my child slams door I make her close door 10 times quickly
when the drill sergeant sees cadet roll his eyes he does 10 pushups
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