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Things PIC must have in his possession

1. Valid Pilot Certificate
2. Photo Identification
3. Current Medical Certificate

Preflight Items to Know

W - Weather
K - Known ATC delays
R - Runway lengths
A - Alternates
F - Fuel
T - Traffic delays

Required equipment for VFR day flight

A - Anti-collision Light
G - Gas gauge
O - Oil temp gauge
O - Oil pressure gauge
S - Seat belt

A - Airspeed indicator
C - Compass
A - Altimeter
T - Tachometer

M - Manifold pressure
T - ????

Additional equipment required for VFR night flight

Landing Light
Anticollision Lights
Position Lights
Source of Electrical Power

Term for the broadest classification of aircraft (e.g., airpline, glider)


Term for the classification of aircraft within a Category having similar operating characteristics (e.g., single-engine land)


Term for a specific make and basic model of aircraft (e.g., B737, C172)


Takeoff and landing requirement for a pilot to carry passengers

3 take offs and landings withing 90 days

Definition of night for landing currency purposes

beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise

Requirement to carry passengers at night

3 take offs and 3 landings to a full stop within the preceding 90 days

Type of medical required for a private pilot

3rd class, valid for 5 years if under 40, 2 years thereafter

Documents required to be on board aircraft prior to flight

A - Airworthiness certificate
R - Registration certificate
O - Operating handbook
W - Weight and balance data

How long does an airworthiness certificate remain valid?

As long as the aircraft receives the required maintenance and is properly registered in the US

How often is a maintenance inspection of the aircraft required?

Annually, unless flown for hire, then 100 hour

What is the difference in a 100 hour inspection and an annual inspection

Only who is allowed to perform the inspection. Only an A&P mechanic with an Inspection Authorization may perform an 100 hour inspection, but any A&P mechanic may perform an Annual.

How often is an ELT inspection required?

12 calendar months

How often is a transponder inspection required?

24 calendar months

Low pressure systems turn


High pressure systems turn


An elongated area of relatively low atmospheric pressure


An enlongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure


Standard temperature and pressure values for sea level

15 degrees and 29.92" Hg

Standard temerature change per 1,000'

2 degrees Celsius

Conditions necessary for structural icing

Visible moisture and freezing temperatures

3 main types of icing

Clear, rime and mixed

What should you do if icing is encountered

Change course and/or altitude; usually climb to a higher altitude if possible

Factors required for a thunderstorm to form

Source of lift (e.g., heating or fast moving front), unstable air, high moisture content

FSS briefing types

Standard, Abbreviated, Outlook, Inflight

En route Flight Advisory Services (EFAS) provides communications capabilities for aircraft flying at _____' to _____' MSL on a common frequency of ____ MHz.

5,000' to 17,500; on 122.0 MHz

En route Flight Advisory Services (EFAS) is also known as

Flight Watch

TAFs are valid for ____ SMs from the center of the airport complex


An Area Forecast (FA) is regional and provides what

1. Synopsis
2. Clouds and weather
3. 12 to 18 hour categorical outlook (e.g., VFR, IFR)

Duration of Convective SIGMETs

2 hours

Duratoin of non-convective SIGMETs

4 hours

Non-convective SIGMETs cover:

Dust storms or sand storms
Volcanic ash

AIRMETs are issues every

6 hours and updated as necessary

What are the 3 types of AIRMETs

Sierra - IFR conditions and/or mountain obscurations
Tango - moderate turbulence, sustained surface winds of 30 knots or more, or non-convective low level wind shear
Zulu - moderate icing

Winds Aloft and Temperature Aloft forecasts are updated

4 times a day

What valuable information can be determined from a Winds and Temperature Aloft forecast?

Most favorable altitude
Areas of possible icing
Temperature inversions
Turbulence (caused by abrupt changes in wind direction and speed at different altitudes)

This is a computer-prepared chart that covers the contiguous 48 states and adjacent areas and is transmitted every 3 hours

Surface Analysis Chart

This computer generated chart is derived from METAR reports and is an ideal place to begin in preparing for a weather briefing and flight planning

Weather Depiction Chart

What are the different operations categories for aircraft

Normal: +3.8g to -1.52g
Utility: +4.4g to -1.76g
Aerobatic: +6g to -3g

As load factor increases, stall speed


Each aircraft has a specific angle of attach at which it will stall. What is the range of the angles?

16 degrees to 20 degrees

What causes an aircraft to spin?

Exceeding the critical angle of attack while applying excessive or insufficient rudder, and to a lessor extent, aileron

Steps to recover from a spin

Close the throttle
Neutralize the aileron
Apply full opposite rudder
Briskly move the elevator control forward to approximately the neutral position

________ altitude is pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature

Density altitude

What factors affect air density?

Altitude, Temperature, Humidity

___________ altitude is the altitude indicated when the altimeter setting window is set to 29.92"

Pressure altitude

What instruments rely on the pitot/static system

Vertical Speed Indicator
Airspeed Indicator

The speed of the airplane in relation to the air mass in which it is flying

True Airspeed

What instruments contain gyroscopes

Attitude indicator
Turn coordinator
Heading indicator

Standard rate turns turn at _____ degrees per second

3 degrees per second

If you get lost and cannot figure out where you are, you should:


Required time to fly after consuming alcohol

8 hours

Maximum allowable alcohol level

.04% is unallowable

Order of right of way by aircraft category

BGAAR - "Big R"

Fuel requirement for VFR flight during the day

To destination + 30 minutes

Fuel requirement for VFR flight at night

To destination + 45 minutes

The East/West direction rule kicks into effect at what altitude and is based on (true/magnetic) course

3,000' AGL; magnetic course

Above what altitude is the crew absolutely required to be on supplemental oxygen?


Above what altitude are passengers absolutely required to be provided supplemental oxygen?


How long can crew fly between 12,500' and 14,000' without supplemental oxygen?

30 minutes

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