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acute hepatic failure

the sudden onset of liver failure

advanced cardiac life support

a set of interventions for urgent treatment of cardiac arrest; these interventions include medications, CPR, and defibrillation (delivery of electrical energy with defibrillator)


inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs in the lung)


describing a hollow sound resulting from percussion over a lung cavity




pertaining to asystole (absence of cardiac contraction)

atrial fibrillation

rapid irregular contractions of the atria (upper chambers of the heart)

atrial flutter

rapid contractions of the atria, more regular than fibrillation

axial sections

referring to cross sections obtained in a horizontal plane of a structure of the body, either by slicing or by imaging techniques


pertaining to the armpit

basal ganglia calcifications

deposits of calcium in basal ganglia (groups of nerve cells in the brain)


occurring on both sides


an abnormal air-filled or fluid-filled sac


visual examination of the bronchial passages of the lungs through a bronchoscope; a surgical procedure


cell samples that are obtained with a brush; this material is sent for examination of the cells for carcinoma or other disease processes, such as tuberculosis


a downward and backward projection of the lowest tracheal cartilage, forming a ridge between the openings of the right and left main bronchi

cavitary lesions

abnormal tissue areas containing cavities

cerebral edema

excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain substance that causes swelling

Code Blue

medical jargon meaning a patient's heartbeat and/or respirations have ceased, calling for immediate resuscitation procedures (CPR)


swelling of blood vessels due to engorgement with blood


referring to the vocal cords, 2 small bands of muscle within the larynx; the vocal cords vibrate to produce the voice

cortical atrophy

death of cells in the cerebral cortex (part of the brain)


trade name for warfarin sodium, an anticoagulant drug


abbreviation for computerized tomography

dialysis catheter

tubular instrument inserted into a major vein in order to filter the blood of impurities; dialysis is done in patients whose kidneys have less than normal function


the record obtained by using ultrasound to bounce back ultrasonic waves from the heart


the escape of fluid into a body part or tissue

ejection fraction

the proportion of the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole that is ejected during systole

EKG leads

conductors connected to an electrocardiograph (EKG) machine


surgical removal of a blood clot (embolus) from a blood vessel


within the bronchi or bronchial tubes


the lidlike cartilaginous structure that folds back over the larynx during swallowing and that prevents food from entering the lungs

ET tube

abbreviation for endotracheal tube, a tube inserted into the trachea (windpipe) to assist in ventilating the patient


cause or origin of a disease or disorder


the presence of a fungal growth in the blood stream


the vocal apparatus of the larynx consisting of several structures that form the supporting structures of the vocal cords


trade name for test to discover occult (hidden) blood in the stool


the removal of waste substances from the blood by means of a hemodialyzer (machine)


the expectoration or spitting up of blood or blood-stained sputum from the bronchial tubes as a result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage


enlargement of the liver and spleen

high-flow oxygen

oxygen administered via the highest setting on the oxygen machine (as opposed to low-flow oxygen, which is at a lower level)


pertaining to the depression, notch, or opening where the vessels and nerves enter an organ


abbreviation for history of present illness


an increase in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the cerebrum (brain)


abnormally decreased motor function or activity.


pertaining to deficient oxygenation of the tissues

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

hardening of the pulmonary (lung) structures of either unknown or spontaneous origin


a collection of inflammatory cells, foreign organisms, and cellular debris; when present on chest x-ray it indicates pneumonia


abbreviation for international normalized ratio—one of the clotting studies performed along with PT (prothrombin time) and PTT (paitial thromboplastin time)


within or into a vein

intravenous contrast

material inserted into a vein that allows differences in tissues to be delineated; used in radiology and cardiology procedures


the condition of having a tube inserted into a body canal or hollow organ


the insertion of a tube into a body canal or hollow organ

Klebsiella pneumoniae

one etiologic agent of acute bacterial pneumonia (microbiology genus and species name)


any abnormality involving an organ or tissue due to a disease process or injury

low-flow oxygen

oxygen administered via the lowest setting on the oxygen machine (as opposed to high-flow oxygen, which is at a higher setting)


a vague feeling of bodily discomfort

mechanical ventilation

ventilation (breathing) supported or provided by a machine


pertaining to the membranous partition separating the lungs or the 2 pleural sacs


abbreviation for motor vehicle accident

myocardial infarction

injury or necrosis of the heart muscle due to lack of blood supply to the area (heart attack)

nasoduodenal feeding tube

a tube that goes through the nose and down through the esophagus and stomach to sit at the first part of the intestine; the patient is fed nutritional supplementation through the tube


a medical specialist in diagnosing and treating kidney disease

open-lung biopsy

taking a small sample of apparently diseased tissue in surgery while the lungs are exposed (as opposed to a brush biopsy or a procedure with the lungs not exposed)


rapid or irregular heartbeats; primarily used in the plural form


pertaining to the essential elements of an organ, i.e., the functional elements of an organ


pertaining to the serous membrane that covers the lungs and lining of the thoracic cavity

prothrombin time

a test for coagulation factors of the blood; also dictated and written pro time


false cords; part of the anatomical structure of the larynx (voice box)


pertaining to the lungs

pulmonary vascular congestion

engorgement of pulmonary vessels occurring in cardiac disease, infections, and certain bodily injuries

rhonchi (sing, rhonchus)

sounds with a musical pitch (heard on auscultation) in bronchial tubes due to inflammation, spasm of muscle, or presence of mucus; used most commonly in the plural form

S1, S2, S3, S4 or SI, S2, S3, S4

first, second, third, and fourth heart sounds; may be heard while listening to the heart via stethoscope; SI and S2 are normal sounds. S3 and S4 are not normally heard


toxins in the blood, formerly called "blood poisoning"


material coughed up from the lower respiratory tract

subarachnoid hemorrhage

hemorrhage at or between the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain

supraventricular cardiac arrhythmias

irregularity in the rhythm of the heart starting from a focus above the ventricles


fast heart rate




formation or presence of a thrombus or blood clot


an infectious disease of the lung


lower chambers of the heart


trade name for a drug given intravenously either before or during surgery to produce sedation and amnesia


trade name for lidocaine, a topical anesthetic drug

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