A rule that governs how networks communicate. ______ define the standards for communication between network and devices.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
A suite of specialized protocols called subprotocols. Developed by the Department of Defence for its Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET).
Protocols that can span more than one LAN (or LAN segment) are ______, because they carry Network layer addressing information that can be interpreted by a router.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Operates in the Transport layer of the OSI model and provides reliable data delivery services. A connection-oriented subprotocol.
The address on a host, where an application makes itself available to incoming or outgoing data.
Allows the receiving node to determine whether the TCP segment became corrupted during transmission. This field is 16 bits long.
ACK (Acknowledgment number)
Confirms receipt of the data via a return message to the sender. This field is 32 bits long.
Identifies the data segment's position in the stream of data segments already sent. This field is 32 bits long.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
Belongs to the Transport layer of OSI model. [Connectionless]. Very useful in situations in which a great volume of data must be transferred quickly, such as live audio or video transmissions over the internet (e.g. Netflix, Youtube)
IP (Internet Protocol)
Belongs to the Network Layer. Provides information about how and where data should be delivered, including the data's source and destination addresses. A subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork - that is, to traverse more than one LAN segment.
Data is formed into packets, also known as ________ of the Network layer. These act as an envelope for data and contains information necessary for routers to transfer data between different LAN segments.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
A Network Layer Protocol that reports on the success or failure of data delivery.
A transmission method that allows one node to send data to a defined group of nodes (not necessarily the entire network segment, as is the case in a broadcast transmission).
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
A Network Layer Protocol that obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or node, and then creates a database that maps the MAC address to the host's IP (logical) address.
ARP Table (Also called ARP cache)
A database of records that maps MAC addresses to IP addresses. Contains two types of entries: dynamic and static.
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
A _______ server maintains a table of MAC addresses and their associated IP addresses (similar to ARP table). The client sends a broadcast message with its MAC address and receive an IP address in reply.
The first octet of an IP Address can determine the ________ _________. Three types are Class A, Class B, and Class C.
Network Class A
Beginning octet: 1-126
Number of packets: 126
Max Addressable hosts per network: 16,777,214
Default subnet mask: 255.0.0.0
Network Class B
Beginning octet: 128-191
Number of packets: >16,000
Max Addressable hosts per network: 65,534
Default subnet mask: 255.255.0.0
Network Class C
Beginning octet: 192-223
Number of packets: >2,000,000
Max Addressable hosts per network: 254
Default subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
An IP address reserved for communicating from a node to itself (used mostly for troubleshooting purposes). Always cited as 127.0.0.1
Dotted Decimal Notation
The most common way of expressing IP addresses, referring to the "shorthand" convention used to represent IP addresses and make them easy for people to read.
A special 32-bit number that, when combined with a device's IP address, informs the rest of the network about the segment or network to which the device is attached. that is, it identifies the device's subnet. (AKA net mask, or mask.)
Static IP Address
A manually assigned IP address. It does not change automatically. It changes only when you reconfigure the client's TCP/IP properties.
BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol)
Developed in the mid-1980's and is an Application layer protocol. It uses a central list of IP addresses and their associated devices' MAC addresses to assign IP addresses to clients dynamically.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network. Belongs to the Application layer of OSI. Developed to replace BOOTP. Using this creates less burden on Network Administrators.
APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)
Provides a computer with an IP address automatically. Specifically, it assigns the computer's network adapter an IP address from a predefined pool of addresses, 169.254.0.0 thru 169.254.255.255 that IANA has reserved for this purpose.
IPv6 (IP Next Generation)
This IP Addressing scheme offers a more efficient header, better security, and better prioritization provisions. Eight 16-bit fields, for a total of 128-bits.
Represents multiple interfaces (often on multiple devices). Useful for transmitting the same data to many different devices simultaneously, as in point-to-multipoint communications.
Represents any one interface from a group of interfaces (often on multiple nodes), any one of which (usually the first available) can accept a transmission.
A process's port number plus its host machine's IP address equals the process's _______. (ex. 10.43..3.87:23)
A group of computers that belongs to the same organization and has part of their IP addresses in common.
DNS (Domain Name System)
Refers to both the Application layer service that accomplishes this association and also to the organized system of computers and databases that makes this association possible.
Name Servers (Or DNS Servers)
Servers that contain databases of associated names and IP addresses and provide this information to resolvers on request.
DDNS (Dynamic DNS)
A service provider runs a program on the user's computer that notifies the service provider when the user's IP address changes.
Zeroconf (Zero Configuration)
A collection of protocols designed by the IETF to simplify the setup of nodes on a TCP/IP network. ______ assigns a node an IP address, resolves the node's host name and IP address without requiring a DNS server, and discovers services, such as print services, available to the node, also without requiring a DNS.
A terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
An Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP. ____ commands will work from your operating system's command prompt; they do not require special client software.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
Another TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers, but it is simpler (or more trivial) than FTP.
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
A simple Application layer protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computer on a network.
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite which facilitates the exchange of news-group messages between multiple servers and users.
Similar to email, in that it provides a means of conveying messages; it differs from email in that it distributes message to a wide group of users at once rather than from one user to another.
PING (Packet Internet Groper)
A utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network.