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Terms in this set (159)

1) Infant (Birth to 18 months)
• Avoid early weaning to prevent oral deprivation.
• Encourage parents to provide ample physical touch, deprivation of which may cause physical and mental underdevelopment.
• Self-manipulation of genitals is normal behavior; avoid denoting this as "bad."

2) Toddler (1-3 years old)
• Allow toddler to designate his or her readiness to toilet training.
• Punishment of genital fondling may lead to guilt and shame regarding sexual behavior later in life.
• Use proper terms for body parts.

3) Preschool (4-6 years old)
• Negative overreaction by parents to child's masturbating behavior can lead to a belief that the genitals and sex are bad and dirty.

4) School aged (6-10)
• Give child the information (intercourse, abstinence, STI prevention, pregnancy) in a clear, factual form. May look to peers for information that may be incorrect.

5) Preadolescents (10-13)
• Information is necessary regarding body changes to alleviate fears. Give info before pubertal changes begin.
• Parents need to find a satisfactory middle ground for rule setting. Rules that are either too rigid or too lenient can interfere with the development of self-confidence and an internal value system.
• Treat body image changes with a positive attitude to prevent poor self-image.

6) Adolescents (13-19)
• Parents share their beliefs and moral value systems with their children.
• Teenagers may share their feelings with parents. Not taking them seriously may lead to lack of trust and a communication gap.
• Teens need information regarding contraceptive measures and the potential for contracting sexually transmitted infections.

7) Young Adulthood (20-35)
• Encourage communication between partners regarding sexual needs and differences.
• Reinforce the use of abstinence and contraceptive measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies.
• Daily communication is necessary to vent stresses and work out difficulties.

8) Adulthood (35-55)
• Both men and women need positive reinforcement of what is good about themselves and their relationships.
• Teach parents that empty nest syndrome (feelings of loss caused by children leaving) is common. Accentuate positive aspects of this situation.
• Encourage couple to use this period as one of renewal for themselves.

9) Late Adulthood (55 and up)
• Sexual activity is not hindered by age.
• Teach couples that adaptation to bodily changes is possible with use of comfortable positions for intercourse and increased time for stimulation.
• Teach alternatives to coitus, such as caressing, hugging, and stroking, when coitus is impossible because of illness or disability.
Hot flashes:
Discuss hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with doctor.
o Dress in layers so you can take off clothes if you get hot.
o Keep the thermostat down
o Avoid hot drinks, such as coffee or tea.
o Put a cold, wet washcloth against your neck during hot flashes.
o Quit smoking, if you smoke. (Smoking makes hot flashes worse.).

Itching or burning of vulvar areas: See primary provider to rule out dermatologic abnormalities and, if appropriate, to obtain a prescription for a lubricating or hormonal cream.

Dyspareunia due to vaginal dryness: Use a water-soluble lubricant (e.g., K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, Replens), hormone cream, or contraceptive foam.

Decreased perineal muscle tone and bladder control: Practice Kegel exercises daily (contract the perineal muscles as though stopping urination; hold for 5-10 seconds and release; repeat frequently during the day).

Dry skin: Use mild emollient skin cream and lotions to prevent dry skin.

Weight control: Join a weight reduction support group such as Weight Watchers or a similar group if appropriate, or consult a registered dietitian for guidance about the tendency to gain weight, particularly around the hips, thighs, and abdomen.

Osteoporosis: Observe recommended calcium and vitamin D intake, including calcium supplements, if indicated, to slow the process of osteoporosis; avoid smoking, alcohol, and excessive caffeine, all of which increase bone loss. Perform weight-bearing exercises. Undergo bone density testing when appropriate.

Risk for urinary tract infection (UTI): Drink 6-8 glasses of water daily as a possible way to reduce the incidence of UTI related to atrophic changes of the urethra.

Vaginal bleeding: Report any bleeding after 1 year of no menses to the primary provider immediately, no matter how minimal.