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US History EOC Review
Terms in this set (177)
What challenges did farmers face and what strategies were used to face these challenges?
Challenges: high debt, overproduction of crops led to a drop in prices, raised shipping costs
Strategies to overcome: farmer's alliance, the grange, co-ops, populist party
True or false? Referring to the transcontinental railroad, Union Pacific began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central pacific went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah.
Define the Dawes Act
Federal act stating that the US could break up Native American Tribal Lands. Tu purpose was to make Native Americans land owners, giving 160 acres of land to the head of the household
The native Americans shown in this photo were subject to "Americanization." What is Americanization?
An attack on Native American beliefs and practices, including tribal identity
The Bessemer process created strong, lightweight
Define Populist Party
The people's party consisted of farmers and workers who wanted reform
The populist party was important in United States history because it
proposed ideas that later became law
The populists believed that most of the United States economic problems would be solved by establishing
_________ -given by William Jennings Bryan, he said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold," referring to the republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard
Cross of gold speech
Who was William Jennings Bryan?
Presidential candidate in 1896 who ran against William McKinley. He won. He was a republican who supported gold standard
Define the Chinese Exclusion Act
Made Chinese immigration illegal for Chinese immigrants for 10 years
Explain the gentlemen's agreement
Limited Japanese immigration into the United States. Japan agreed to not issue passports to emigrate to the United States
Control of the market
Many social Darwinists believed that the United States would grow strong by
Allowing its most vigorous members to rise to the top
Who was Samuel Gompers?
Founder of the American Federation of Labor. Under his leadership, the AFL grew to become the largest, most influential labor Union of the time
What was John d. Rockefeller's industry?
What was Cornelius Vanderbilt's industry?
What was Andrew carnegie's industry?
What was J pierpont Morgan's industry?
One of the main reasons John d Rockefeller was able to succeed in the oil industry was because he
combined vertical and horizontal integration
They exposed corrupt, dirty, Unequal problems
Socially conscious journalists who dramatized the need for reform were known as
In 1906, upton Sinclair wrote ________ to describe the unsafe and unhealthy conditions in the _____ industry
The jungle; meat
______ inspection act: required federal inspection of meat and required the agricultural department to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants
Pure food and ____ act: banned the sale of impure or falsely labeled food or drugs
Who was Ida Tarbell?
One of the leading muckrakers of her day. She wrote many notable magazine series and biographies. She is best known for exposing John d Rockefeller
Which of these was a characteristic of the progressive movement
work towards the removal of corrupt influences on local, state, and national government
Which group was founded in 1909 under the leadership of w.e.b Dubois in an effort to combat racial discrimination, racial violence, and segregation in the United States
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
How the other half lives would have been used for what purpose
To convince the public that people in poverty need help
What was the great strike of 1877?
Railroad strike involving 80,000 people, wages were cut forcing the strike to turn violent
What was the Pullman Strike?
Cut wages and didn't adjust cost of living
What was the Haymarket Riot?
Began in 1886 with a riot at the McCormick Harvester plant in Chicago where unionized workers were striking for shorter work days and then a few days later moved to Haymarket Square where a protest meeting was called to denounce the events of the previous day; resulted in several deaths
What was the Homestead Strike?
Strike against Carnegie steel
Define Interstate Commerce Act
First time the government got involved in the industry which regulated the railroad industry. It ended the "laissez faire" ecobomy
Explain the Sherman Antitrust Act.
It gave the government the authority to break up big business that prohibited competition
Define political machines
Party organizations led by small group or party boss. It used corrupt means to stay in power (voting fraud and favors for votes)
Define yellow journalism aka yellow press
It was used to sell newspapers and printed fake news and exaggerated news stories
Sensational headlines and pictures were characteristic of the
What is the name of the war that is referred to as "splendid little war"
Spanish American war
How did the building of the Panama Canal support United States efforts to become a world power?
It opened new trade opportunities for the United States and it created a short cut between Atlantic and pacific
What is the great white fleet? How did this fleet help America become a world power?
It was the American navy sent by Roosevelt to show off
Define the USS Maine. Why was it important?
The ship exploded near Cubs and we blamed Spain
What were the causes of the Spanish American war?
USS Maine exploded
Delome letter (Spanish made fun of McKinley)
What was Theodore Roosevelt's diplomacy?
Big stick diplomacy
What was Big Stick Diplomacy?
It used threats of military to accomplish tasks
What was William taft's diplomacy?
What was Dollar Diplomacy?
American business would invest in Latin American and in the railroad
What was Woodrow Wilson's diplomacy?
What was Moral Diplomacy?
Promoted human rights and believed war was not an option
What was the Rosevelt Corollary?
It added to the Monroe doctrine. The us will help Latin America. It made US police power over Latin America
What were the four main causes of WWI?
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
List the allied powers
US, Great Britain, Russia, and Italy
List the central powers
Germany, Ottoman Empire, and Austria- Hungary
What new technology was used in world war 1 and what impact did it have in warfare? What type of weapons and tactics were used during this war?
New technology made the war more deadly. They used French warfare, airplanes, chemical weapons, and mustard gas
Many Americans denounced Germany for its sinking of the
How were African Americans affected during the war? What was the great migration?
There were segregated units including the Harlem hellfighters
It was where African Americans moved to the north or west for jobs, and to escape Jim Crow south
Widespread support for the American war effort during World War I was promoted by the
Committee on Public Information
When did the United States enter the WW1?
April 6, 1917. After one of our merchant ships was sunk, after Sussex pledge, and after the interception of the Zimmerman note
The policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war
This is where two or more nations form an agreement for a common objective
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German u boat off the coast of Ireland in may 1915 killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. The german's defended their action on the grounds that the ship carried ammunitions for the allies
A message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I
A law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register for military service
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the World War I peace treaty, including freedom of the seas in the league of Nations
A devotion to the interest and culture of once nation. The believe that people should be loyal mainly to their nation - that is to the people with whom they share a culture and history
The 1919 treaty that ended World War I. It contained article 231, the war guilt cause that blamed the entire war on Germany
Treaty of Versailles
Devised by President Wilson, it comprised of delegates from many countries, the US did not join. It was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court
League of nations
United States Supreme Court decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed of first amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. During war time, utterances tolerable and peacetime can be punished
Schenck v US
The policy of extending a nations authority over other countries by economic, political, or military means
What was the red summer and how did the public react to it?
It was radical violence throughout the country that started in Chicago. After World War I, African-Americans fervently hoped for equality. Black soldiers believe their participation in the fight to make the world safe for democracy finally are in them rights they had been promised since the close of the Civil War. Instead, a wave of riots and lynchings
What was the great migration?
Movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural southern United States to the urban north east, Midwest, and west that occurred between 1916 and 1970
What group or organization grew in membership in the 1920s because of his opposition to African-Americans, immigrants, Catholics, and jews?
What is the tea pot dome scandal? Who was president at that time?
President Harding secretary of the interior sold oil land in Wyoming that belong to the Navy to private companies and pocketed some of the money for himself
Compare and contrast Harding and Coolidge his presidency's
Both were in favor of laissez-faire economics, both pro business, both isolationist.
The fear that Communists were working to destroy the American way of life during the decade of the 1920s is called the
The red scare
Rebellious women against traditional norms. They wore a shorter skirts, cut their hair, smoke, and drank in public
Provided for a national income tax. Ratified in 1913
Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believe they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro union activities
Sacco and Vanzetti
Repeal the 18th amendment in and it prohibition. Ratified in 1933
Established prohibition: made the manufacture, cell, transport, and\or possession of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States
The series of rates in the early 1920s initiated by US attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer, against suspected radicals and communist
Gave women the right to vote
A celebration of African-American artistic creativity during the 1920s centered in the Harlem community of New York City
Established a direct election of United States senators by popular vote rather than by the choice of state legislatures
Biology teacher who went against the butler act, Was arrested, and found guilty of teaching evolution
John T scopes
Controlled Chicago's black market of alcohol in the 1920s
President who supported big business and laissez-faire economics in the 1920s in appointed his unqualified friends the government positions
President who also support a big business and laissez-faire economics in the 1920s. What is best known for his soft-spoken nature
President at the start of the great depression. Created the Reconstruction finance Corporation but a few other programs this is people. Do not believe in directly relief
Originally from Jamaica, started the "back to Africa" movement, promoted separation and black pride
Female writer from the Harlem Renaissance. African-American women that were often her main characters
Zora Neale Hurston
Harlem Renaissance poet who wrote about racial pride and discrimination. Originally from Jamaica
Harlem Renaissance poet who wrote dreams different and I too. One of the most famous of all the Harlem writers
Only president to serve more than two terms in office, created the new deal programs, criticized for a deficit spending on his court packing plan
Franklin D Roosevelt
Outspoken first lady who was a strong advocate of civil rights, helping the poor, and standing up for what she believed in
List the causes of the Great Depression
Stock market crash, high tariffs, uneven distribution of wealth, farming crisis, and buying on credit
The bonus army was a group of world war one veterans who were violently disbanded after they came to Washington DC to
Seek early payment of the money promise to them by Congress
Define the new deal. Who was president?
It was FDR's program to fix the great depression it's goal was to provide relief, recovery, and reform
What was the hundred days?
First 100 days of office post Congress to pass 15 pieces of legislation
What were fire side chats?
Radio addresses to American people
Define bank holiday. Why was this necessary?
Eight day bank holiday, Close all the banks to start bank runs and try to help regain confidence in banks
Which event in history is seen by many people at the beginning of the great depression in the United States?
The stock market crash of 1929
Which of these is the best description of Hooverville 's?
Shantytown sandwich homeless families lived during the great depression
From the mid-1930s to 1940 over 2.5 million people had moved out of the great plains stay in the center of the United States. What best accounts for this movement?
The dust bowl
How did the American economy of the 1920s differ from the economy of the 1930s?
The 1920s saw increase consumer borrowing and speculation, while the 1930s saw a Rison unemployment and business failures
Whoever is belief that the federal government should not be responsible for the people is called
Paid farmers to play under crops and kill animals
Gave men jobs planning trees and building roads in an effort to prevent another dustbowl
Hired meant to those factories and dams on Rivers for a hydroelectric power
Spent money on infrastructure like bridges, causeways, hospitals, and airports
Primarily held artists and musicians but also built schools and bridges
Insured money in banks up to $100,000
What were the three goals of the new deal?
Relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels, and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression
Explain the impact of the new deal programs and agencies
Many programs were created, but didn't fix the depression. There was criticism on both sides. Republican Senate involve the government too much, democratic said it didn't do enough. Spending on World War II ended the depression
What was America stands on the war in Europe in the 1930s?
The US wanted to stay out of the war and interest in other countries. Congress passed neutrality acts to keep us out of conflict.
What were the neutrality acts
Laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939 to limit the US involvement in future wars
What is cash and carry?
Items are paid for in full and they had to come pick them up
What was the lend lease act?
Materials given to the allies to be repaid after the war
Who was the Soviet unions leader in World War II and what type of government was it
Stalin; communism/ dictatorship
Who was it Italy's leader in world war two and what was the type of government did they have?
Who was Germany's leader during WW2 and what type of government did they have?
Hitler; Nazi fascism/dictatorship
Who is Japan's leader during World War II and what type of government that they have?
Tojo; Hirohito emperor/constitutional monarchy
Explain the Atlantic charter
Agreement between Great Britain in the US which defined allied goals
Women were encouraged to work in the fence industries while men were away at war. ______ The riveter became an icon for a female munitions workers
Explain what happened at Pearl Harbor
Japan attacked the base in Hawaii, a day that lives in infamy
What does the term appeasement mean? If you use this at the start of World War II?
To give into the demands of Hitler to avoid conflict. Allied leaders use this strategy and 1937 to 1939. Germany expanded three times before they declared war
What was the holocaust and how did America respond?
It was a mass genocide. The US liberated many camps
What happened to the Japanese Americans during World War II in the United States?
As a result of executive order 9066, there were Japanese internment camps even though many were American citizens. 120,000 Japanese Americans were in prison from 1942 to 1945
Explain the outcomes and significance of Korematsu versus United States
It was a supreme court case about civil rights. Eventually, the US admitted it was wrong. Korematsu took internment to Supreme Court arguing and tournament was a violation of the 14th amendment. The court ruled against Korematsu, and he was sent to a camp
What is rationing? What was the purpose of rationing during World War II?
Saving things needed for war; restricting certain goods made scarce by war. Only were allowed a set amount to purchase- food, canned goods, meat, coffee, gasoline
What was the G.I. Bill? What were the effects of this bill?
This gave money to veterans to use for housing or for college tuition. Veterans receive tuition plus a monthly stipend. This help the economy of 1950s. We didn't want to fall back into hardships of depression
What is the United Nations? When was it founded and why?
It was founded in October 1945. it was an alliance of countries his goals were to use diplomacy to prevent global wars, and promote world peace.
What is the Manhattan project? Explain Tennessee's role.
The goal was to create an atomic bomb. There was a site in Oak Ridge Tennessee. It was the top secret project started in 1939. In July 1945, the US successfully tested first atomic bomb
Who are the Tuskeegee airmen? What did they do?
African-American pilots during World War II; flew more than 15,000 flights in Europe and north Africa. Helped eventually integrate the US Armed Forces
The cold war
Competition between the Soviet union and the US. Differing ideologies free market versus communism space race, Vietnam, Korea
The iron curtain
A divide between East and West in Europe. Eastern Europe was communist in Western Europe was democratic and capitalism
What was the containment policy
To stop the spread of communism. This philosophy just about everything we did during the Cold War
What was the Truman Doctrine?
Speech to Congress in 1947 gave US money and military aid to countries threatened internally or externally by communism
What was the domino theory?
Theory that if one country false communism, they all will fall. Focus was in Southeast Asia
What was the Berlin blockade?
Stalin attempted to block off access to Berlin and hope they would surrender and unite under Soviet control
What was the Berlin airlift?
The US and Great Britain AirDrop supplies into the city and the Soviets backed down
What was the Marshall plan?
This gave economic aid to western Europe to help rebuild after World War II. Money mainly went to our allies
Explain NATO. What was the Warsaw Pact?
It was also known as the north Atlantic Treaty organization. There were 12 western European countries and US and Canada
The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet's response to NATO
Describe and explain McCarthyism
Joseph McCarthy was a senator who use fear to recklessly accuse US government of being communist; many who were accuser blacklisted or lost their jobs
What does HUAC stand for? What does this agency do
House un-American activities committee. Investigated subversive activity Of suspected communists
Describe the Cuban missile crisis
October 1962, Soviets had missiles in Cuba and we started a quarantine of ships so russia couldn't bring more. It was a standoff between the US and USSR, they back down in the US for the missiles from Turkey. That was the closest we ever came to nuclear war
How are the Vietnam war in Korean war similar? How do they differ?
Both were fought over containment. Korea is still divided by Vietnam became communist in 1975
The Vietnam war mark the first time when television cameras in reporters could truly capture the war effort. How did this new medium affect public opinion about the war at home?
Support fell as news broadcast showed graphic shots of fighting and wounded soldiers
A national television broadcast of these events led to
Increased public support for civil rights legislation
Protest over the arrest of Rosa Parks
Montgomery bus boycott
Refused to relinquish a bus seat to a white passenger
Ordered the use of police dogs and fire hoses against African Americans marchers
Let the riots breaking out in cities all over the US in 1968
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Homesite for African Americans who were evicted from their homes after attempting to vote
Tent city of Fayette County
Students learned strategies to end racism nonviolently
Group of students face abuse and harassment when they attempted to enter a high school in Tennessee
What was the executive order of 8802?
It was signed by FDR and outlawed discrimination practices in employment
What was the executive order of 9981?
It was signed by Truman an integrated the armed force
What was the civil rights act of 1964?
It made segregation in public places illegal. And propose under JFK but past under FDR
What was the civil rights act of 1968?
Also known as the fair housing act, it stated that you cannot discriminate in housing
What was the 24th amendment?
This banned poll taxes and federal elections
What was the voting rights act of 1965?
It ended voting restrictions such as literacy tests and poll taxes in all elections
What was the Watergate scandal? What was the outcome?
Nixon was running for reelection in 1972, and five of his reelection committee members spied on the DIUC in the Watergate Hotel. Journalist broke the story, and it was discovered that Nixon was recording the conversations in the White House, but refuse to give over the tapes. The outcome was that Nixon Resigned in America lost trust in the government
What does salt stand for and it's purpose
It stands for strategic limitation treaty in 1972 as a part of the detente strategy during the Cold War. US and USSR agree to limit the number of nuclear arms stockpiled
What event took place on 911?
Attack on the World trade Center. Masterminded by osama bin Laden. As a result, bush launch the war on terror. The patriot act was passed and the department of homeland security
What is the north American free trade agreement?
Encouraged free trade without restriction between US, Canada, and Mexico
Why is the election of 2000 significant?
It was too close, there were unclear results in Florida and recount was demanded. The Supreme Court decided it was over and Bush won in a 5 to 4 vote and the Supreme Court. Closest in history, first decided by Supreme Court.
A defendant accused of a felony has the right to an attorney, which the government must provide if the defendant cannot afford one
Gideon versus Wainwright
Supreme court ruled that African-Americans were not and could never be citizens thus had no right to file suit
Dred Scott versus Sandford
Police must inform criminal suspects of their legal rights at the time of a rest and may not interrogate suspects who in vote their rights
Miranda versus Arizona
States could regulate abortions only in certain circumstances but otherwise a woman's right to an abortion was protected by her right to privacy
Roe versus Wade
Overrule Plessy versus Ferguson declaring that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools to be desegregated
Brown versus Board of Education
Ruled that underwater time conditions, the words and leaflets are not protected by freedom of speech
Schenck versus United States
Separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, that's establishing the separate but equal doctrine
Plessy versus Ferguson
Federal courts could settle issues of apportionment
Baker versus carr
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race
Regents of the university versus bakke
Court upheld Korematsu conviction and argued that military necessity made internment constitutional
Komatsu versus United States
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