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Terms in this set (85)
A highly personal and unreasoned distortion of judgment
An act or omission forbidden by law and punishable by fine, imprisonment or death.
Not based on actual personal knowledge or observation of the facts, but from other facts from which deductions are drawn, showing indirectly the facts sought.
Person requesting an investigation or that action is taken ( often victim).
the body or substance of the crime, proof establishing that a crime occurred, necessary elements that constitute a crime.
Elements of a crime
Conditions that must occur for an act to be called a specific kind of crime.
Anything to be offered in court to prove the truth or falsity of a fact in issue.
Something known to be true.
One who receives and disposes of stolen property on a regular basis.
Field Identification (show ups)
On the scene identification of an suspect by the victim of or witness to a crime, conducted with in minutes of the crime.
An opinion or leaning adverse to anything with out just grounds or before obtaining sufficient knowledge.
Modus Operandi (MO)
A criminal's characteristic method of operation.
Proof beyond a reasonable doubt
Level of proof required to obtain a conviction in a criminal trial.
Evidence that warrants a person of reasonable caution in the belief that a crime has been committed or being committed.
A feeling of ease and harmony in a contact or relationship between people.
The level of certainty a juror must have to find a defendant guilty of a crime.
A legal narrative description of events related to a crime.
A person considered to be directly or indirectly connected with a crime, either by overt act or by planning and or directing it.
A person who saw a crime or some part of it being committed or who has relevant information.
Criminal Investigation Tools
2. Instrumentation or Forensic Science
4. Laws of arrest, search and seizure
The knowledge a criminal investigator gathers from other persons (victims, witnesses, suspects) and other legitimate sources (records & reports)
Instrumentation or forensic science
The techniques that help in the solution of the crime (fingerprints, serology,ballistics and DNA).
The questioning of victims, witnesses, or suspects in a criminal investigation.
Laws of arrest, search and seizure
1. Provides guidance on what investigative techniques are acceptable.
2. Mastery and knowledge of criminal procedures and rules of evidence enable the investigator to gather evidence against a suspect that can withstand court.
Ultimate goal of any criminal investigation
Is to determine, to the extent possible, the truth about how a crime occurred.
Goals of a criminal investigator
1. Determine if a crime has been
2. Legally obtain information & evidence
to ID the person(s) responsible for the
3. Legally arrest the suspect(s)
4. Recover stolen property
5. Present the best case possible to the
Legal significance of evidence
Rests in its influence on the judge or juror
profit motive, operates so as to minimize chances of observation, lack of eyewitness,requires planning, direction and operating skills, often work in conjunction with criminal receiver (fences), may be traced when stolen property recovered,
Professional Heavy Criminal
An individual who commits the crime(s) which may result in heavy or lengthy sentence depending on the criminal history of the accused (i.e. burglary, white collar, larceny, vehicle theft ect.)
Semi-professsional (unskilled) thief
profit motive but may be more interested in getting money for drugs, targets are by opportunity, less involved in planning or preparation, MORE LIKELY to result in VIOLENCE, more prone to violence to effect escape, less rational than "professional" counterpart
same motivation as professional thief, ability to gain entry to premises by stealth or defeating locks & alarms, ability to plan, direct, and execute an operation, has business sense, ability to distinguish between valuable and worthless items, connections to dispose of fruits of the crime
indicates a tendency to use violence on a stranger, bolder type personality, sacrifices secrecy through confrontation with victim, AMBUSH- least planned, Planned Operation-carefully structured, group examines all aspects of the situation and plans for foreseeable contingencies
Gray Market Vehicle
Are foreign made vehicles not produced for sale in the United States but have been imported by individuals or companies into the U.S.
The altering of a vehicle's identity by placing the serial number of a total loss car onto a stolen car.
Analysis of Vehicle
broken glass,entry marks,license plate match the VIN,1 plate displayed in 2 plate state,current registration,MVI sticker from one state and license plates from another,clean vehicle dirty license plates or vice versa,license plates that can quickly be changed ,different states on front and back
Criminal Homicides (9 Categories)
1. Anger Killing
2. Revenge or jealousy killing
3. Triangle Killing
4. Killing for profit
5. Random Killing
6. Drive -by shooting
8. Sex and Sadism
9. Felony murder
1. an extension of the crime of assault
2. dispute-anger-attack-death ( cycle of violence)
Revenge or jealousy killing
history of involvement between perpetrator and victim
husband or wife kills spouse who has involved himself/herself with another lover
Killing for profit
the elimination of another because it would result in profit for the murderer
seemingly motive-less, most difficult to solve
As a result of gang activity
actor kills another, then self, not uncommon among elderly and mentally distraught
Sex and Sadism
marked by unusual violence, may follow rape, act of sexual perversion or sadistic acts
death results from injuries received during the commission of some other felony
Fixated child molester
has little or no activity with people his own age, and is usually single and considered immature; uncomfortable around adults
Procedural Safeguards to field ID (show-ups)
Doc. wit descrip,trans wit to loc of suspect, Conf wit understands ID process,avoid saying suggestive things to witness, Mult wit: separate/prevent discussing details,cautions wit person may/may not be perpetrator,a statement of certainty for ID/non-ID,doc time/location, consider comments to media
Post mortem lividity
1. dark blue discoloration observable on parts of body nearest the ground
2. Appears 2 hours after death
1. Stiffening starts at he neck and lower jaw then spreads downward
2. ONSET generally starts 5 to 6 hours after death
3. UPPER parts of body affected within 12 hours and WHOLE body within 18 hours
4. DISAPPEARS within 36 hours; starts at head and neck and extends to the lower parts of the body
1. the decomposition of body tissues
2. onset and rate are influenced by temperature
3. Principal changes: bloating, darkening of the skin in suspended parts of body, green discoloration of abdominal area, and formation of blisters filled with fluid or gas
1. when there is severe injury to the central nervous system or when there was great tension at the time of death.
2. Strong presumptive evidence of suicide if hand is clutching weapon
Atomic Absorption test
determines quantitative and proportional concentrations of specific elements in materials through the analysis of a vaporized sample
Used for the detection of fingerprints and examination of questioned documents
1. Useful in examining blood stains, hair roots, semen, vaginal fluid.
2. Useful in the association or elimination of suspects through chromosome coding
a chemical method of detecting latent blood
Chain of custody
Is the process which records transactions of evidence from person to person since its acquisition by a law enforcement agency
Reasons for Search
2. Eliminate suicide risk and prevent death in custody
3. Attorney General's procedures for reporting suicide screening for prisoners being booked to check emotional stability
4. Security of Facility
5. Safeguard of prisoners personal property
Methods of court procedure
1. Direct Examination: Prosecutor elicits facts from officer, directs testimony to the jury or judge, objects to defense questions
2. Cross Examination: Defense starts questioning of witness 3. Redirect Examination: Prosecutor clarify statements 4. Recross Examination: Def questions witness further
Invocation of Rule ( Under the Rule)
An officer or witness that leaves courtroom, stays close to courtroom, and after testifying may not discuss the case with other witnesses or jurors
Is defined as an individual who has fantasies, urges or behaviors that involve illegal sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children (generally 13 yrs or younger)
wants to assert masculinity or punish & degrade, use blitz approach, assault is relatively short, victim selected for availability, usually strangers, offender frequently impotent & may use devices, assaults spontaneous & sporadic.
wants to prove masculinity,uses con or suspense approach, uses force/threat to overcome resistance, may ask victim for praise/reassurance, assault attempt to control/sexually possess victim, extended in duration,victim selected for specific characteristics/availability,often apologizes after assault
Aggression and violence are eroticized, act symbolic of destruction/elimination, victim symbolic of person offender wants to destroy, assault calculated/pre-planned/ritualistic/involves torture/extended duration with repeated assaults, injuries to sexual areas, victim may be murdered/mutilated
Takes advantage of situation during commission of a crime, typically not a repeat offender, has been drinking or doing drugs, uses minimal force or threat
The perpetrator's purpose is to exercise power over victim, is not a crime(s) of sexual desire, force or threat of the use of force
over half the cases involve self-neglect, the failure of a person to provide for themselves, difficult to investigate because of the diminished capacity of victim
Methods of Crime Scene Search
1. Point to point search
2. Strip search (thorough)
3. Quadrant (or Sector) Search
4. Circular (Spiral or Concentric) Search
5. Area Search
6. Aerial Search
Point to point Search
Used as a preliminary step in evaluating the scene, Disadvantages: it is often disorganized, trace of evidence may be overlooked, after search is complete others my feel they're free to invade the scene
This method is among the most effective for outside searches, stakes and lines are useful in setting up lanes, natural landmarks may be used as borders
Quadrant (Sector) Search
This type is effective for indoor and outdoor scenes that have regular patterns or defined borders, also permits different types of searches in the different sectors
Circular (Spiral/Concentric) Search
This type is useful when an item is missing from the center and the search must be conducted rapidly, may begin inside or outside as circumstances dictate
Uses any technique which will be effective in examining specific and small areas with defined boarders (i.e. landscape, bushes, paths and sidewalks)
May employ infrared film for discovery of such things as grave sites
Types of Crime scene sketches
1. Perspective ( three dimensional)
Perspective Sketch (3D)
Objects are drawn in such a way as to show them as they appear to the eye with reference to relative distance or depth, useful when no camera is available or photograph would not be illustrative
Most frequently used, employed when it's desirable to portray three dimensions to allow better correlation of the evidential facts, CROSS-PROJECTION is a subcategory
Is a drawing where the walls and ceiling of a room are seen as folded out into the same plane, used to show interrelationships between objects such as bullet holes and blood stains
Used when it is desirable to represent an orderly combination of events
Used to describe a small area which is not illustrated due to the scale chosen for the rough or finished drawing
Characteristics of a criminal investigator
4. Unbiased and Unprejudiced
5. Develops rapport through interpersonal communication skills
Takes nothing for granted, gathers information and verifies its credibility
Desire to investigate and learn the facts and truth about people, places or objects
The ability to take accurate notice of, keep in view and give attention to, that which is present in their 5 senses
Unbiased and Unprejudiced
Allowing either attitude to be involved in a case will result in a sloppy investigation, incorrect conclusions and unfairness to victims and suspects
Accomplished by being patient, courteous, and sympathetic with person contracted during an investigation
Sets with similar terms
TCOLE Criminal Investigations
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