Pulmonary System

Pulmonary System fxns
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 34
Terms in this set (34)
Deep inhalation...active process diaphragm and ext. int scalenes rib pairs 1-2, sternocleomastoid: elevates sternum , pec minor: elevates ribs 3-5Forced expirationrectus abdominus external and internal oblique transversus abdominus internal intercostalspressure within the pleural cavity keeps lungs inflated between breathsintrapleural pressure remains negative more negative when inhalepressure within the alveoli of the lungsintrapulmonary pressure negative compared to atmosphere when inhaleConducting pathway structures (7)nose pharynx larynx trachea primary bronchi bronchioles terminal bronchiolesFxn of the conducting pathwaymove air filter warm and humidify air no gas exchangeRespiratory pathway structures (3)respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts alveolar sacsWhere are central chemoreceptors located and what do they do?medulla oblongata respond to pH of CSF which reflects CO2 amount in bloodWhere are peripheral chemoreceptors located and what do they do?Carotid and aortic bodies respond to O2 and CO2 in bloodWhere are stretch receptors located and what do they do?smooth bronchi bronchioles visceral pleura respond to inflation of lungsWhere are irritant receptors located and what do they do?epithelial cells of airway respond to dust, smoke, dirt, pollen, cold air, excess mucusWhere is surfactant produced and what is it's purpose?type 2 alveoli cells mixes with alveolar fluid to decrease surface tension and keep sacs inflatedhow much effort is required to stretch the lungs and chest wallCompliancecompliance is dependent on...elasticity and surface tensionList the factors that affect breathingcentral chemoreceptors peripheral chemoreceptors irritant receptors surface tension surfactant compliance airway resistancepressure exerted by a gas when mixed with other gasespartial pressureEach gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were presentdalton's lawquantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to partial pressure of gas and its solubilityhenry's lawwhy are the alveoli so efficient at gas exchange?large surface area and small diffusion distanceexplain how O2 and CO2 are transported in systemic gas exchangeo2 exits via arteriole side CO2 enters cap via venule sidewhen cells are at rest how much O2 do they need?25%blood transport of O21.5% dissolved in plasma 98.5% on hgbpartial pressure of Oxygen and hemoglobin saturationpartial pressure O2 greater in pulmonary capillaries so O2 bings to hgb Partial pressure O2 less in tissue capillaries so it diffuses into tissue instead of hgb bindingFactors affecting gas exchange1) pressure gradient of the gases 2) solubility of the gases > CO2 is 20X as soluble as O2 > O2 is 2X as soluble as N2 3) membrane thickness 4) membrane surface area