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CH.3 Anatomy and Physiology

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squamous
having a flat, scaly shape; pertains espicially to a class of epithelial cells
cuboidal
a cellular shape that is roughly like a cube or in which the height and width are about equal; typically looks squarish in tissue sections
columnar
a cellular shape that is roughly significantly taller than it is wide
polygonal
have irregulary angular shapes with four, five or more sides
stellate
have nerve cells with multiple extensions that give them a star like shape
spheroid
round to oval
discoid
disc shaped
fusiform
smooth cells thick in the middle and tapered towards the end
fibrous
threadlike shape
phosolipid bilayer
The two layers of phospholipids arranged in such a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting inwards while their polar head groups are projecting on the outside surfaces
layers of phosolipid bilayer
two layers of phospholipids are arranged in a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting to the interior whereas their hydrophilic heads are projecting the exterior. This organization of phospholipids in the cell membranes makes the latter selectively permeable to ions and molecules
hydrophobic
tails don't like water
hydrophillic
attracted to water
transmembrane protein
go through the entire phospholipid bilayer they help transport proteins into the cell
receptor proteins
secondary and first messenger systems
receptor
a cell or organ specialized to detect a stimilus such as a taste cell or the eye
first messenger system
a hormone that binds to a receptor on the surface cell and, in so doing, communicates with intracellular metabolic processes
secondary messenger system
an intermediary molecule that is generated as a consequence of hormone-receptor interaction
enzyme
proteins that function as biological catalyst; they permit biochemical reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperatures
ion channel
A single protein or protein complex that traverses the lipid bilayer of cell membrane and form a channel to facilitate the movement of ions through the membrane according to their electrochemical gradient
gated channel
only opens for allowed ions to pass
glycoproteins
distinguish your own cells vs foreign cells
cell adhesion
where one cell binds to another so that ions/nutrient can pass from one cell to another
carrier protein
only works if the two ion channels are not working properly
microvilli
projections on surface of cell membrane to increase surface area for absorption
cilia
create fluid; flow along the membranes surface- used for movement
flagellum
propels sperms towards the egg
pili
Short, filamentous projections on a bacterial cell, used for adhering to other bacterial cell
selective permiability
only certain molecules can press through the cell membrane while others can not because they are too big
passive procession
no energy required, the net movement of particuls from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration as a result of their constant, spontaneus motion
osmosis
the net flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other
hypotonic
has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the intracellular fluid; cells in a hypotonic solutions absorb water
isotonic
cause no change in cell volume or shape
hypertonic
higher concentration if nonpermeating solutes; causes cells to lose water
carrier mediated transport
uses transport protein
facilitated protein
the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient
active transport
the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient using energy provided by ATP
sodium potassium pump
transports 3 molecules of sodium out of cells then pumps 2 molecules of potassium into the cell
vesicular transport
move large particles, droplets of fluid, or numerous molecules at once through the membrain, contained in the bubblelike vesicle of the membrane
vesicles
transport sacs
exocytosis
vesicular process that release material from a cell
endocytosis
vesicular process that bring material into a cell
phagocytosis
process of engulfing particles such as bacteria, dust etc.
pinocytosis
the process of taking i droplets of ecf containing molecules of some use to the cell