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a cellular shape that is roughly like a cube or in which the height and width are about equal; typically looks squarish in tissue sections
The two layers of phospholipids arranged in such a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting inwards while their polar head groups are projecting on the outside surfaces
layers of phosolipid bilayer
two layers of phospholipids are arranged in a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting to the interior whereas their hydrophilic heads are projecting the exterior. This organization of phospholipids in the cell membranes makes the latter selectively permeable to ions and molecules
go through the entire phospholipid bilayer they help transport proteins into the cell
first messenger system
a hormone that binds to a receptor on the surface cell and, in so doing, communicates with intracellular metabolic processes
secondary messenger system
an intermediary molecule that is generated as a consequence of hormone-receptor interaction
proteins that function as biological catalyst; they permit biochemical reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperatures
A single protein or protein complex that traverses the lipid bilayer of cell membrane and form a channel to facilitate the movement of ions through the membrane according to their electrochemical gradient
where one cell binds to another so that ions/nutrient can pass from one cell to another
only certain molecules can press through the cell membrane while others can not because they are too big
no energy required, the net movement of particuls from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration as a result of their constant, spontaneus motion
has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the intracellular fluid; cells in a hypotonic solutions absorb water
the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient
the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient using energy provided by ATP
sodium potassium pump
transports 3 molecules of sodium out of cells then pumps 2 molecules of potassium into the cell
move large particles, droplets of fluid, or numerous molecules at once through the membrain, contained in the bubblelike vesicle of the membrane
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