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having a flat, scaly shape; pertains espicially to a class of epithelial cells


a cellular shape that is roughly like a cube or in which the height and width are about equal; typically looks squarish in tissue sections


a cellular shape that is roughly significantly taller than it is wide


have irregulary angular shapes with four, five or more sides


have nerve cells with multiple extensions that give them a star like shape


round to oval


disc shaped


smooth cells thick in the middle and tapered towards the end


threadlike shape

phosolipid bilayer

The two layers of phospholipids arranged in such a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting inwards while their polar head groups are projecting on the outside surfaces

layers of phosolipid bilayer

two layers of phospholipids are arranged in a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting to the interior whereas their hydrophilic heads are projecting the exterior. This organization of phospholipids in the cell membranes makes the latter selectively permeable to ions and molecules


tails don't like water


attracted to water

transmembrane protein

go through the entire phospholipid bilayer they help transport proteins into the cell

receptor proteins

secondary and first messenger systems


a cell or organ specialized to detect a stimilus such as a taste cell or the eye

first messenger system

a hormone that binds to a receptor on the surface cell and, in so doing, communicates with intracellular metabolic processes

secondary messenger system

an intermediary molecule that is generated as a consequence of hormone-receptor interaction


proteins that function as biological catalyst; they permit biochemical reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperatures

ion channel

A single protein or protein complex that traverses the lipid bilayer of cell membrane and form a channel to facilitate the movement of ions through the membrane according to their electrochemical gradient

gated channel

only opens for allowed ions to pass


distinguish your own cells vs foreign cells

cell adhesion

where one cell binds to another so that ions/nutrient can pass from one cell to another

carrier protein

only works if the two ion channels are not working properly


projections on surface of cell membrane to increase surface area for absorption


create fluid; flow along the membranes surface- used for movement


propels sperms towards the egg


Short, filamentous projections on a bacterial cell, used for adhering to other bacterial cell

selective permiability

only certain molecules can press through the cell membrane while others can not because they are too big

passive procession

no energy required, the net movement of particuls from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration as a result of their constant, spontaneus motion


the net flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other


has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the intracellular fluid; cells in a hypotonic solutions absorb water


cause no change in cell volume or shape


higher concentration if nonpermeating solutes; causes cells to lose water

carrier mediated transport

uses transport protein

facilitated protein

the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient

active transport

the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient using energy provided by ATP

sodium potassium pump

transports 3 molecules of sodium out of cells then pumps 2 molecules of potassium into the cell

vesicular transport

move large particles, droplets of fluid, or numerous molecules at once through the membrain, contained in the bubblelike vesicle of the membrane


transport sacs


vesicular process that release material from a cell


vesicular process that bring material into a cell


process of engulfing particles such as bacteria, dust etc.


the process of taking i droplets of ecf containing molecules of some use to the cell

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