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AAMC Tests PS
Sample, FL1, FL2, FL3, FL4
Terms in this set (296)
False memories of words that are semantically or associatively related to studied words is consistent with _______________
spreading activation, which suggests that when a concept is activated, the activation spreads to related concepts.
depth of processing
type of attention applied to words during encoding
serial position effect
improved memory for words at the beginning and at the end of a list
A component of WORKING memory where we create mental images to remember visual information
primacy effect and recency effect
first items remembered v. last items remembered
irrelevant information interfering with recall
If a graph shows that there is a clear separation between primacy and recency effects, then that suggests:
the idea that STM and LTM are separate systems
interference with currently learning due to old information
(pro is not active)
Transmission of social inequality from one generation to the next. Perpetuation of inequalities through social institutions (such as education or the economy)
reward according to individual talent or effort
recruitment of participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants
internal locus of control
attributing an outcome or behavior to a personal trait
external locus of control
attributing an outcome or behavior to the situation or something else outside of the individual
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
negative TREATMENT of a minority group that is built into institutional culture or policies (rather than individual action)
evaluation of another culture based on that culture's standards
(not biased that yours or theirs is better)
Tendency to favor information that confirms existing beliefs. It can involve biases in the search for evidence and in the interpretation of evidence. Confirmation bias has also been found to be stronger for emotionally charged topics.
Which development from the passage best illustrates an "organizational change" in the context of child abuse diagnosis and prevention?
The addition of a pediatric subspecialty in child abuse pediatrics
conflict theory perspective
emphasizes social relations of capital, power, and status as the driving forces in society
Are Norms and rituals symbolic interactionism or conflict theory?
From the perspective of conflict theory, which pair of factors would be assumed to have the greatest impact on patients' relationships with their doctors?
A. Norms and rituals
B. Power and status
C. Aggression and attachment
D. Conformity and assimilation
B. Power and status
refers to a lack of social norms, which leads to a breakdown in the connection between an individual and their community.
Gardner's idea of eight intelligences
people have different types of intelligences
refers to learning through consequences of responses
refers to associating reflexes with previously neutral stimuli
refers to learning without an explicit change in behavior
(LATENT = UNINTENDED)
are introduced as an outcome of a response
ie: children are given an incentive (play time, cookies..) for producing the correct response
Kohlberg's preconventional stage of moral development
morality is determined by what is punished or rewarded
Kohlberg's conventional stage of moral development
the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
Kohlberg's post conventional stage of moral development
Morality is determined by personal ethics and human rights
assumes that people will be more aggressive when they are frustrated
being hindered from a desired goal (e.g., playing with an attractive toy) is frustrating.
James-Lange theory of emotion
suggests that physiological arousal precedes the experiencing of emotions
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
physiological arousal and emotions are experienced simultaneously
two-factor theory of emotion (singer-schatcher)
that brings in cognitive appraisal
e.g. Participants experience physiological arousal from watching violent programs and they interpret their arousal, which results in aggressive emotions
Helping to instill norms and values related to violence and violent behavior, media exposure is an aspect of which process?
mean by which an individual interacts with others. This interaction teaches the individual what is normal and what is expected of the individual. Socialization begins at birth and continues throughout life. Process of learning the norms and values in a society
Popular media is an agent of
socialization for norms and values
is the process through which immigrants or minority groups take up aspects of mainstream culture
(cultural adaptation, adopting new norms, and relinquishing old norms)
is behavior based upon prejudice
groups are organized into hierarchies.
Think social stratification, where individuals are grouped according to power, social status, income, occupation, etc.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
1. sensorimotor = no object permanence
2. preoperational = egocentrism
3. concrete operational = conservation of water in glass
4. formal operational = logical and abstract reasoning
Country A has a relatively weak economy, a weak political infrastructure, and competes poorly in the globalized economy. Country A is also dependent on Country B, which has a much stronger economy. According to world systems theory, Country A is a:
World Systems Theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together (core nations and periphery nations)
more economically developed with strong governments and institutions
less economically developed with weak governments and institutions
Some nonverbal behaviors are interpreted similarly across cultures, while other nonverbal behaviors show cultural variation. People in different cultures are most likely to vary in their interpretations of:
postures and gestures.
Facial expressions are universally recognized, independent of cultural influences
Mead's theory of identity
I = spontaneous and autonomous
me = formed through interactions with others
Freud's theory of identity
Id = unconscious desires (constantly active)
Ego = middle man (feels guilty) -> conscious reality (represses inappropriate desires)
Superego = morality (doesn't need instant gratification) -> rules and norms in society (socialization)
After a traumatic elevator incident, Jay now fears all confined spaces. This results from:
is the response to the event that is naturally fear-arousing
e.g. reflexive emotional arousal
Participants they received a prize in a random fashion, only on some of the occasions when they engaged in a learned coping strategy. What type of schedule of reinforcement is this?
variable ratio schedule.
Repeating a sentence while being presented with target words will engage what type of memory?
the phonological loop of working memory.
XO XO XO XO XO XO
Perceiving the characters shown as 6 units rather than as 12 individual characters is best explained by the Gestalt principle of:
Proximity because the characters are seen as sets due to their spatial contiguity with one another.
which refers to the observation that an individual who needs assistance will be less likely to be helped (or receive needed help more slowly) as the number of people nearby increases.
Some studies find that the association between discrimination and health is stronger for U.S.-born members of certain ethnic minority groups than it is for immigrant members of the same ethnic minority group. This finding suggests that the possible effect of discrimination on health is most likely related to:
social integration (NOT SEGREGATION) in the U.S.
U.S.-born members of ethnic minority groups experience the system of stratification in the U.S., and its manifestations across different social institutions, throughout their lives. In contrast, immigrant members of the same ethnic minority group will have less exposure to the U.S. stratification system, and fewer experiences with U.S. social institutions (for example, consider an adult immigrant who did not go through the U.S. educational system as a child).
Social segregation is a potentially relevant factor, but is incorrect because segregation varies across ethnic minority groups and is not closely tied to nativity status (whether a person is native or foreign born).
split-brain patients are presented with the target colors only in the left side of their visual field. This procedure would specifically allow the researchers to investigate whether:
the patients show CP in the absence of access to color names
when a stimulus is presented to the left half of a split-brain patient's visual field, the information will be sent out to the right hemisphere. The right hemisphere of a split-brain patient has no access to the left hemisphere, where linguistic abilities are lateralized. Thus, presenting the target colors to the left half of a split-brain patient's visual field would allow the researchers to determine whether categorical perception occurs even in absence of linguistic information.
linguistic determinism hypothesis
language DETERMINES the way we think
linguistic relativity hypothesis
human cognition is AFFECTED by language
discrimination v.s. prejudice
discrimination = action
prejudice = attitude
tendency to look at other cultures through one's own culture
(belief in the superiority of your own ethnic group)
addresses task performance anxiety induced by the implicit activation of stereotypes
movement of groups or individuals between different social class positions
person's position in the community
(prestige among social groups)
the non-financial social assets that promote social mobility
(class-based cultural practices)
social status derived from knowledge, preferences, or skills
value of social networks
form of power that rests in the legitimacy of an individual
An employee is concerned with making a good impression at a new job. Struggling with feelings of being overly challenged by having to learn new office software, he repeatedly calls his computer "dumb" and "stupid." According to psychoanalytic theory, this behavior results from:
Projection (defense mechanism)
disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
e.g. employee is projecting his own feelings of inadequacy onto his computer
reaction formation (defense mechanism)
Defense mechanism by which people behave in a way opposite to what their true but anxiety-provoking feelings would dictate.
sublimation (defense mechanism)
channeling threatening devices into acceptable outlets (e.g. working out)
statement about technology is most consistent with social constructionism?
Technology is embedded with the values of groups who create it.
Which statement explains why looking at a dimly lit object with peripheral vision at night results in the clearest image of the object? When one looks to the side of an object:
its image falls in the periphery of the retina, which is denser in rods.
The periphery of the retina contains a higher density of light sensitive rods, which results in a clearer image in the dark.
humans process and represent verbal and non-verbal information in separate, related systems
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event (leads to false memories)
state dependency effect
memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed
people's tendency to judge the physical distance between objects from the same category as being smaller compared to the distance between objects from different categories
A theoretical perspective that focuses only on objective, observable reactions. Behaviorism emphasizes the environmental stimuli that determines behaviour.
Rejects that cognitions can act as motivators for behaviour
attempts to identify personality characteristics or interpersonal attributes that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers
an approach that views people as good and capable of self-growth
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place. Only after it is paired several times with an unconditioned stimulus, it triggers a conditioned response
Conditioned fear occurs in response to changes in bodily sensations. Changes in bodily sensations act as:
the patient describes the panic attacks as highly aversive and mentions that he no longer goes to meetings for fear of a panic attack. Thus, the frequency of the patient's attendance at meetings has decreased as the result of the panic attacks. Therefore, the panic attacks act as:
increased sensitivity to internal bodily sensations, such as heartbeat and blood pressure, which are regulated by the autonomic nervous system
study that attempts to determine if there is simply a relationship between two variables. The predictor variable is the correlational studies analog to an independent variable, while the criterion variable is an analog to a dependent variable. These are observational studies that do not prove causation between variables, while experimental research design does
a study that is conducted over a long period of time, usually uses a specific cohort of people. One example is to study incidence of heart disease in people over time, while monitoring things like their diet or smoking habits
a study where we test to prove a causal relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable. Participants are randomly assigned to different groups or levels of the independent variable. Between-subjects and within-subjects designs are common experimental studies
participants are randomly assigned to to an experimental group in the study, such that a participant only participates in one group
also known as repeated-measures design, it is when a participant is exposed to every level of the independent variable. Gives you higher power because you are using more "subjects" in your study by using the same person in multiple conditions, and that you decrease individual difference effects seen in between-subjects designs
an observational study type where we look back at information in the past to try and find a trend between events in the past and current outcomes. One example would be conducting an experiment on people who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and looking back at their medical records to set up a relation between factors in the past and the current outcome. This type of study helps to develop and find potential risk factors for disease.
a study where we follow groups of people and see how their behavior in that time influence future outcomes. This kind of study is looking into the future, while retrospective studies are looking into the past. One popular example of this kind of study is by following nurses to determine long term health outcomes by looking at factors like stress, smoking, and level of exercise
Mixed-method research design
a study where you use both qualitative and quantitative measures to conduct your study. One example would be using quantitative measures like how would you report your like for this product on a scale of 1 through 10, and then later following up with people who answered either negatively or poorly and asking them for their qualitative opinion.
I want to study the relationship between # hours per studying per week for science-related undergrad courses and likelihood of getting into medical school. Socioeconomic status might be a confounding variable because as we know, people from higher income families probably don't have to work part-time jobs etc therefore they would have more hours per week studying. Therefore SES is a confounding variable and I can use statistical methods to control (another word for control is "adjust") for this variable so that whatever relationship I get between # hours/week studying science courses and likelihood of getting in, I don't have to worry about the effect of SES. Confounding variables have to do with research design and it depends on what the researcher is interested in. For example, some people might actually want to examine SES as a factor in this study. However I don't, and I don't want it to influence my results, so I choose to control for it.
actors attribute their own behavior to situational factors (not feeling well) whereas observers attribute actors' behavior to dispositional factors (social awkwardness)
In a study, each trial involves administering a drop of lemon juice to the participant's tongue and measuring the participant's level of salivation. As more trials are conducted, the researcher finds that the magnitude of salivation declines. After a certain point, the researcher switches to administering lime juice. This researcher is most likely studying which process?
Habituation and dishabituation
Optimal arousal theory
optimal performance requires optimal arousal and that arousal levels that are too high or too low will impede performance.
Who is most prone to stereotype threat regarding their ethnic identity?
people whose ethnic identity is a central part of their self-concept
Having outliers accumulate in the experimental or control condition can lead to:
confounding or to errors in statistical inference. It may also limit the generalizability of the results.
A researcher replicates the experiment with the addition of a physical stressor to the first phase of the experiment. According to Selye's general adaptation syndrome, this change is:
unnecessary, because the human stress response is not specific to the type of stressor.
According to Selye's general adaptation syndrome, people's response to various stressors is similar.
when you have to choose between two desirable things. Like taking a flight to an exotic country, or taking a cruise there. (assuming you like both) - Getting closer to one or the other makes the decision easier; i.e. a step toward one of the things will make it seem more attractive
Unstable conflicts are easier to resolve than stable conflicts.
when you have to choose between two undesirable things. "being stuck between a rock and a hard place". How a child feels when the parent says "do your homework or you're grounded". The closer you get to an undesirable outcome, the more you'll want to avoid it
stable, but only involves 1 goal
When an action may have both undesirable and desirable outcomes. E.g. thinking of proposing to your significant other - fear of rejection, and hope for acceptance; wanting to eat junk food while on a diet - satisfaction vs weight gain.
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Conforming to a request/demand to get reward/avoid punishment, it is discontinues when the reward/punishment is gone.
A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Participants in a weight-loss program agree to have their body mass index (BMI) measured to track their progress in the program. Among a sample of 72 participants, the mean BMI is 30 and the median BMI is 25. Which statement provides an accurate description of the sample?
the median splits the sample distribution of values in half. Thus, a median of 25 can be described as half the sample having a BMI over 25 and half having a BMI under 25.
Often utilized when studying communicable diseases, which type of analysis maps the series of relationships among a set of individuals?
Social network analysis
reinvestment in lower income neighborhoods in urban areas, which results from the influx of more affluent groups. With the arrival of more affluent residents, housing demand increases and generally results in a decrease of affordable housing for lower income residents.
Which effect is LEAST likely to occur with the process of gentrification?
A. Development of affordable housing
B. Increased neighborhood stratification
C. Displacement of lower-income residents
D. Expanded tax base for local government
A. Development of affordable housing
Because gentrification creates housing for more affluent residents
suggests that when people who are in agreement with each other discuss an issue, their views get more extreme.
people's attitudes toward some attitude object become more extreme after interacting with like-minded individuals. Therefore, a group of risk averse individuals would become more risk averse after interacting with each other, which suggests that their risky behavior scores would be lower.
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory Stages
trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
integrity vs despair
humans are pre-programmed with the innate ability to develop language
(opposite of linguistic relativity or sapir-whorf hypothesis)
the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
social network ties (friends, family, and other relationships) that provide an individual with various types of assistance, which are associated with improving health or reducing harm.
Suppose squares 1, 2, 3, and 4, moving from left to right at the top of a grid light up and some participants think "top row lights up first," to remember the sequence. Which process is most likely being used to enhance working memory capacity?
encoding process that requires effortful processing and therefore involves selective attention and conscious effort.
Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously
e.g. procedural memory
A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less.
the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
A researcher wants to gain insight into how a social movement organization presents its beliefs to the general public in an effort to attract new members. Which methodological approach would be most appropriate for this study?
Conducting a content analysis of the organization's website would provide data on how the social movement organization frames issues to the broader public. As applied to studying a website, content analysis could help determine which beliefs the organization publically emphasizes.
a systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech, or film
An immigrant teen stops participating in the ethnic customs of his family and instead identifies with the dominant culture of the new country by dressing, speaking, and acting like teens from that culture. In this scenario, the teens of the new country's dominant culture become which type of group for the teen?
True or false: larger groups are generally considered more stable but less intimate, whereas smaller groups are usually considered less stable but more intimate.
Dyads, two-person groups such as the physician-patient group, are unstable because either party can break the single social tie. The triad, three person groups such as the physician-patient-cultural liaison group, is considered relatively more stable because of the additional social ties.
Neighborhood-level socioeconomic inequalities are most likely to affect physician-patient interactions through which phenomenon?
Physical boundaries create social boundaries and closed networks which develop their own cultures.
Neighborhoods that are segregated by socioeconomic status create increased social distance to the extent that people from different backgrounds have trouble relating to each other's experiences.
competition between groups over the allocation of societal resources. It assumes that power and authority are unequally distributed across a society, and that groups attempt to maintain their advantages. This can lead to social change
systematic observation of a complete social environment
closed stratification systems that do not allow for social mobility
In a colour-matching task, when a correct response was produced, the subject received a banana chip. Which schedule of reinforcement is used in the color-matching task?
Fixed ratio, bc the subjects received a banana chip every time they responded correctly
Continuous reinforcement is a type of fixed ratio schedule.
Differences in the ways that immigrants adopt local traditions and behavioral standards can result in distinct geographic patterns of assimilation. There is geographic variation in which pair of concepts?
A. Social status and roles
B. Social and cultural capital
C. Cultural values and norms
D. Material and symbolic culture
C. Cultural values and norms
These refer to local traditions and behavioural standards
Which historical factor primarily accounts for the projected increase in the population aged 65 and older in the United States?
A. The increased immigration rate since the 1950s
B. The increased fertility rate after World War II
C. The sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s
D. The relative deprivation of the Great Depression
B. The increased fertility rate after World War II
The increasing share of the population over the age of 65 primarily stems from the baby boomers, the post-World War II generation in the United States and Canada. Birth rates were relatively high for almost two decades after World War II.
coping with illness and its effects on self-identity
The process by which non-medical problems become defined and treated as medical issues, usually in terms of illnesses, disorders, or syndromes.
To explain the demographic dynamics in the passage, a conflict theorist is most likely to consider the relationship among which factors?
A. Age, medicalization, and the illness experience
B. Generational status, social solidarity, and the welfare state
C. Age, social isolation, and networks of social support
D. Generational status, political power, and resource allocation
D. Generational status, political power, and resource allocation
Conflict theory broadly calls attention to competition among social groups, including generational conflict. It is likely that competition over resources will emerge between the old and the young (for example, public support of health care versus education, each of which tends to benefit one age group more than the other)
the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years
more children/retired people = more dependents
life course perspective
the study of changes in individuals' lives over time, and how those changes are related to historical events
social gradient in health
life expectancy and health levels decline at each lower level of the socioeconomic ladder; this means that health inequities affect everyone, not only the poorest
a disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
(convert emotional difficulties into loss of voluntary body function)
an inability to retrieve information from one's past
(amnesia of retro)
a disorder in which a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consciousness
a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech (positive symptom), and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression
A patient who is experiencing severe marital problems reports having no memory of any life events surrounding the marriage and the spouse. The patient's memory for other life events is intact. This patient is most likely to be diagnosed with:
Some studies have found that increases in dopamine activity are associated with increased reward-seeking motivation. This finding suggests an association between dopamine levels and which type of learning?
The finding focuses on reward-seeking motivation, which is most closely associated with operant conditioning (change in behavior due to past outcomes).
NOT classical conditioning
a lack of resources that is life-threatening
a state of poverty that occurs when a person lacks stable employment
the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more (defined according to the living standards of the majority of society).
Relative poverty refers to social disadvantage by income or wealth as compared to the social advantages linked to income or wealth in a society.
based on the concept of "holes" in the structure of society rather than poverty due to the actions of the individual
e.g. characterized by single-parent families, low levels of education, high infant mortality rates, and low social mobility
socioeconomic gradient in health
graded relationship between social class and health, in which each "step" up on the hierarchy of social stratification tends to be associated with better health
Lower socioeconomic class has worse healthy than the upper class
fundamental attribution error
stressing the importance of dispositional (i.e., personality) factors in one's explanations of other people's behavior and underemphasizing situational factors.
organized clusters of knowledge
people will feel distress when they hold conflicting attitudes or beliefs, or when the exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with their beliefs.
learning by imitating others; copying behavior
The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response. (reinforcing successive approximations of a behavior. It is utilized to establish a novel behavior.)
procedure of continuous reinforcement to help the subject acquire a behavior that ONLY applies to OPERANT conditioning
initial phase of acquiring a behavior and applies to BOTH classical and operant conditioning
Components of Attitude
(called the "ABCs of Attitude")
Affective = emotional feelings
Behavioral = effect of attitude on behaviour
Cognitive = belief and knowledge
The participants completed an online questionnaire that asked about their background information and assessed their explicit attitudes. The attitudinal questions focused on participants' ideas about how people gain or lose weight, including an item about the relative contribution of genetic, personality, and environmental factors in explaining weight gain or loss. Which component of attitudes is assessed by the study's online questionnaire?
cognitive, because its asking about the participants beliefs/ideas/knowledge
experimenter picks sample, so the sample is not representative of the population
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself. (answers that reflect themselves well)
Primary group ties
extremely tight-knit groups that aren't based on the usefulness of others (unconditional) and long-term
Secondary group ties
people briefly you are associated with for work or a particular reason (temporary and a means-to-an-end)
people's efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them
Theory which states that perspective taking is key to growth in social cognition. Children learn to understand other people's perspectives and feelings as they grow older
attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an UNCONSCIOUS manner
e.g. nonverbal communication can be used as a type of implicit attitude
Interventions that target substance use in adolescents are often designed to prevent or delay risky behaviors that could lead to dependence. Although psychoactive drugs vary in terms of their risk of dependence, one of the factors associated with substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents is the strong desire to ingest a drug (or other substance).
The description of dependence and substance use disorders in the passage suggests which type of drug-related symptom?
Craving symptoms (strong desire to ingest a drug)
reduced perception of a stimulus and response to stimulus after prolonged exposure
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
(not controlled cognitively)
**This is the actual reduced reaction of sensory neurons
e.g. down regulation of receptors over time
Habituation v.s. sensory adaptation
habituation = cognitive (no longer notice the vacuum noise)
sensory adaptation = biological (receptor downregulation)
decreased effectiveness of a drug after consistent prolonged use
physiological and behavioural effects of stopping the use of a drug
strong desire to consume drugs (for whatever reason... social, physiological, etc)
What type of psychoactive drug has the lowest risk of dependence?
Hallucinogens, because it works through serotonin which is not related to the dopamine-reward system
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Depressant that disrupts memory formation (REM)
induces a state of calm or sleep by reducing irritability or excitement via GABA receptor
A physician approaches a new patient with the assumption that the patient is not well educated and thus less knowledgeable about health issues. Does this scenario illustrate discrimination?
No; the scenario describes an attitude but does not specify differential treatment.
A study finds that individuals who follow a weekly exercise routine exhibit less immunity decline compared to those who do not. The exercise group only included participants who exercised regularly, whereas the comparison group only included those who did not exercise regularly. Which statement does NOT identify a limitation of this research design?
A. The study lacks random assignment.
B. The study has a possible sampling bias.
C. The study lacks replicable results.
D. The study has a possible confound.
C. The study lacks replicable results.
people are more productive alone than in a group. Individuals are less critical and less creative in groups
What theory is all about stratification?
The original conflict theory by Karl Marx was an economic theory about the 'thesis' - the bourgeoisie (bougie = rich), and the 'antithesis' - the proletariat (poor). Marx believed that eventually, the proletariat would take over the bourgeoisie, and a new bourgeoisie will emerge, essentially reversing the thesis and antithesis. Without social stratification, or separation of society into social classes, there would not be any thesis or antithesis for this conflict to occur. In context of this passage, a conflict theorist would say the disparities for SUD treatment is an aspect of the proletariat, who have access to less capital and resources, while the bourgeoisie monopolize the capital and resources.
ascribing racial identities and categorization to groups that did not have that identity before
True or False: participants can act as their own controls in an experiment
True, if participants answered state self-esteem items before and after peer evaluations, then the subjects acted as their own controls.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
1. Oral Stage
2. Anal Stage
3. Phallic Stage = gender difference awareness (penis awareness)
4. Latency Stage = less concerned with self-awareness and more concerned with external exploration
5. Genital Stage = puberty onwards
electra and oedipus complexes
The Oedipus complex describes a young boy's feelings of guilt and fear that come with a young boy's attraction to his mother and simultaneous feelings of hostility towards his father.
The Electra complex describes the contrary, a young girl's attraction to her father and hostility towards her mother.
Both develop during phallic stage (penis awareness at age 3-6)
occurs when situational pressures hinder groups from critically evaluating relevant information. A powerful leader makes groupthink more likely, and the other group members are largely complicit in the behaviors and beliefs that produce groupthink. Groups affected by groupthink wrongly believe they have followed a sound decision-making process.
causes a person to seek, and attend to, only information that confirms his or her existing point of view and to ignore disconfirming evidence.
the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors
"I knew it all along" phenomenon; the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
anything in a survey design that influences responses
Research has shown that when individuals study material right before going to sleep, they perform better on a recall measure upon awakening compared to individuals who study and then watch a movie before going to sleep. Which memory construct provides the most likely explanation for these results?
When people study new material, any new information introduced between the initial learning (i.e., encoding) and retrieval, such as viewing a movie, will interfere with memory consolidation.
Individuals who have the ability to delay gratification in pursuit of long-term rewards are most likely to be categorized as having which type of intelligence?
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to perceive, express, understand, and manage one's emotions. Emotionally intelligent people are self-aware and can delay gratification in pursuit of long-term rewards, rather than being overtaken by immediate impulses.
A researcher is interested in how anxiety disorders affect escape learning. Which procedure is most appropriate for assessing the dependent variable in this study?
Monitoring how many trials it takes for participants to be conditioned to perform a response that results in the termination of an electric shock
step beyond escape learning.
avoidance learning is when a subject is conditioned for a stimulus by associating the stimulus with a negative response. It is essentially classical conditioning, except the response is not desired (as opposed to desired). Whenever the conditioned stimulus occurs, the person will do the learned response to avoid the negative response.
subject is presented with a negative stimulus and is conditioned to do a response to get out of the negative situation. The stimulus is often unexpected, and the person is conditioned to perform a certain action to get out of the situation (after repeated incidents).
Avoidance v.s. escape learning
both forms of conditioning are a result of NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT, meaning an aversive stimulus is being removed.
Imagine a mouse standing on a metal platform island (surrounded by water.) When an electric shock is administered to the island, the mouse can jump off. This is an escape behavior.
When the mouse begins to recognize the metal island as even a potential source of electric shocks and begins avoiding it, this is known as an avoidance behavior.
For escape conditioning to occur, an aversive stimulus must be there TO BEGIN WITH, unlike with avoidance conditioning. You could show a child a film of what happens to kids who disobey Santa (coal.) If the child behaves in such a way to avoid the coal, you could say it's avoidance conditioning.
The sociological paradigm of functionalism makes a distinction between manifest, or intended, and latent, or unintended, functions of social activities. From the functionalist perspective, almost all social actions have both manifest functions and latent functions, both of which are connected to overall social stability.
changes in research participants as a result of their awareness that they are being observed.
individual's internalization of a label that leads to a fulfillment of that label
if an individual believes something to be real, then it is real in its consequences
Which of the following findings would suggest that the empathy questionnaire is NOT a valid measure?
A. A positive correlation between scores on the empathy questionnaire and the perspective taking skills questionnaire
B. A negative correlation between scores on the empathy questionnaire and the personal distress questionnaire
C. A positive correlation between scores on the empathy questionnaire and the fantasy perspective taking skills questionnaire
D. No correlation between the scores on the empathy questionnaire and the amount of money won in the competition trials
Experiencing psychological distress when observing someone in pain is an element of empathy. Thus, if people who got high scores on the empathy questionnaire got low scores on the psychological distress questionnaire, the validity of both questionnaires could be called into question.
So the answer is B
A group of researchers hypothesized that perspective-taking and empathy are two separate skills and designed two studies to test this hypothesis. Study 1 focused on perspective taking in a complex, strategic war game. Study 2 focused on empathy in a social coalition game.
Which of the following hypothetical findings would best support the researchers' hypothesis?
A. Participants who have thicker cortexes show improved performance in both studies.
B. Participants who have impairments in recognizing faces perform poorly in Study 2, but not in Study 1.
C. Participants with damage to the language centers of the brain have difficulty understanding the rules for the war game in Study 1, but they perform similarly to unimpaired participants in Study 2.
D. Participants with damage to a specific region of the cortex have difficulty inferring others' feelings in Study 2, but they perform similarly to unimpaired participants in Study 1.
the hypothesis states that empathy and perspective taking are separate skills. The finding that a brain region selectively controls one of these skills would give support to the hypothesis and D describes such a finding, which is called a dissociation.
Remembering an event exactly. A highly accurate, verbatim recording of an event.
A clear and vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event.
remembering to do things in the future
2 years after the disaster, participants described how they had heard about a disaster one day after it had occurred. They are using what type of memory?
Episodic, because the episodic memory system it stores personally experienced episodes with tags for context and time
Not SEMANTIC, although you might think it was think because you are hearing about the event from somewhere rather than living through it yourself, but the way you found out was an episode in your life
memories for events that never happened, but were suggested by someone or something
the process whereby memories of an event become distorted by information encountered after the event occurred
leads to false memories
Is generalizability internally valid or externally valid?
Extent to which the results of a scientific investigation would generalize to other settings and population. It is dependent on the extent to which the processes studied in the investigation represent the processes presumed to be operating outside the laboratory.
Increasing emotional arousal has what effect on attention?
emotional arousal seems to focus a person's attention on the central features of an event.
A person will notice information that elicits arousal, but fail to process other information, has been supported by studies in which memory for an (emotional) event's "central" aspects (directly tied to the emotion elicitor) is compared to memory for "peripheral" aspects (removed from the source of the emotional arousal). Thus, memory for the fundamental gist of the emotional event is retained, whereas memory for details (if they are encoded at all) either fades or undergoes changes.
A 45-year-old man presents himself at a hospital emergency room. Symptoms include a pounding heart, chest pain, shortness of breath, sweating, and feeling dizzy. Medical tests reveal that the man did not have a heart attack. Which psychiatric diagnosis provides the most likely explanation for the man's symptoms?
Generalised anxiety disorder
persistent (long-term) anxiety at a moderate but disturbing level
an anxiety disorder that consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror (activated sympathetic NS)
illness anxiety disorder
characterized by being consumed with thoughts about having or developing a serious medical condition
somatic symptom disorder
Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause.
Every time a volunteer in a sleep study begins to exhibit rapid eye movements (REM), the experimenter wakes the person up. On the following night, when his or her sleep is uninterrupted, the person will most likely:
have more REM sleep than usual bc of REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
One goal of the Cognitive Therapy might be to help the patient break the cycle of worrying about sleeplessness, which leads to more sleeplessness and hence more worry. The cycle of worrying described in the passage is an example of:
What are the 3 main components of socioeconomic status?
occupation, income, and education
NOT social capital
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
If a teacher has low expectations, students are more likely to behave in a way that reinforces the teacher's low standards. This is an example of?
The standard version of a dichotic listening task involves:
presenting two different auditory messages, one to each ear.
The frequency with which students completed problems decreased after their teacher stopped rewarding completed problems with candy. This observation is an example of which phenomenon?
Public health campaigns often target behaviors that are formed in adolescence. For example, alcohol, tobacco, and drug use interventions are often designed to prevent or delay risky behaviors because patterns established in adolescence are associated with disorders in adulthood. This example is best described as using which approach to health?
A life course perspective on health behavior
social construction of race
the idea that there is little biological basis for race (or ethnicity). Instead, racial/ethnic categories mostly result from history, culture, and society.
For adolescents who experiment with alcohol in peer groups, sensation-seeking behaviors may become associated with alcohol's positive effects on mood. Some researchers hypothesize that dependence develops later in life when alcohol is consumed to alleviate negative emotions.
Which statement best applies conditioning principles to explain the progression from alcohol experimentation in adolescence to alcohol dependence in adulthood?
Early alcohol use begins with positive reinforcement (during alcohol use initiation), while later use is maintained by negative reinforcement (during later alcohol dependence)
What type of group are peer groups?
Primary group (more intimate social ties)
a large and impersonal/formal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
influences that reduce the impact of early stress and tend to predict positive outcomes
In an extension of the research, ten individuals were recruited for an information session on the energy-saving program. Six of the ten individuals were colleagues and unanimously agreed to the program. The remaining four individuals also agreed to the program. Which concept is best represented by this scenario?
the influence that people your age may have on you (from your peer group) to conform
occurs when people in a group act inappropriately because the crowd conceals that person's identity
linking two stimuli, or events, that occur together
Urine from inbred strain (Strain A) male mice was swabbed every day for one week on the nostrils of female mice of inbred strain (Strain B). Compared to unswabbed, female Strain B mice, uterine weight, but not total body weight, increased in the swabbed mice. Strain A male urine had no effect on uterine weight or body weight of inbred, female Strain C mice. Which statement best explains these results?
The molecular profile of puberty-accelerating, chemosensory neurons differs between mouse strains.
there was most likely a difference in the receptiveness of the two inbred strains of mice, as the same signal applied to two separate strains produced opposing results. The pheromone would be detected by chemosensory neurons.
Pairs of research participants interacted for 10 min. They rated themselves and their partners on personality traits and then rated the accuracy of their partners' ratings of them. The partners' ratings were rated as more accurate if they were close to participants' own self-ratings. This finding illustrates:
tendency to seek out (and agree with) information that is consistent with one's self-concept.
a sense of one's identity and personal worth
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
Five Factor Model
openness, conscientiousness (responsibility and planning), extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism (insecurity and anxiety)
Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.
looks at interconnection between biological, psychological, & socio-environmental factors
explains motivation as the desire to pursue external rewards and avoid punishments
aka drive reduction theory
the belief that behavior is motivated by drives that arise from biological needs that demand satisfaction
expectancy value theory
people decide whether to pursue a social relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectation of success in establishing the relationship.
a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation
Macro theory of human motivation and personality that concerns with people's inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs. It is concerned with motivation behind choices people make without external influence and interference. Focus on the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. The need to be in control of one's actions (autonomy), the need to complete and excel at difficult tasks (competence) and the need to feel accepted and wanted by others (relatedness)
parents may be struggling to satisfy their children's needs while experiencing distress from their own needs, experience role __________.
role strain (NOT CONFLICT)
By identifying tension stemming from the parental role, the recommendation suggests role strain (which refers to stress from different expectations associated with a single role). For parents with depression, the parental role can cause competing obligations of satisfying their children's needs when they are coping with psychological distress (and thus are unable to meet their own needs).
Role strain v.s. Role conflict
strain = difficulty managing just one role
conflict = difficulty managing multiple roles
(don't choose conflict unless it specifically says 2 different roles)
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
related to studying social practices and rituals
When studying education as a social institution, the hidden curriculum constitutes:
latent function of schools.
Latent v.s. manifest function
latent = unintended
manifest = intended
In order to balance on one foot, many people need to have their eyes open. This is an example of:
one sensory modality (e.g., vision) may influence another (e.g., balance)
monocular depth cue
the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away
Think of looking out a car window
Trait that is more harmful than helpful.
stimuli that occur solely in the presence of a reinforcer
any motivation that results from incentives to perform a behavior that are not inherent to the behavior itself
Extrinsic motivation v.s. External motivation
Extrinsic motivation is the motiviation derived from external sources this could be a dog or money or people. But when you start talking about motivation from people or other social factors this is what describes external motivation. SOCIAL is the difference. Therefore, they are essentially the same thing but external motivation focuses on the external social factor.
Extrinsic motiviation is an external incentive to engage in a specific activity, e.g. expectation of punishment or reward. Thus, external motivation is more specific because it focuses on the social aspect of extrinsic motivation.
You are EXTRINSICALLY motivated to become a doctor because of the future paychecks.
You are EXTERNALLY motivated to become a doctor because of your parents telling you to study!!
gap between a person's actual self and ideal self
A team of researchers at a pharmaceutical company tests a new cancer drug. The researchers have concluded that the drug is effective, but other scientists CANNOT replicate the findings. Which is the most likely explanation for the lack of replicability of the original results?
base rate fallacy
refers to the error people make when they ignore the base rates (i.e., prior probabilities) when evaluating the probabilities (or frequencies) of events.
systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations
(observers see what they expect to see)
the reason other scientists are attempting to replicate the original findings.
The glass escalator concept predicts that a male employee's progression in a female-dominated industry is most likely to follow which pattern?
He will be promoted to supervisory roles more quickly than his female counterparts.
The sociological concept of the "glass escalator" suggests that men who pursue occupations that have high proportions of women (such as teaching or nursing) will quickly ascend the career ladder with promotions. As indicated in this option, the glass escalator concept would predict that men are likely to be granted supervisory roles.
the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
tendency to estimate the likelihood of events based on how easily (i.e., how rapidly) examples of those events can be retrieved from memory.
WHAT COMES MOST EASILY TO MIND
a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
e.g. Nurses are women
people are often placed into social categories. Labeling theory is most closely associated with social stigma
Attraction and commitment to a group is likely to be greatest when group members:
A. promote their social networks.
B. express diverse cultural values.
C. share equivalent cultural capital.
D. present their back-stage selves.
C. share equivalent cultural capital.
Group affiliation (attraction and commitment) is likely to be greatest when the members or participants in the group share similar outlooks, knowledge, preferences, skills, and other aspects of cultural capital. Among the options, similarity in cultural capital would be most likely to solidify group bonds in a way that increases commitment to the group.
When asked whether a person who is afraid of spiders would be diagnosed as having a psychological disorder, a psychologist replies, "It depends on whether or not this fear interferes with the person's life." The psychologist appears to rely most heavily on which criterion of abnormality?
The maladaptiveness criterion takes into account whether the behavior negatively impacts the person's life or poses a threat to others.
In an evaluation study for a diabetes intervention program, the subjects in the sample had a median age of 45 and a mean age of 55. Which statement accounts for the difference between the median age and the mean age?
The sample included subject(s) who were much older than the age of 45.
A mean age (of 55) that is higher than the median age (of 45) suggests that the sample had a skew toward older ages. One way to represent this is to say that the sample included subject(s) who were much older than the average age.
refers to the learning of norms and values associated with masculinity or femininity. Gender norms related to masculinity include the encouragement of high-risk behaviors, of which heavy drinking would be an example.
When participants respond to questions about their childhood health history, they are using what type of memory?
they are retrieving autobiographical information, which is an important type of episodic memory.
general world knowledge
True or False: Alcohol dependence is most strongly indicated by withdrawal symptoms.
Whenever a two-year-old sees a moth, the butterfly-like pattern on her dress shoes, or hair bows that resemble the shape of a butterfly, she proudly exclaims, "Butterfly!" This process is referred to as:
applying a term for one class of objects to other objects that bear only a superficial resemblance (for example, "doggie" for a cow).
the perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories
initial stage(s) of grammatical (i.e., syntactic) development
A sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age.
classical conditioning technique in which the intensity of an unconditioned stimulus is gradually increased until it no longer elicits the conditioned response.
combining new (to-be-remembered) information with existing memory representations, which enhances the probability of retrieving that new information.
previously extinguished behavioral response returns after a delay (i.e., a rest period) following extinction.
Objects that are higher up in the visual field are perceived as being farther away than the objects that are lower in the visual field. What type of depth cue is this?
retinal height, which is a monocular depth cue.
Objects that are obstructed/blocked from view by other objects are perceived as being farther away than the objects that occlude them. What type of depth cue is this?
occlusion, which is a monocular depth cue.
Objects that have more detailed textures are perceived as being closer than objects that have less detailed textures. What type of depth cue is this?
texture gradient, which is a monocular depth cue.
Objects that are to the front of the point of focus are perceived as being closer than objects that are behind the point of focus. What type of depth cue is this?
Using the distance from the object of focus as a depth cue is associated with retinal disparity, which is a binocular depth cue.
)the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population
(focus on structural factors, such as poverty or race/ethnicity
Although commonly prescribed in HICs, antidepressant medications may not be supported by sufficient evidence to justify the cost in LMICs. Does this describe medicalization?
No, a cost/benefit analysis does not exactly address medicalization, which involves some level of expansion in the authority of medicine as a social institution.
When interventions from HICs are applied to LMICs, emphasis should be placed on framing excessive alcohol use as a treatable disorder. Does this describe medicalization?
Yes, this is medicalization, the process in which a social problem comes to be defined as a disease or disorder. It focuses on alcohol use as a treatable disorder
Excessive alcohol use is associated with preventable injuries, which are more often due to binge drinking than to alcohol dependence. The distinction between binge drinking and alcohol dependence in the passage is best described as attributing preventable injuries to which effect of alcohol use?
Disinhibition, because it leads to risk taking which can lead to preventable injuries
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
a group's perception of its ability to successfully perform well
an assessment of the prosocial behavior of a group (predicting prosocial behavior in one's community). Because self-efficacy refers to a person's belief in his or her ability to accomplish tasks, self-efficacy can be described in terms of predicting one's coping ability.
A researcher applying the concept of assimilation to immigrant health would propose which hypothesis?
An immigrant group's life expectancy will:
approximate the majority group's life expectancy over time.
The concept of assimilation proposes that an immigrant group will eventually adopt the customs (norms, values, etc.) of the majority group in a society. Because of taking on such norms over time, the immigrant group's health outcomes (including life expectancy) would be likely to approximate the majority group's health outcomes (including life expectancy).
According to the paradigm of symbolic interactionism, individuals develop a sense of identity primarily through:
Symbolic interactionism posits that individuals develop a sense of self, or identity, through the interactions and relationships that they have with others. The theory suggests that social relationships are fundamental for individuals to develop a sense of who they are.
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