AP Psychology Final Part 1

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Aaron Beck's view of depression
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Terms in this set (95)
negative thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs, are typically the primary cause of depressive symptoms. A direct relationship occurs between the amount and severity of someone's negative thoughts and the severity of their depressive symptoms (the more negative thoughts you experience, the more depressed you will become).

There are 3 main dysfunctional belief themes (or "schemas") that dominate depressed people's thinking: 1.) I am defective or inadequate, 2.) All of my experiences result in defeats or failures, and 3.) The future is hopeless.

Together, these 3 themes are described as the Negative Cognitive Triad. When these beliefs are present in someone's cognition, depression is very likely to occur (if it has not already occurred).
a thirty-minute procedure that consists of a series of separations and reunions among a caregiver, a child, and a stranger; assesses attachment in infancy. Top 3 patterns of attachment: 1.) secure- present: balance, separated: distress, reunited: warm, 2.) insecure-ambivalent- present: exploratory (clinging to parent), separated: very upset, reunited: angry/resistant/ambivalent, 3.) insecure-avoidant- present: explored playroom, separated: not upset, reunited: snubbed/avoided. A fourth pattern of attachment was identified: "insecure-disorganized"- extreme distress over separations and disorganized, disoriented, and confused during reunions.
Albert Ellis (REBT)Father of Rational Emotive Therapy, which focuses on altering clients patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotion. (like, "If I fail the AP psych exam my life will come to an end"Alfred Adler (Inferiority complex)Neo Freudian, believed that child social, not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation; believed that people are primarily searching or self esteem achieving the ideal selfAlgorithma step-by-step procedure for solving a problemAll or nothing law (all-or-none) of neural firingwhen a neuron fires at a resting axon, it either fires or it doesn't (like a gun).Altruismunselfish regard for the welfare of othersAmerican Psychological Associationprofessional organization representing psychologists in the United StatesAmnesia (anterograde and retrogradeloss of memory (before accident & after accident).Androgynya psychological balance between male and female personality traitsAnxiety disorderAn unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry.Arousal theory of motivationtheory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation. Reaching that level ensures optimum performance. being under or over that level could cause failure.Asch's conformity studyStudy of conformity; experiment had a subject unaware of his situation to test if he would conform if all the members of a group gave and obviously incorrect answer.Attitudefeelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and eventsAttribution theoryThe theory that suggests how we explain someone's behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition or natureAversive conditioning (good or bad?)a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol). (finger paint on nails for nail biting to stop the patient from biting their nails) (p. 644)Babinski response- big toe dorsi flex and other toes fan out when sole is stimulatedBelief bias and perseverancethe bias where we make illogical conclusions to confirm our pre-existing beliefsBell curve (normal distribution)the shape of the normal distribution that describes many types of data, most scores falling near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it and fewer and fewer near the extremes). (p. 36)Benjamin Whorf's theory of linguistic relativism (determinism)His hypothesis is that language determines the way we thinkBinocular cues -- convergence and retinal disparityare visual information taken in by two eyes that enable us a sense of depth perceptionBlind spotthe point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located thereBlood brain barrierBlood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances outBottom up and top down processingBottom up: - stimulus influences our perception - "data-driven" processing - it's what happens when you look at new things for the first time and need to put things together Top Down - it's when you use background knowledge and experience to influence perception.Brainstemthe oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functionsBroca's aphasiamakes words broca sounds like boca which is the Spanish word for mouthBystander effectthe tendency for individuals to be less likely to help another person in need when other bystanders are present, or believed to be present, as compared to when they are alone, and, the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely any one of them is to helpCannon Bard's Theory of EmotionAn emotion- arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers psychological responses and the subjective experience of emotion ie. feeling happy makes you smileCarl Rogers: person (client) centered theoryHumanistic psychologist who believed in unconditional positive regard; people will naturally strive for self actualization and high- self esteem, unless society taints them; reflected back clients thoughts so that they developed a self-awareness of their feelings: CLIENT CENTERED THERAPYCarol Gilligan's critique of Kohlberg's theoryMaintained the Kohlberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgement of men and womenCatharsisthe process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.Classical conditioning vs. Operant conditioninginvoluntary, a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being associated with a stimulus that already elicits that response vs Voluntary, a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.Classical conditioning (acquisition, spontaneous recovery, extinction, generalization, discrimination)Spontaneous recovery- in classical conditioning, the reappearance after a period of time of a conditioned response that has been subjected to extinction extinction- in classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of the conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus Discrimination- in classical conditioning, giving a conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus but not to stimuli similar to it. Example: Pavlov's dog will only salivate when it hears the hand bell ring, and WILL NOT salivate when it hears a siren, chime or, other similar sounds Generalization- In classical conditioning, stimulus generalization occurs when a new stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response. Example: Pavlov's dog salivating when it hears a door bell (same as it would with a hand bell)Chameleon Effect (social mimicry)tendency to adopt postures, gestures, and mannerism of interaction partners (type of mimicry)Chomsky's Language Acquisition DeviceBelieved that there are an infinite number of sentences in a language and that humans have an inborn naïve ability to develop language; words and concepts are learned but the brain is hardwired for grammar and language.Cognitive dissonancewe act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistentCocktail party effectthe ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises; , ability to attend to only one voice among manyCollectivist vs Individualistic culturesCollectivist cultures are focused on the group and family goals above the individual's while the individualist cultures prize the opposite.ConformityAdjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.Consciousnessour awareness of ourselves and our environmentControl groupGroup compared to the experimental group to see if a change has occurred because of the independent variableCorrelation coefficientA number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.Correlation studyNon-experimental research method used to investigate the degree and type of relationship between two or more variables. EG. air temperature and violent crimes, anxiety levels and health problems.Cortexes of the brain: major onesA cereal court where the judge is deciding which is the best cereal -- the decision making upper brainCritical periodsA critical period is a specific period in development during which an organism is most vulnerable to the deprivation or absence of certain environmental stimuli or experiences.Cross sectional studiesa study in which data is collected at one time that compares different people of different agesCrystalized vs fluid intelligenceCrystalized: accumulated knowledge (vocab, analogies) one's accumulated acknowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age Fluid: speedy and abstract reasoning (logic problems) refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly. Fluid intelligence tends to decline with age.CS-CR-UCS-UCRConditioned Stimulus - a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place Conditioned Response -the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus - A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning Unconditioned Response -a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulusDaniel Goleman's views of emotional intelligence and social intelligenceEMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions Also: he thinks you have to be able to take positive and negative comments so they don't affect you. SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE: Being able to tune into other people, reading them, being able to know how they are thinking and using that to communicate and motivate them effectively.David Rosenhan's study in a mental institutiondemonstrated how controversial labeling a psychological disorder can be. People who were interviewed by the mental institution were misdiagnosed and labeled a certain psychological disease, in which they acted in the way the label was given to them, and eventually made them ill. Concluded that we cannot distinguish sane people from insane people.Defense mechanismsunconscious effort or strategy to alter conditions perceived as painful in the human condition for the purposes of avoiding pain and maintaining self-image. -Examples: experiences of guilt, anxiety, frustration, anger or griefDeindividuationThe loss of personal identity and responsibility as a result of being in a crowd of people, wearing uniform, being in darkness or being in an altered state. The theory suggests that deindividuation results in a blocking of self-awareness and people lose their ability to maintain self‐control which can lead to aggressive behavior.DeinstitutionalizedThe removal of people with physical and mental challenges from institutions and better integration into the community. Many asylums and other institutions were closedDepressiona mood disorder characterized by intense sadness, feeling 'down' and worthless, and difficulties in functioning effectively in everyday life for a period of two weeks or moreDevelopmental psychologyA branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life spanDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM)used by clinicians and researchers to diagnose and classify mental disordersDifference Thresholdthe minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the timeDiscrimination (in learning theory and social relations)negative behavior derived from prejudiceDisplacementtaking one's anger or frustration on a person or object that is not the cause of the offenseDissociative disordersA form of defense mechanism against trauma that separates emotions from behaviors --Alterations of consciousness, memory, perception or identity .--Feelings of being unreal, forgetting one's name and past & splitting into various personalities, are characteristic of this disorders.Divergent and convergent thinkingDivergent- type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point Convergent- type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logicDorthea DixActivist who helped improve conditions of mental patientsDown SyndromeChromosomal disorder usually resulting in mental retardation, and specific characteristicsDream analysisthe therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client's dreams. Used as therapy to find real meaning of our dreams. Done by reversing process of manifest contentDrive reduction theoryStates that our behavior is motivated by biological needs. - A need is one of our requirements for survival (e.g., food, water, shelter). - A drive is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need. - Our body seeks homeostasis, a balanced internal state. When we are out of homeostasis, we have a need that creates a drive.Ear (parts)Outer-auricle (pinna), external meatus (canal) Middle-TM, ossicles, Inner-Oval window, cochlea, internal auditory meatusEating disorders-Eating disorders- such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder-include extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors surrounding weight and food issues. -Eating disorders are serious emotional and physical problems that can have life-threatening consequences.Ebbinghaus' research on memorya.k.a. flashbulb memory) research demonstrated the basic pattern of forgetting: relatively rapid loss of some information, followed by stable memories of the remaining informationEchoic memoryA momentary memory of auditory information. Sounds or words can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.Eidetic memoryThe ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure.(aka photographic memory)electroconvulsive shock therapylast resort therapy (induced brain seizures)~most common use is vs severe depression ~nerve and muscle activity blocked by drugs but not years ago ~consider that therapists already have trouble isolating effects and now consider inducing a general seizure thought the brain and the possible side effects (memory loss)~70% not helps by other treatment improve after ECTElizabeth Loftus' research on eye witness testimony-One of the most influential researchers involved in memory manipulation -Famous study into eyewitness testimonies found that the presence of leading questions and presuppositions can impact the individuals reconstruction of a memoryEmpircismThe belief that the only source of true knowledge is through our senses and that careful observation and measurement are needed to generate this form of knowledgeEndocrine systemEndocrine systemEndorphins"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.Episodic memory (aka flashbulb)Endel Tulving (distinguishes b/w 2 types of memory) Episodic memory is a type of LTM for personally experienced events or information (ex: HS prom & graduation)"mental time travel"EpigenicsChanges in gene expression that occur without changes in DNA sequence, how we can use the same genome and get so many different cells!Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial developmentPeople evolve through 8 states over the life span; each state is marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I"Ethics of researchinformed consent protection from harm/discomfort maintain confidentiality debriefingEthnocentrismBelief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.experimental designA design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationshipExtinctionthe diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.Eye partscornea pupil/iris lens retina fovea optic nerve blind spotfacial expressions (6 universal)Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, disgustFalse consensus effectthe tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviorsFeature (signal) detector cells: Hubel & Wisel's research on visual processingDid a study of the activities of neurons in the visual cortex.Feature analysisthe process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form