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Terms in this set (112)
What three birds are in the order Piciformes?
Woodpeckers, toucans, honey guides
Attachment point for the long tongue that wraps around the back in the skull
What is an interesting behavior done by honeyguides?
Fly in front of an animal and does enticing behavior that gets the animal to follow it to a bee's nest.
They then have the animal break open the hive and feed on the honey and wax.
What are the two endangered species of woodpeckers?
What is the conservation issue of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker?
Don't know if it is extinct or not, cut down all the trees in a swamp forest to make parts for battleships. This woodpecker was an old-growth forest specialist so it went extinct?
What is the conservation issue with the Red-cockaded Woodpecker?
They are in the southeast United States and live in long leaf pine forests.
There is a conflict with timber industry harvesting the important habitat.
Secondary cavity nesters
group of species dependent on woodpeckers and other cavity makers
leaving some dead trees behind after harvesting to allow woodpeckers to drill cavities into
regular and seasonal movement of populations, usually between a breeding area and a wintering area
Needs to be ______________________ & ______________________
______________________ can fly 10000s of km on ______________________ trips but this ______________________ considered ______________________, because it is not a movement between ______________________.
regular, seasonal, Albatross, foraging, isn't, migration, seasonal
Move in some years, not others
What species of bird use the movement irruption?
Finches & Snowy Owls
little regular pattern
What species of bird uses nomadism?
What is the gradient of movement pattern?
Nomadism is the least movement, irruptions, and migrations are the extreme form of movement.
How do we study migration?
-Radio or satellite transmitters
What is the problem with banding?
hard to find the bird again
What is the problem with radio or satellite transmitters?
What is the problem with a radar?
don't know what species is moving
paths regularly taken by large numbers of birds
What are the 4 flyways?
Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, Pacific
What family of bird led to the defined paths that birds migrate and why?
waterfowl, they are game birds and so hunters reported the banded birds after hunting them.
______________________ concentrations of ______________________ stopped ______________________ ______________________.
______________________ concentrations of birds in ______________________ geographic space.
Good for ______________________, but not great for ______________________, because ______________________ want to get to where they want to go and if they have to ______________________ then it is very ______________________.
Fallout happens because ______________________ and ______________________/ other conditions that force birds to stop in one spot.
large, migrants, en route, large, small, birders, birds, birds, stop, stressful, human, weather
What are some long-distance champions?
What is the migration pattern of the American Golden-Plover?
Breed in high artic and winter in South America
What is the migration pattern of the Artic Tern?
Breed in high artic and winter in the Antartic ocean
What species of bird flies southeast across the Atlantic Ocean (which should take them to Africa), but trade winds blow them back to northern South America?
COSTS OF MIGRATION
Birds must change whole ______________________ & ______________________ to migrate. It is the equivalent to a human running ______________________ miles for ______________________ hours straight. ______________________ costs high also. ______________________ million ducks estimated to go south in the fall, but only ______________________ million return each spring.
body, metabolism, 4, 80, Survivorship, 100, 40
Migrants store energy in the form of ______________________ (______________________) rather than ______________________. This is because it yields ______________________ as much energy per gram. 3 to 5% of the body mass is ______________________ in ______________________. 13 to 25% of the body mass is ______________________ in ______________________ ______________________, and 30 to 47% of the body mass is ______________________ in ______________________ ______________________.
lipids, fat, carbohydrates, lipids, nonmigrants, lipids, short-distance migrants, lipids, long-distance migrants
Taking how much lipids a bird is carrying, converting it to energy content, then to how much energy is burned per mile, and then finally calculating the number of miles that can be flown
places to feed along the way
______________________ or ______________________ near ______________________ but also ______________________ patches.
One example: "______________________ ______________________" used by migrating ______________________.
islands, peninsulas, coast, inland, hemispheric reserves, shorebirds
CHARACTERISTICS OF STOPOVER SITES
______________________ in quality. Full-service hotels provide ______________________ the needs. Convenience stores provide ______________________ needs. Fire escapes provide ______________________ resources and are used as a ______________________ place for ______________________.
Stopover sites are often large ______________________ patches, but could be ______________________ patches or even just a ______________________ ______________________.
variable, all, some, no, temporary, refuge, forest, small, single tree.
TIMING OF MIGRATION
Desire to migrate is cued by ______________________ (not ______________________ ______________________)
Main external cue is ______________________ because it is very ______________________ and ______________________. (response mainly in the lengthening of ______________________ time).
Captive birds of migrant species will show ______________________ behavior and try to ______________________ while still in the cage.
hormones, food levels,
daylength, consistent, predictable, night
What is the largest order of almost half of all known birds?
What foot type do songbirds have?
What are the three nicknames of order passeriformes?
Where did the name Passerine and Passeriformes come from?
First species/genus in the order to be discovered: House sparrow, genus name: Passer
Anisodactyl foot function
Allows birds to perch easily on wires, twigs, etc. with little no energy expenditure
non equal toed, three in front, hallux in the back
Two major groups: ______________________ & ______________________.
Differ in ______________________ structure; use of ______________________.
The Great Crested Flycatcher is an example of an ______________________ and the Black-throated Blue Warbler is an example of an ______________________.
suboscines, oscines, syrinx, song
Have ______________________ syrinx and ______________________ complex songs.
Mostly suboscines are ______________________.
______________________ ______________________ are the only common suboscines found in North Ameria.
simple, less, tropical, Tyrant Flycatchers
What are the four most common flycatchers in Indiana?
-Great Crested Flycatcher
Many tropical species have very limited ______________________, so ______________________ ______________________ is a problem.
For tyrant flycatchers in North America, some species are "______________________", so ______________________ ______________________ is a problem. Example: ______________________ Flycatcher
ranges, tropical deforestation,
area-sensitive, forest fragmentation, Acadian
Ability to move from one location to another.
Ability to orient oneself relative to compass points and move in desired direction.
NAVIGATION AND ORIENTATION
Navigation requires a ______________________ and a ______________________, while orientation requires a ______________________.
Migratory birds have the ability to travel hundreds to thousands of miles and return to the ______________________ location. Sometimes nesting on the ______________________ hillside or in the ______________________ tree for ______________________ ______________________ years.
map, compass, compass, exact, same, same, multiple consecutive
What was the experiment with the White-Crowned Sparrow?
-Taken from winter territory in San Jose, CA and shipped/released to Louisiana. Returned next winter to same territory in California having flown to breeding territory in Alaska in interim.
-Repeated but shipped them to Maryland instead and got the same results.
What is the "map" sense in birds?
unknown and poorly understood?
What is the compass sense in birds? (5)
What is the most famous compass "sense" and most studied?
device where captive bird sits on ink pad, and can see possible cue. Foot marks show direction of movement.
What does it mean if the foot markers in an emlen cage are in the same direction? Scattered about?
Bird is migrating
Just wants to get out
What does the emlen cage make use of with captive migratory birds?
Can birds tell time?
Change bird's sense of time in the lab. Start "morning" at different times each morning until birds expect daybreak at a different time from the real world.
-Then release birds during migration and predict movements. Typically go in the wrong direction due to different positions in the atmosphere.
Uses same mechanism as the ___________________ ___________________, but done at ___________________.
Can use ___________________ in studies to "turn ___________________" potential cues.
Birds orient using ___________________ but not the ones we have defined
sun compass, night, planetarium, off, constellations
Navigation by olfaction ___________________ commonly studied in birds, but it appears that avian sense of smell is ___________________.
Some birds like ___________________ and ___________________ can find ___________________ ___________________ by following familiar ___________________.
isn't, underappreciated, pigeons, storm-petrels, local landmarks, smells
Earth's ___________________ ___________________
Establish ___________________ and ___________________ girds
Good: does not disappear on ___________________ days
Bad: can be ___________________ ___________________.
Could possibly provide ___________________.
Geomagnetisms varies in ___________________ ways.
magnetic field, N-S, E-W, cloudy, distorted locally, map, predictable
HOW DO BIRDS SENSE MAGNETISM
Might involve ___________________ of ___________________ in ___________________. However, people do not know how the birds detect the ___________________ ___________________.
It might also involve ___________________ molecules within ___________________ that is sensitive to ___________________. These molecules are only photosensitive when struck by ___________________ light. It also could depend on the wavelengths of light passing through the ___________________ and not the ___________________.
crystals, magnetite, skull, magnetite, changing
photosensitive, eye, magnetism, blue, skull, eye
FINAL NAVIATION NOTES
Individual birds may use ___________________ ___________________ compass orientation systems. ___________________ systems is helpful when the ___________________ system ___________________ available. ___________________ or ___________________ are often the most important, but must have ___________________ system in case of ___________________ weather. Geomagnetism may also be ___________________ and can be distorted by ___________________ with lots of ___________________.
several different, multiple, primary, isn't, Star, sun, cloudy, unreliable, mountains, iron
What groups of birds where formerly not thought as closely related, but now are considered part of "Australian" radiaion?
Corvids, shrikes, vireos
Morphological features: ___________________ ___________________ and ___________________ ___________________.
Conservation: ___________________ and ___________________ are nest predators associated with ___________________ ___________________ where predation ___________________.
Strong bills, strong intelligence
jays, crows, habitat fragments, increases
Morphological feature: often placed in fieldguids near ___________________ due to similar ___________________ but still have a small ___________________ on bill.
Conservation: Rely on many ___________________ and ___________________ species, so ___________________ ___________________ and ___________________ are issues.
___________________ ___________________ are the most abundant bird in Indiana.
warblers, plumage, hook
forest, shrub, habitat loss, fragmentation
Morphological feature: ___________________ bill.
Conservation: ___________________ ___________________ has ___________________ greatly East and Midwest, but ___________________ in West. They are also the ___________________ breeding bird in Indiana.
Store excess food by sticking on ___________________ and ___________________ fences. The more the stored ___________________ the more ___________________.
hooked, Loggerhead shrike, declined, stable, rarest, thorns, barbwire, food, mates
WHAT IS A SPECIES?
Important question, because changes in ___________________ names and ___________________ ___________________ impact birders, also impacts ___________________ and ___________________.
An example is with the development of the ___________________ Goose splitting from the ___________________ Goose
common, species status, conservation, management
What is the biological species concept?
group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other populations.
What is the evidence on which the biological species concept can be defined? (6)
size, plumage, shape, behavior, niche, and geographic range.
APPEARANCES CAN BE DECIVING
Not all ___________________ in these factors indicate ___________________ species. For example it was thought that the ___________________ and ___________________ but it turns out that they were just different ___________________ ___________________. The ___________________ goose, however, looks just like the ___________________ goose but they are separate species.
differences, separate, "Snow", "Blue", color morphs, Snow, Ross's
Regional population where 75% of individuals can be distinguished from those of other populations.
___________________ of all North American species have ___________________.
By some measures, the ___________________ ___________________ was one of the North American's most variable species, but the ___________________ ___________________ still is.
2/3, subspecies, Canada Goose, Song Sparrow
Phylogenetic species concept
A species is the smallest aggregation of population with unique evolutionary history
What is an example of reproductive isolation being hard to determine?
The Florida Scrub-jay rarely moves far from it's range and is a cooperative breeder. The Western Scrub-jay has a simple mating system and never goes East of the Mississippi. While both birds look nearly the exact same, they have different breeding patterns and thought that they are different species, however, the reproductive isolation is hard to prove because both species are so fa
The study of characteristics of populations
What is typically included as demographic traits?
survivorship, fecundity, sex ratio, age structure.
When are mortality rates high among birds less than one year old?
initially very high
What is the source of death for the first period in a birds life?
What is the source of death for birds in the latter period?
What is the demographic pattern for adult birds?
Mortality rates are lower (thus survivorship higer) and more constant for adults.
What are some other survivorship patterns (3)
-Large birds live longer than small birds
-Seabirds live longer than landbirds
-Tropical species live longer than temperate zone birds.
Reproductive success ___________________ with age and experience. It can be measured on an ___________________ basis, or over a bird's entire ___________________. ___________________ reproductive success is usually hard to measure, but a ___________________ life-history parameter. It is hard to measure because it is ___________________ to follow birds for their ___________________ ___________________ and it is ___________________ to find young birds during ___________________ and find where they ___________________.
increases, annual, lifetime, lifetime, critical, hard, entire lifetime, hard, dispersal, settle
What is lifetime reproductive success affected by?
-Age at first breeding (normally the most important factor)
-Number of broods per season
-Predation and parasitism rates
Long-lived species have ___________________ ___________________ and visa versa. Long-lived species often have ___________________ clutches, attempt only ___________________ brood per year, and may wait ___________________ year(s) before trying to breed.
Short-lived species must put a ___________________ effort in each ___________________ effort.
This lead to hypothesis that there is a ___________________ ___________________ between putting effort into ___________________ or into ___________________/___________________.
One well studied aspect of these demographic patters is ___________________ ___________________ .
low fecundity, small, one, several, larger, reproductive, general tradeoff reproduction, maintenance, survivorship, delayed breeding
A deviation from the common pattern where birds do not attempt to breed until more than 2 years old.
Non-territorial individuals that move through regions looking for open territories.
What are the benefits of the phylogenetic species concept?
Cheaper to research
More inclusive by making use of museum specimens
Includes extinct species
What does the phylogenetic species concept emphasize over the biological species concept?
Emphasizes evolutionary differences and not reproductive isolation.
Are scrub jays considered completely different species under the phylogenetic species concept?
Yes, the western scrub jay was even split into two more species.
What are the four families that are linked by winter flocking behavior?
What winter flocking behavior is observed in families sittidae, paridae, certhidae, and troglodytidae?
In the winter territoriality breaks down and mixed-species flocks form.
What is a unique behavior of the mixed-species flocks of the chickadees, nuthatches, creepers, and wrens?
Draw attention to predators and dive bomb the predators in mobbing displays to get them to leave them alone for the winter.
Most species are common, familiar _______________ birds. They readily come to _______________ so they are _______________.
Chickadees, nuthatches, and some wrens are _______________ _______________ _______________ so they are affected by _______________ _______________ which aims to help these families. Creepers nest in a _______________ formed by the _______________ of bark, so they also depend on _______________ _______________.
The _______________ _______________ has mostly disappeared from eastern states.
yard, feeders, popular
secondary cavity nesters, snag retention, gap, flaking, dead trees
The movement of genes between populations.
GENE FLOW & SPECIATION
Gene flow _______________ genetics & morphological _______________.
_______________ is a critical process in determining whether populations are _______________.
reduces, variation, dispersal, linked
Distance moved by young birds from natal site to site of first breeding attempt
Distance moved by older birds to change breeding sties.
What are the two dispersal patterns?
1. females move greater distances than males
2. Natal dispersal is greater than adult breeding dispersal.
When individuals have the ability to inherit natal territory, who inherits it?
Male, that's why females typically disperse
Why is it important to disperse?
Reduces the likelihood of inbreeding
What are the benefits of tracking as opposed to traditional banding studies?
Too large of an area to search to find the bird again.
What gives better results for dispersal?
light-weight but super small tracking device that tracks birds for 1 year.
What is the downside of using a geolocator
Have to find the bird again to retrieve the data.
What are the common routes of speciation?
Islands and vicariance
Original range broken by barriers such as mountains, rivers, etc.
When does speciation occur?
When dispersal ends and populations become more isolated.
What is the process of speciation?
1. Populations change while isolated
2. May come into secondary contact
3. They are separate species if they show positive assortive mating
when two populations that have diverged in isolation reunited
Positive assortative mating
like attracts like
region where hybrids are present in the zone of overlap between populations
Sometimes when populations come back into secondary contact they can produce _______________.
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