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ch. 15 biomechanics
Terms in this set (47)
mechanical stress and injury:
forces acting on a body are responsible for the occurrence of injury
what is damage to a tissue that inhibits performance?
the distribution of a force over a body it acts on
compressive stress is associated with a variety of injury types:
chondromalacia patella, collapse vertebrae, spinal chord injury, etc
when a force pulls on a body
loading the medial collateral when struck from the lateral side is a type of what stress?
lateral malleolus and medial epicondyle;
force that slides bodies across each other
loading of the knee during planting and cutting, menisci and hyaline cartilage of knee often are subjected to what type of stress?
tissue respone to stress:
a tissue adapts to the level of stress imposed on it;
that is the level of adaptation in a tissue reflects the level of typical loading
wolffs law occurs with muscle, bone, tendons, and ligaments?
protuberances and landmarks on bones are what to stress?
when bone adapts, mineralization increases, which aligns trabeculae in the direction of imposed stress?
muscle adapts by increasing what?
CSA; individual fibers increase in diameter
what have to align according to stress?
collagen and elastin in tendons and ligaments
what does wolffs law not apply to?
controlling the level of imposed stress is important in training various tissues and avoiding injury?
true; stress continium
with an active lifestyle, the level of what is usual kept within the physiologic loading zone?
muscle maintains the same force capability, bone mineral content stays the same, and tendons and ligaments maintain their ability to withstand tensile stress?
physiologic training zone:
level of stress imposed above that to which the tissue has adapted
what happens when you exceed the yield strength in the training zone?
remodeling occurs with adequate rest and imposes adaptations to tissues;
healing leads to hypertrophy and strengenthing
means that the imposed tissue loading purposely exceeds the tissues yield threshold and causes microdamage, but adequate rest allowing for rebuilding
magnitude of systematic loading and training is dependent on what?
genetics, diet, rest, hormonal changes
too low a stress or too high a stress brings about undesirable changes that compromise tissue changes
single application of a relatively high level stress causes injury
can occur following repeated applications of a stress lower than that required to cause injury in a single application
example of overuse injuries:
shin splints, tendonitis, bursitis
the higher the magnitude of stress imposed, the fewer the repetitions needed for an injury to develop?
what determines whether a load will induce adaptations or lead to injury?
often will depend on the amount of time provided for remodeling
difficult to determine an individuals tissue threshold?
different tissues have different thresholds?
bones has a greater tissue threshold than a tendon, greater than ligament, and greater than cartilage
injury threshold varies within each tissue according to what of stress?
bone is the what in compression and what in shear?
highest in compression and lowest in shear
injury threshold reflects differences in what?
genetics, training, and tissue adaptations
rate of recovery and remodeling differs among individuals?
characteristics that describe the individual; ability to withstand loading
skeletal structure (bone density and joint alignment), current fitness level (muscle strength, endurance, flexibility)
characteristics of the task and environment, nature of the loading that will be imposed
task related factors:
nature of the task; how an individual performs the task, movement patterns, frequency, speed of duration
surface played on, rules used, skill level and number of treatments and opponents, weather, etc
intrinsic factors taken together set the threshold for the stress that may cause an injury?
extrinsic factors taken together reflect the potential for the given performance to impose a stress that exceeds the threshold value determined by the intrinsic factors
the slops of a paved roadway (extrinsic) interacts with the leg length (intrinsic) to create, reduce, or increase inequality and injury potential
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