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All final vocabulary
Terms in this set (88)
a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex structures.
Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Group of closely related classes
invertebrates with an internal skeleton and a system of fluid-filled tubes called a water vascular system
the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
Animals without backbones
bottom of an aquatic ecosystem; consists of sand and sediment and supports its own community of organisms
Having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals
displaying structural differences between the sexes
method of reproduction in fishes and some other animals where a large number of eggs are fertilized outside of the body
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
sun protection factor
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission
waves with higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths than visible light
electromagnetic waves that you can see
Light at either end of the visible spectrum of light that is invisible to the naked eye.
Protective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.
covalent link of adjacent thymine bases in DNA
Mutated single strand nucleotide excision repair gene, which prevents repair of thymidine dimers.; Dry skin w/ melanoma and other cancers ("children of the night").
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
a scale from 0-10 that provides an indicator of how intense UV radiation will be. Sun protection methods are recommended for any UV index score of 3 and over.
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
Microscopic vessel through which exchanges take place between the blood and cells of the body
A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.
carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart
Circuit of blood that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body.
Each of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood that comes into the heart
lower chamber of the heart
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
Valves of the heart
tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, aortic
blood pressure (BP)
measurement of pressure exerted by blood against walls of blood vessel
A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as the number of beats per minute.
Blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.
Phase of the heartbeat between two contractions- heart muscle relaxes and fills with blood
high blood pressure
low blood pressure
blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
a condition in which blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing heart cells to die
unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
embryonic stem cells
An undifferentiated cell, taken from an embryo that has potential to give rise to various other cell or tissue types THEY ARE CONTROVERSIAL
adult stem cells
stem cells that are found in adults that can differentiate and form a limited number of cells not controversial
Cord Blood-derived Embryonic-like Stem Cells (CBEs)
Isolated from umbilical cord after birth
Can make any type of blood cell.
Cannot be kept dividing in culture indefinitely but can be stored.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Made of a single cell
cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body (including the cells that make up the extraembryonic membranes and placenta)
cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells not placenta
iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells)
Somatic cells that have been genetically altered such that they become pluripotent.
Cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types
A fluid-filled sphere formed about 5 days after fertilization of an ovum that is made up of an outer ring of cells and inner cell mass. THis is the structure that implants in the endometrium of the uterus.
Can only become one type of cell
In vitro fertilization
A procedure in which gametes are fertilized in a dish in the laboratory, and the resulting zygote is implanted in the uterus for development
The production of embryonic stem cells for use in replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
Reproductive cloning method in which the DNA of an adult donor's body cell is transferred into an unfertilized egg.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liquid (as water) for microscopic examination
Units of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the body
the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
all the chemical reactions that occur in the body; how calories are burned
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
energy used to digest foods and beverages as well as absorb and further process the macronutrients
A fat that is solid at room temperature and found in animal fats, lards, and dairy products.
A fat that is liquid at room temperature and found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.
A lipid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugars)
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intact in plants
removes waste from the body
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