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Arts and Humanities
W. Civ. Ch. 25-Notes 25.1-25.2
Terms in this set (84)
Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, internal strife, and alliances all played a role in starting ____________________.
The decisions made by European countries in response to a crisis in the _______________ however led to the war.
Much of the world now controlled by the _______________ in the 1900.
___________________ victories over Austria and France allowed for the creation of a unified German Empire in 1871.
balance of power
The ___________________ created at the Congress of Vienna was altered and threw the diplomacy of Europe off-balance.
Britain and Russia
_____________________ retained power while Austrian and France lost power and territory and were resentful towards Germany.
Otto von Bismarck
__________________ known as "the iron chancellor", was chancellor of Germany for 20 years and the preeminent statesman of his time.
"the iron chancellor"
Otto von Bismarck known as _________________, was chancellor of Germany for 20 years and the preeminent statesman of his time.
He kept the peace in Europe during his time in power by trying to keep France from joining an alliance with any other European power which would threaten Germany on 2 sides.
How did Bismarck maintain peace in Europe?
Russia and Austria
what countries did Bismarck keep France from forming alliances in
Three Emperors' League
In 1873, Bismarck established the ______________ with German, Austria, and Russia but it collapsed when Russia and France went to war in 1877.
In 1871, annoyed with Russia, Bismarck made a secret treaty with ___________ resulting in a dual alliance saying that if either was attacked by Russia, the other would help and if attacked by someone else the other would remain neutral.
In 1871, annoyed with Russia, Bismarck made a secret treaty with Austria resulting in a __________ saying that if either was attacked by Russia, the other would help and if attacked by someone else the other would remain neutral.
If either Germany or Austria was attacked by Russia, the other would help and if attacked by someone else the other would remain neutral.
What did the dual alliance with Austria say?
The dull alliance treaty was renewed every ____________ until 1918.
Treaty now seen as a _______________ as it isolated Russia and pushed them to look to the West for alliances.
It isolated Russia, and pushed them to look to the West for alliances.
Why was the dual alliance treaty considered a mistake?
1882, _________________ asked to join the Dual Alliance and now Germany was allied with 3 of the great powers of Europe, was friendly with Great Britain who stayed out of alliances and had isolated France.
Treaty of Alliance
The new _____________ was a boon for Germany.
In 1888, _______________ comes to power in Germany and wanted a powerful navy and colonies.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
The rise of _________________ to power in Germany would lead to problems for Bismarck.
Wilhelm's II plan ran counter to Bismarck's diplomatic plans and the 2 quickly began to have many disagreements which ended in 1890 with Wilhelm II _____________ Bismarck from power.
Immediately after Bismarck's _____________ his system of alliances collapsed.
In 1894, France and Russia signed the ___________________ and Germany saw itself with 2 potential foes on wither side of its border.
___________ now became the major key to the political situation in Europe and they soon saw Germany as an enemy because of its growing naval power and foreign policy of empire building.
Because of its growing naval power and foreign policy of empire building.
Why did Britain see Germany as an enemy?
Boers of South Africa
German first tried to win Britain over in the 1890's, but that effort failed and Germany began supporting the ________________ against Britain.
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz
Germany also was building a large modern navy to compete with Britain's under the control of __________________.
practice of avoiding permanent alliances
These changes in the international situation forced Britain to abandon its splendid isolation, which means _____________________________.
1902, Britain entered an alliance with _____________ to defend British interests in the Far East.
In 1904, France and Britain into an alliance called the _________________.
it set the stage for future cooperation between the two countries.
The Entente Cordiale was not a formal treaty and had no military significance, so what did it do?
making them allies
Germany's bullying of France from 1905-1906 drove France and Britain closer together and by 1914, their military planning were initially dependent on each other essentially ____________________.
1907, France helped settle differences with Britain and Russia and the 3 nations formed the ____________________ against the Triple Alliance of Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungry.
Britain, France, and Russia
Who formed the Triple Entente?
Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
Who formed the Triple Alliance?
Which country was an unreliable ally in the Triple Alliance?
France instead of isolation, was now allied with 2 of the greatest powers in Europe against _________________.
Bismarck's worst ___________ now faced Germany.
1914- _____________ which was supported by Russia wanted to create a Slavic state in the Balkans. Austria-Hungry was equally against this happening.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
June 26, 1914- _________________, heir to the Austrian Empire and his wife Sophia visited the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia.
A group of assassins was there waiting for them. A 19 year old named ___________, a Bosnian Serb, was a member of a terrorist organization known as the Black Hand that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungry.
A group of assassins was there waiting for them. A 19 year old named Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, was a member of a terrorist organization known as the _________ that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungry.
They wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungary
Why did the terrorist group the Black Hand want the Archduke assassinated?
Archduke and his wife
An assassination attempt failed earlier that day, but Princip succeeded in killing the _____________________.
Austria was not sure if the ________________ was responsible for the attack but wanted to punish them for the attack.
Austria asked for, and received, the support of the Germans because they were nervous about what ________ would do in response.
This German support given by Wilhelm II is known as the _____________ in promising support if war broke out between Russia and Austria.
This Blank Check would lead to major problems for _______________.
1914, Europe was in 2 rival camps of the Triple Entente of Britain, Russia, France and the Triple alliance of Italy, German, Austria-Hungry. ______________ declaration of war on Serbia set off a chain reaction within the complicated alliance system in Europe.
Nearly all Europe would be at war in the largest, deadliest conflict to that time. _______________ Czar Nikolas II of Russia began partial mobilization of the Russian army.
Czar Nicholas II
July 28, _____________ of Russia began partial mobilization of the Russian army.
July 29, Full mobilization began, even though it would provoke __________ with Germany.
On _________ Germany declares war on Russia.
On __________ Germany declares was on France.
The Central Powers verses _________ battle lines had been drawn.
Germany reacted to Russia mobilization by giving the Russians __________ to stand down.
August 1, 1914
When Russia did not listen, Germany declared war on _____________.
The Germans, like the Russians, had a ___________________.
General Alfred von Schlieffen
_________________ drew up a plan in 1905 known as the Schlieffen Plan which called for a 2-front war against France and Russia.
General Alfred von Schlieffen drew up a plan in 1905 known as the _________which called for a 2-front war against France and Russia.
According to the Schlieffen Plan, Germany would hold Russia hold to the East, while most of the German Army would attack rapidly against France through the flat terrain of ____________ (who wan netural)
Germany would hold Russia off to the East, while most of the German Army would attack rapidly against France through the flat terrain of Belgium. After defeating France, Germany would quickly move its army East to attack and defeat Russia.
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
On August 3, Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium to allow ________________ to pass through, which was refused.
Belgium declared war
Due to German violation of Belgium neutrality that day, __________________ on August 4th.
After Belgium declaring war, this meant all the major powers of ______________ were involved in the war.
Germany's hole for a __________ and victory rested on the success of the Schlieffen Plan to sweep through Belgium, attack Paris, and surround the French Army.
Battle of the Marne
The German advance was slow and allowed the allies time to slow them and their attack was halted 30 miles from Paris, at the first _______________.
Sept. 6-10, 1914
French minister sent troops into battle quickly on 2,000 taxis from Parish to help win the battle from_____________.
The war soon changed into _______________ and a war of attrition with trenches stretching from the English Channel to Switzerland and barely moved for 4 years.
English Channel to Switzerland
The war soon changed into trench warfare and a war of attrition with trenches stretching from the ______________ and barely moved for 4 years.
_______________ saw more movement than the West, but was just as deadly.
Battle of Tannenberg and Battle of Masurian Lake
The Germans won 2 quick victories against the Russians at the ____________ in August/September 1914.
After the defeats at the Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes, the ______________were no longer a major threat to the Germans.
Italy also betrayed their alliance with Germany and Austria and attacked Austria in _________.
__________ was used by both sides and forced the development of gas masks.
_____________ first saw widespread use and could wipe out waves of attacking men.
______________ first saw combat in WWI in 1916 at the Battle of Somme.
Battle of the Somme
Tanks first saw combat in WWI in 1916 at the ___________________.
______________ also used by the Germans beginning in 1914 to attack worships and merchant shipping.
food, ammo, and clothing
1916, Russia near collapse due to Russia's lack of industrialization and its army was short of ______________.
lack-industrialization, army, food, ammo, and clothing
Russia's near collapse was due because of :
The Russians managed to hold on for ________ trying down German troops in the East.
Casualities also mounting into the ___________
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