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PHSC 7 Quiz 1 study questions

Terms in this set (82)

a. ANS: A contextualist approach balances all relevant factors, including all applicable norms, in a particular context. Thus officials may balance public health goals against rules of privacy in order to determine which is weightier in a specific situation. Advantages of this approach include its flexibility as well as its attention to the particularities of different situations; one disadvantage is its possible arbitrariness and unpredictability
b. A presumptivist approach falls between absolutist and contextualist. . Hence, in thinking about means to achieve public health goals in a liberal, pluralistic, democratic society, it is important to put to put more initial weight on the liberty (privacy, confidentiality, etc.) end of the scale, at least to the extent of placing the burden of proof on proponents of policies and actions that infringe upon these personal interests. This also implies a tentative (but nonabsolute) priority for interventions that do not violate liberty and related norms unless necessary and unless other conditions are met. Our "public philosophy" entails this approach. Its presumptions, oftenexpressed in the legal-like language of burden of proof, serve to structure moral deliberation and justificatory arguments in situations of uncertainty and indeterminate norms.9
c. a presumptivist framework best structures public health ethics in a liberal, pluralistic,democratic society. A presumptivist framework sets presumptions about means and interventions, but also views these presumptions as rebuttable and identifies the conditions fortheir rebuttal. Hence, it avoids certain deficiencies of both the absolutist and the contextualistapproaches. On the one hand, it is clearly non absolutist, since either liberty or public healthcan take priority in some situations. On the other hand, it moves beyond the contextualistapproach's metaphorical balancing by admitting presumptions, burdens of proof, startingpoints, initial tentative weights, or heuristics in the selection of means to achieve the goalof public health.