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World History Chapter 17: Catholic Reformation

Chapter 17 World History study guide review questions
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What was the sale of indulgences?
The Catholic church sold indulgences to followers to forgive sins. People believed they could buy their way out of purgatory or hell.
How did Martin Luther respond to the selling of indulgences?
Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses challenging the pardons
How did the printing press affect the argument of selling indulgences?
It allowed Martin Luther to make several copies spreading his disagreement throughout Germany starting the Reformation
What is a reformation?
movement for religious reform
How did Martin Luther believe people may earn salvation?
Through faith alone
How did the Catholic Church believe people may earn salvation?
Through faith and good works
What did Martin Luther believe church teachings should be based on?
The Bible alone
What did Martin Luther believe about the Pope and church traditions?
They were false authorities
What did Martin Luther believe about people and faith?
All people of faith are equal.
Did Martin Luther believe priests needed to interpret the Bible?
No
What did Pope Leo X issue towards Martin Luther?
A decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he recanted.
What did the Edict of Worms of Charles V include?
1. No one was to give Luther food
2. No one was to give Luther shelter
3. Books of Luther were burned
What did Prince Frederick do for Martin Luther after the Edict of Worms was handed down?
He sheltered Martin Luther in one of his castles.
What did Martin Luther and his followers decide to do when he returned to Wittenberg, Germany?
They decided to make a separate religious group called Lutherans.
What did German peasants excited about reform do?
They demanded an end to serfdom and revolted against the princes.
How did the peasants demand an end to serfdom?
Raided and burned down monasteries.
What did Martin Luther do when he learned that German peasants were burning down monasteries?
He urged the German princes to show the peasants no mercy.
What did the German princes do to the revolting peasants?
They crushed the revolt killing 100,000 people.
How did the German peasants respond to Martin Luther's actions of crushing the revolt?
Feeling betrayed, many peasants rejected Luther's teachings
What were the German princes called that protested the agreement to join forces against Luther's ideas?
Protestants
What is a Protestant?
Christian who belonged to a non-Catholic church.
What do Calvinists believe God has known since the beginning of time?
Who will be saved (predestination). People cannot earn salvation.
What were the followers of John Knox called?
Presbyterians
What did Anabaptists believer regarding baptism?
Only persons old enough to decide to be Christian should be baptized. Anabaptists = Adult Baptism
What were 3 beliefs of Anabaptists?
1. church and state are separate
2. refused to fight in wars
3. shared their possessions
What was the Catholic Reformation?
Movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself and encourage Catholics to remain loyal
Jesuit Missionaries or the "Society of Jesus" were created by who?
The Pope
What were 3 actions of reform by the Jesuits?
1. Founded schools throughout Europe
2. Converted Non-Christians to Catholics
3. Stopped the spread of Protestantism
What were 3 decisions made by the Council of Trent?
1. Church's interpretation of the Bible was final
2. Christians need both faith and good works for salvation
3. Bible and church traditions were equally powerful authorities
What did the Council of Trent say about the false sale of indulgences?
The false sale of indulgences was banned from the Catholic church.
What were 3 social effects of the Reformation?
1. Index of forbidden books
2. More emphasis on education to promote beliefs
3. Violence between Protestants and Catholics
What were 3 political effects of the Reformation?
1. Monarchs and states gained more power
2. Development of modern nation-states
3. Catholic church lost power
What was the Act of Supremacy?
Made the king the head of the Catholic church and not the Pope
What does annul mean?
To cancel
What does excommunication mean?
Taking away someone's right to membership in the church
What does recant mean?
To take back what was said.
What does heretic mean?
Someone who holds beliefs that are different from the Catholic church.
What order were Henry VIII's children born?
Mary, Elizabeth and Edward
What order did Henry VIII's children rule?
Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth
Which of Henry VIII's children ruled the longest?
Elizabeth (45 years called the Elizabethan Age)
Which of Henry VIII's children burned protestants at the stake in order to return England to Catholicism?
Mary
Which of Henry VIII's children established the Protestant Church of England and completely broke from Rome?
Elizabeth
What are 3 economic effects of the reformation?
1. Less money is given to the church
2. More money and power for individual monarchs
3. Monarchs begin to explore and develop
What are 3 social causes of the reformation?
1. Humanism (Individualism)
2. Secularism (Worldly thoughts)
3. Printing press (spread the ideas of Luther and more people were reading)
What are 2 political causes of the reformation?
1. Monarchs challenged the church as the supreme power in Europe
2. Challenged the Pope's authority and saw him as a foreign leader
What are 2 economic causes of the reformation?
1. People resented paying taxes to the church
2. Princes and Kings were jealous of the church's growing wealth