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Med Terms Ch 8-13

Terms in this set (45)

anisocytosis

AN-ai-soh-SAI-toh-sis

an / iso /cyt/ osis

not / equal / cell / condition



Definition condition characterized by a great inequality in the size of red blood cells



elliptocyte

ee-LIP-toh-SAIT

ellipto / cyte

oval-shaped / cell



Definition oval red blood cells



elliptocytosis

ee-LIP-toh-SAI-toh-sis

ellipto / cyt / osis

oval-shaped / cell / condition



Definition condition characterized by an increase in the number of oval-shaped redblood cells



embolism

EM-boh-LIZ-um

embol /ism

embolus / condition



Definition blockage in a blood vessel caused by an embolus



embolus

EM-boh-lus

em / bolus

in / throw



Definition mass of matter present in the blood



Note: In Greek, this word means stopper, as in a cap for a bottle.


erythrocyte
erythrocyte

eh-RIH-throh-SAIT

erythro / cyte

red / cell

Definition red blood cell

erythrocytosis

eh-RIH-throh-sai-TOH-sis

erythro / cyt / osis

red / cell / condition

Definition abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells



hematopoiesis

heh-MAH-toh-poh-EE-sis

hemato / poiesis

blood / formation



Definition formation of blood cells



hemolysis

hee-MAW-lih-sis

hemo / lysis

blood / breakdown



Definition breakdown of blood cells


leukocyte
leukocyte

LOO-koh-sait

leuko / cyte

white / cell

Definition white blood cell

leukocytosis

LOO-koh-sai-TOH-sis

leuko / cyt / osis

white / cell / condition

Definition increase in the number of white blood cells



leukopenia

LOO-koh-PEE-nee-ah

leuko / penia

white / deficiency



Definition deficiency in white blood cells



macrocytosis

MAH-kroh-sai-TOH-sis

macro / cyt / osis

large / cell / condition



Definition condition characterized by large red blood cells



microcytosis

MAI-kroh-sai-TOH-sis

micro / cyt / osis

small / cell / condition



Definition condition characterized by small red blood cells


myelopoiesis
myelopoiesis

MAI-eh-loh-poh-EE-sis

myelo / poiesis

bone marrow / formation

Definition formation of bone marrow

neutropenia

NOO-troh-PEE-nee-ah

neutro / penia

neutrophil / deficiency

Definition deficiency in neutrophil



Note: A neutrophil is a type of white blood cell.



normocyte

NOR-moh-sait

normo / cyte

normal / cell



Definition normal-sized red blood cell



oligocythemia

AW-lih-goh-sih-THEE-mee-ah

oligo/ cyt / hemia

few / cell / blood condition



Definition deficiency in the number of red blood cells



pancytopenia

PAN-SAI-toh-PEE-nee-ah

pan / cyto / penia

all / cell / deficiency



Definition deficiency in all cellular components of the blood



phagocytosis

FAG-oh-sai-TOH-sis

phago / cyt / osis

eat / cell / condition



Definition process in which phagocytes (a type of white blood cell) destroy (or eat) foreign microorganisms or cell debris



poikilocytosis

POI-klh-loh-sai-TOH-sis

poikilo / cyt / osis

various / cell / condition



Definition condition characterized by red blood cells in a variety of shapes



polycythemia

PAW-lee-sih-THEE-mee-ah

poly / cyt / hemia

many / cell / blood condition



Definition excess of red blood cells



reticulocyte

reh-TIK-yoo-loh-SAIT

reticulo / cyte

net / cell



Definition immature red blood cell; the root comes from its netlike appearance



spherocyte

SFEE-roh-SAIT

sphero / cyte

sphere / cell



Definition red blood cell that assumes a spherical shape



thrombocyte

THROM-boh-sait

thrombo / cyte

clot / cell



Definition cell that helps blood clot; also known as a platelet



thrombocytopenia

THROM-boh-SAI-toh-PEE-nee-ah

thrombo / cyto / penia

clot / cell / deficiency



Definition deficiency in the number of platelets (clot cells)



thrombocytosis

THROM-boh-sai-TOH-sis

thrombo/cyt/osis

clot / cell / condition



Definition increase in the number of platelets (clot cells)


thromboembolism
thromboembolism

THROM-boh-EM-boh-LIZ-um

thrombo / embol / ism

clot / embolus / condition

Definition blockage of a vessel (embolism) caused by a clot that has broken off fromwhere it formed

thrombogenic

THROM-boh-JIN-ik

thrombo/gen /ic

clot / formation / pertaining to

Definition capable of producing a blood clot


thrombosis
thrombosis

throm-BOH-sis

thromb / osis

clot / condition

Definition the formation of a blood clot

thrombus

THROM-bus

from Greek, for lump, clot,or even curd of milk

Definition blood clot



Note: The difference between a thrombus and an embolus is twofold. A thrombus is a clot of blood and is stationary. An embolus is foreign material and is in motion. When a thrombus breaks off, it becomes a thromboembolus.
antibody

AN-tih-BAW-dee

anti / body

against / body



Definition substance produced by the body in response to an antigen



Note: If you think the word antibody seems incomplete and keep asking yourself "an ant\-what body," you're right. Something Is missing. This word is a shortened form of antitoxic body— that means against poison, which makes more sense.


antigen
antigen

AN-th-JIN

anti / gen

against / creator

Definition substance that causes the body to produce antibodies

hematocrit

hee-MAT-oh-krit

hemato / crit

blood /judge (separate)

Definition test to judge or separate the blood; it is used to determine the ratio of redblood cells to total blood volume



Note: The root crit comes from the Greek word that is the basis of the English word critic.






hematology

HEE-mah-TAW-loh-jee

hemato / logy

blood /study



Definition study of the blood



hemoglobin

HEE-moh-GLOH-bin

hemo / globin

blood /globe



Definition iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells



Note: Globin and globulin both come from a Latin word meaning globe or ball. They are used in medical language to refer to proteins.



hypoperfusion

HAI-poh-per-FYOO-zhun

hypo / per / fusion

under / through / pour



Definition inadequate flow of blood



immunoglobulin

im-MYOO-noh-GLAW-byoo-lin

immuno / globulin

immune system / sphere



Definition: protein that provides protection (immunity) against disease



immunology

IM-myoo-NAW-loh-jee

immuno / logy

immune system / study



Definition: study of the immune system



immunologist

IM-myoo-NAW-loh-jist

immuno / logist

immune system / specialist



Definition: specialist in the study of the immune system



lymphangiogram

lim-FAN-jee-oh-GRAM

lymph / angio / gram

lymph /vessel / record



Definition record of the study of lymph vessels



lymphangiography

lim-FAN-jee-AW-grah-fee

lymph / angio / graphy

lymph / vessel / writing procedure



Definition procedure to study the lymph vessels



perfusion

per-FYOO-zhun

per / fusion

through / pour



Definition circulation of blood through tissue


phlebotomy
phlebology

fleh-BAW-loh-jee

phlebo / logy

vein / study of

Definition study of veins

phlebotomist

fleh-BAW-toh-mist

phlebo / torn / ist

vein / cut / specialist

Definition specialist in drawing blood


sphygmomanometer
phlebotomy

fleh-BAW-toh-mee

phlebo / torny

vein / incision

Definition incision into a vein; another name for drawing blood

sphygmomanometer

SFIG-moh-mah-NAW-meh-ter

sphygmo / mano / meter

strangle / thin / instrument for measuring

Definition fancy name for the device used to measure blood pressure
autoimmune disease

AW-toh-ih -MYOON dih-ZEEZ

auto / immune

self / immune



Definition disease caused by the body's immune system attacking the body's ownhealthy tissue



coagulopathy

coh-AG-yoo-LAW-pah-thee

coagulo / pathy

coagulation / disease



Definition any disease that deals with problems in blood coagulation


deep vein thrombosis
deep vein thrombosis

DEEP VAYN throm-BOH-sis

deep vein thromb / osis

deep vein clot / condition

Definition formation of a blood clot in a vein deep in the body, most commonlythe leg

hemoglobinopathy

HEE-maw-GLOH-bin-AW-pah-thee

hemo / globino / pathy

blood / globe / disease

Definition disease of the hemoglobin



hypercoagulability

HAI-per-koh-AG-yoo-lah-BIL-ih-tee

hyper / coagul /ability

over / coagulation / ability



Definition increased ability of the blood to coagulate


immunodeficiency
immunocompromised

ih-MYOO-noh-COM-proh-MAIZD

immuno / compromised

immune / compromised

Definition having an immune system incapable of responding normally andcompletely to a pathogen or disease

immunodeficiency

ih-MYOO-noh-deh-FIH-shin-see

immuno / deficiency

immune / deficiency

Definition immune system with decreased or compromised response to disease-causing organisms



immunosuppression

ih-MYOO-noh-suh-PREH-shun

immuno / suppression

immune / suppression



Definition reduction in the activity of the body's immune system


phlebarteriectasia
ischemia

ih-SKEE-mee-ah

isch /emia

hold back / blood condition

Definition blockage of blood flow to an organ

phlebarteriectasia

FLEB-ar-TER-ee-ek-TAY-zhah

phleb / arteri / ectasia

vein / artery / dilation

Definition dilation of blood vessels

spherocytosis

SFEER-oh-sai-TOH-sis

sphero / cyt / osis

sphere / cell / condition

Definition condition in which red blood cells assume a spherical shape



thrombophlebitis

THROM-boh-fleh-BAI-tis

thrombo / phleb / itis

clot / vein / inflammation



Definition inflammation of vein caused by a clot
anemia

ah-NEE-mee-ah

an / emia

no / blood condition



Definition reduced red blood cells



aplastic anemia

AY-plas-tik ah-NEE-mee-ah

a / plas /tic an/emia

no / formation / pertaining to no / blood condition



Definition anemia caused by red blood cells not being formedin sufficient quantities



hemolytic anemia

HEE-moh-LIH-tik ah-NEE-mee-ah

hemo/ lytic an/emia

blood / breakdown no / blood condition



Definition anemia caused by the destruction of red blood cells



iron deficiency anemia

Al-ern deh-FIH-shin-see ah-NEE-mee-ah

iron deficiency an / emia

iron deficiency no / blood condition



Definition anemia caused by inadequate iron intake



bilirubinemia

BIH-lee-ROO-bin-EE-mee-ah

bili / rubin / emia

bile / red / blood condition



Definition presence of bilirubin in the blood



Note: Bilirubin (red bile) is a substance derived from red blood cells that have completed their life span. Bilirubin is secreted by the liver into the digestive tract.


hypercholesterolemia
hyperbilirubinemia

HAI-per-BIH-lee-ROO-bin-EE-mee-ah

hyper / bili / rubin / emia

over / bile / red / blood condition

Definition excessive bilirubin in the blood

hypercholesterolemia

HAI-per-koh-LES-ter-ol-EE-mee-ah

hyper / cholesterol / emia

over / cholesterol / blood condition

Definition excessive cholesterol in the blood



hyperlipidemia

HAI-per-LIH-pid-EE-mee-ah

hyper / lipid / emia

over / fat / blood condition



Definition excessive fat in the blood



hypervolemia

HAI-per-voh-LEE-mee-ah

hyper/vol /emia

over / volume / blood condition



Definition increased blood volume


leukemia
hypovolemia

HAI-poh-voh-LEE-mee-ah

hypo/vol /emia

under / volume / blood condition

Definition decreased blood volume

leukemia

loo-KEE-mee-ah

leuk / emia

white / blood condition

Definition cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by the abnormalincrease in white blood cells



septicemia

SEP-tih-SEE-mee-ah

septic / emia

rotting / blood condition



Definition presence of disease-causing microorganisms in the blood



uremia

yoo-REE-mee-ah

ur / emia

urine / blood condition



Definition presence of urine in the blood
hepatosplenitis

hih-PAT-oh-SPLEEN-ai-tis

hepato / splen / itis

liver / spleen / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the liver and spleen



hypersplenism

HAI-per-SPLEEN-izm

hyper / splen / ism

over / spleen / condition


lymphadenitis
Definition increased spleen activity

lymphadenitis

LIM-fad-eh-NAI-tis

lymph / aden / itis

lymph / gland / inflammation

Definition inflammation of a lymph gland (node)

lymphangiesctasia

lim-FAN-jee-ek-TAY-zhah

lymph / angi / ectasia

lymph / vessel / dilation



Definition dilation of a lymph vessel, normally noticed by swelling in the extremities



lymphangitis

LIM-fan-JAI-tis

lymph / ang / itis

lymph / vessel / inflammation



Definition inflammation of lymph vessels


lymphoma
lymphoma

lim-FOH-mah

lymph / oma

lymph / tumor

Definition tumor originating in lymphocytes

mononucleosis

MAW-noh-NOO-klee-OH-sis

mono / nucle / osis

one / nucleus / condition

Definition condition characterized by an abnormally large number of mononuclearleukocytes



myelodysplasia

MAI-el-oh-dis-PLAY-zhah

myelo / dys / plas / ia

bone marrow / bad / formation / condition



Definition disease characterized by poor production of blood cells by the bonemarrow



myeloma

myel / oma



MAI-eh-LOH-mah

bone marrow / tumor



Definition cancerous tumor of the bone marrow; when the tumors are present in several bones, it is called multiple myeloma



osteomyelitis

osteo / myel / itis



AW-stee-oh-MAI-eh-LAI-tis

bone / bone marrow / inflammation



Definition inflammation of bone and bone marrow



splenitis

splen / itis



splee-NAI-tis

spleen / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the spleen



splenopathy

spleno / pathy



splee-NAW-pah-thee

spleen / disease



Definition any disease of the spleen



splenorrhexis

spleno / rrhexis



SPLEE-noh-REK-sis

spleen / rupture



Definition rupture of the spleen



thymoma

thym / oma



thai-MOH-mah

thymus / tumor



Definition tumor of the thymus



thymopathy

thymo / pathy



thai-MAW-pah-thee

thymus / disease



Definition disease of the thymus


tonsillitis
tonsillitis

tonsill / itis

TON-sil-AI-tis

tonsil / inflammation

Definition inflammation of a tonsil
endocardium

EN-doh-KAR-dee-um

endo / card / ium

inside / heart / tissue



Definition tissue lining the inside of the heart



epicardium

EH-pee-KAR-dee-um

epi / card / ium

upon / heart / tissue



Definition tissue lining the outside of the heart


pericardium
myocardium

MAI-oh-KAR-dee-um

myo / card / ium

muscle / heart / tissue

Definition heart muscle tissue

pericardium

PER-ee-KAR-dee-um

peri / card / ium

around / heart / tissue

Definition tissue around the heart



heart



Term

Word Analysis



bradycardia

BRAY-dih-KAR-dee-ah

brady / card / ia

slow / heart / condition



Definition slow heartbeat



cardiomegaly

KAR-dee-oh-MEH-gah-lee

cardio / megaly

heart / enlargement



Definition enlarged heart



cardiotoxic

KAR-dee-oh-TOK-sik

cardio / toxic

heart / poison



Definition poisonous to the heart


cyanosis
cyanosis

SAI-ah-NOH-sis

cyan / osis

blue / condition

Definition bluish appearance to the skin—a sign that the tissue isn't receiving enough oxygen

murmur

MIR-mir

from Latin, for to grumble or hum

Definition abnormal heart sound



tachycardia

TAK-ih-KAR-dee-ah

tachy / card / ia

fast / heart / condition



Definition rapid heartbeat



circulation—structure



Term

Word Analysis



vena cava

VEE-nah CAY-vah

vena cava

vein hollow



Definition large-diameter vein that gathers blood from the body and returns it to the heart



inferior vena cava

in-FEER-ee-or VEE-nah CAY-vah

inferior vena cava

lower vein hollow



Definition portion of the vena cava that gathers blood from the lower portion of the body



superior vena cava

soo-PEER-ee-or VEE-nah CAY-vah

superior vena cava

upper vein hollow



Definition portion of the vena cava that gathers blood from the upper portion of the body (head and arms)
angiogenesis

AN-jee-oh-JIN-eh-sis

angio / genesis

vessel / creation



Definition development of blood vessels



angiolith

AN-jee-oh-LITH

angio / lith

vessel / stone



Definition stone forming in the wall of a blood vessel



angiopoiesis

AN-jee-oh-poh-EE-sis

angio / poiesis

vessel / formation



Definition formation of blood vessels



angiosclerosis

AN-jee-oh-skleh-ROH-sis

angio / scler / osis

vessel / hard / condition



Definition hardening of a blood vessel



aortectasia

ay-OR-tek-TAY-zhah

aort / ectasia

aorta / dilation



Definition dilation of the aorta



aortic stenosis

ay-OR-tik stih-NOH-sis

aort / ic sten / osis

aorta / pertaining to narrow / condition



Definition narrowing of the aorta




aortolith

ay-OR-toh-LITH

aorto / lith

aorta / stone



Definition stone deposit in the wall of the aorta



arteriolith

ar-TER-ee-oh-LITH

arterio / lith

artery / stone



Definition stone in the artery



arteriorrhexis

ar-TER-ee-oh-REK-sis

arterio / rrhexis

artery / rupture



Definition rupture of an artery



arteriosclerosis

ar-TER-ee-oh-skleh-ROH-sis

arterio / scler / osis

artery / hard / condition



Definition hardening of an artery


atherosclerosis
atherogenesis

A-ther-oh-JIN-eh-sis

athero / genesis

fatty plaque / creation

Definition formation of fatty plaque on the wall of an artery

atherosclerosis

A-ther-oh-skleh-ROH-sis

athero / scler / osis

fatty plaque / hard / condition

Definition hardening of an artery due to build-up of fatty plaque


embolism
embolus

EM-boh-lus

em / bolus

in / throw

Definition mass of matter present in the blood

Note: In Greek, this word was used to mean stopper, as in the opening of a bottle.

embolism

EM-boh-LIZ-um

embol / ism

embolus / condition

Definition blockage in a blood vessel caused by an embolus


occlusion
ischemia

ih-SKEE-mee-ah

isch / emia

hold back / blood condition

Definition blockage of blood flow to an organ

occlusion

oh-KLOO-zhun

from Latin, for to close off

Definition closing or blockage of a passage



phlebosclerosis

FLEB-oh-skleh-ROH-sis

phlebo / scler / osis

vein / hard / condition



Definition hardening of a vein



thrombus

THROM-bus

from Greek, for lump, clot, or even curd of milk



Definition blood clot

Note: The difference between a thrombus and an embolus is twofold. A thrombus is a clot of blood and is stationary. An embolus is foreign material and is in motion. When a thrombus breaks off, it becomes a thromboembolus.


varicose veins
varicose veins

VAR-ih-kohs VAYNS

varicose veins

swollen / twisted veins

Definition an enlarged, dilated vein toward the surface of the skin

vasospasm

VAS-oh-SPAZ-um

vaso / spasm

vessel / involuntary contraction

Definition involuntary contraction of a blood vessel



venosclerosis

VEE-noh-skleh-ROH-sis

veno / scler / osis

vein / hard / condition



Definition hardening of a vein



venospasm

VEE-noh-SPAZ-um

veno / spasm

vein / involuntary contraction



Definition involuntary contraction of a vein



venostasis

VEE-noh-STA-sis

veno / stasis

vein / standing



Definition trapping of blood in an extremity due to compression

Note: This name refers not to the fact that the blood is trapped but, instead, to the fact that the blood is standing still and not moving.



diagnostic procedures



Term

Word Analysis



angiogram

AN-jee-oh-GRAM

angio / gram

vessel / record



Definition record of the blood vessels



angiography

AN-jee-AW-grah-fee

angio / graphy

vessel / writing procedure



Definition procedure to describe the blood vessels



angioscope

AN-jee-oh-SKOWP

angio / scope

vessel / device for looking



Definition device for looking into a blood vessel



aortogram

ay-OR-tah-GRAM

aorto / gram

aorta / record



Definition record of the aorta



arteriogram

ar-TER-ee-oh-GRAM

arterio / gram

artery / record



Definition record of an artery



cardiac catheterization

KAR-dee-ak KATH-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun

cardi / ac catheter / ization

heart / pertaining to catheter / procedure



Definition process of inserting a tube (catheter) into the heart

Note: The word catheter comes from Greek words meaning to go inside. By passing a tube through arteries, doctors are able to diagnose and treat heart problems without performing major surgery.


echocardiogram
echocardiogram

EK-oh-KAR-dee-oh-GRAM

echo / cardio / gram

echo / heart / record

Definition image of the heart produced using sound waves; the same procedure as an ultrasound performed on pregnant women, but instead it is performed on a heart

echocardiography

EK-oh-KAR-dee-AW-grah-fee

echo / cardio / graphy

echo / heart / writing procedure

Definition use of sound waves to produce an image of the heart; the same procedure as an ultrasound performed on pregnant women, but instead it is performed on a heart


electrocardiogram
electrocardiogram

eh-LEK-troh-KAR-dee-oh-GRAM

electro / cardio / gram

electricity / heart / record

Definition record of the electrical currents of the heart

electrocardiography

eh-LEK-troh-KAR-dee- AW-grah-fee

electro / cardio / graphy

electricity / heart / writing procedure

Definition procedure for recording the electrical currents of the heart


stress electrocardiogram
sonography

saw-NAW-grah-fee

sono / graphy

sound / writing procedure

Definition use of sound waves to produce diagnostic images; also called ultrasound

stress electrocardiogram

stres eh-LEK-troh-KAR-dee-oh-GRAM

stress electro / cardio / gram

stress electricity / heart / record

Definition records electrical signals of the heart while the patient experiences increases of exercise stress


transesophageal echocardiogram
transesophageal echocardiogram

TRANZ-eh-SOF-ah-JEE-al

EK-oh-KAR-dee-oh-GRAM

trans / esophag / eal

through / esophagus / pertaining to

echo / cardio / gram

echo / heart / record

Definition record of the heart using sound waves performed by inserting the transducer into the esophagus

vascular endoscopy

VAS-kyoo-lar en-DAW-skoh-pee

vascul / ar endo / scopy

vessel / pertaining to inside / looking procedure

Definition procedure to look inside a blood vessel



venogram

VEE-noh-gram

veno / gram

vein / record



Definition record of a vein



professional terms



Term

Word Analysis



blood pressure

blud PRESH-ir

blood pressure



Definition the force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels




diastolic pressure

DAI-ah-STAW-lik PRESH-ir

dia / stol / ic pressure

through / send / pertaining to



Definition pressure exerted on blood vessels when heart is relaxed



systolic pressure

sih-STAW-lik PRESH-ir

sys / stol / ic pressure

together / send / pertaining to



Definition pressure exerted on blood vessels when heart is contracting

Note: Stole comes from Greek, for to send. It can also be found in the word epistle, which means letter or something you send someone.



cardiologist

KAR-dee-AW-loh-jist

cardio / logist

heart / specialist



Definition heart specialist



cardiology

KAR-dee-AW-loh-jee

cardio / logy

heart / study



Definition branch of medicine dealing with the heart



cardiovascular

KAR-dee-oh-VAS-kyoo-lar

cardio / vascul / ar

heart / vessel / pertaining to



Definition pertaining to the heart and blood vessels



circulation

SIR-kyoo-LAY-shun

from Latin, for to go in a circle



Definition moving of blood from the heart through the vessels and back to the heart



coronary circulation

KOR-ah-NAR-ee SIR-kyoo-LAY-shun

coron / ary circulation

heart / pertaining to



Definition circulation of blood from the heart to the heart muscle (the heart always feeds itself first)



pulmonary circulation

PUL-mon-AR-ee SIR-kyoo-LAY-shun

pulmon / ary circulation

lung / pertaining to



Definition circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs (to oxygenate it)



systemic circulation

sih-STEM-ik SIR-kyoo-LAY-shun

sys / stem / ic circulation

together / stand / pertaining to



Definition circulation of blood from the heart to the rest of the body



phlebologist

fleb-AW-loh-jist

phlebo / logist

vein / specialist



Definition specialist in veins



phlebology

fleb-AW-loh-jee

phlebo / logy

vein / study



Definition study of veins


phlebotomist
phlebotomist

fleh-BAW-toh-mist

phlebo / tom / ist

vein / incision / specialist

Definition one who draws blood

phlebotomy

fleh-BAW-toh-mee

phlebo / tomy

vein / incision

Definition incision into a vein—the technical term for drawing blood
angiocarditis

AN-jee-oh-kar-DAI-tis

angio / card / itis

vessel / heart / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the heart vessels



atrial fibrillation

AY-tree-al FIB-rih-LAY-shun

atri / al fibrill / ation

atrium / pertaining to little fibers / process



Definition quivering or spontaneous contraction of muscle fibers in the heart's atrium



atrial septal defect (ASD)

AY-tree-al SEP-tal DEE-fekt

atri / al sept / al de / fect

atrium / pertaining to septum / pertaining to bad / made



Definition flaw in the septum that divides the two atria of the heart



cardiac arrest

KAR-dee-ak ah-REST

cardi / ac arrest

heart / pertaining to stop



Definition cessation of functional circulation



cardiomyopathy

KAR-dee-oh-mai-AW-pah-thee

cardio / myo / pathy

heart / muscle / disease



Definition disease of the heart muscle



congestive cardiomyopathy

con-JES-tiv KAR-dee-oh-mai-AW-pah-thee

con / gestive cardiomyopathy

together / bring



Definition heart cavity is unable to pump all the blood out of itself (congestive) and becomes stretched (dilated), which causes weak/slow pumping of blood



dilated cardiomyopathy

DAI-lay-ted KAR-dee-oh-mai-AW-pah-thee

dilated cardiomyopathy

expanded



Definition another term for congestive cardiomyopathy



hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

HAI-per-TROH-fik KAR-dee-oh-mai-AW-pah-thee

hyper / troph / ic cardiomyopathy

over / developed / pertaining to



Definition heart muscle becomes enlarged and blocks blood flow



restrictive cardiomyopathy

ree-STRIK-tiv KAR-dee-oh-mai-AW-pah-thee

re / strict / ive cardiomyopathy

back / tied / pertaining to



Definition heart muscle hardens, restricting the expansion of the heart, thus limiting the amount of blood it can pump to the rest of the body



carditis

kar-DAI-tis

card / itis

heart / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the heart



congenital heart defect

con-JEN-ih-tal HART DEE-fekt

con / genit / al heart de / fect

together / birth / pertaining to heart bad / made



Definition flaw in the structure of the heart present at birth



congestive heart failure (CHF)

con-JES-tiv HART FAYL-yir

con / gest / ive heart failure

together / bring / pertaining to



Definition heart failure characterized by the heart cavity being unable to pump all the blood out of itself (congestive)



coronary thrombosis

KOR-ah-NAR-ee throm-BOH-sis

coron / ary thromb / osis

heart / pertaining to clot / condition



Definition obstruction of a coronary artery by a clot



endocarditis

EN-doh-kar-DAI-tis

endo / card / itis

inside / heart / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the tissue lining the inside of the heart



myocardial infarction (MI)

MAI-oh-KAR-dee-al in-FARK-shun

myo / cardi / al in / farc / tion

muscle / heart / pertaining to in / stuff / condition



Definition death of heart muscle tissue

Note: The term infarction originally referred to a blocked blood vessel, but it came to refer to the death of tissue resulting from the blockage.



myocardial ischemia

MAI-oh-KAR-dee-al ih-SKEE-mee-ah

myo / cardi / al isch / emia

muscle / heart / pertaining to hold back / blood condition



Definition blockage of blood to the heart muscle



myocarditis

MAI-oh-kar-DAI-tis

myo / card / itis

muscle / heart / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the heart muscle


pericardial effusion
pericardial effusion

PER-ee-KAR-dee-al ee-FYOO-zhun

peri / cardi / al ef / fusion

around / heart / pertaining to out / pour

Definition fluid pouring out into the tissue around the heart

pericarditis

PER-ee-kar-DAI-tis

peri / card / itis

around / heart / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the tissue around the heart



valvulitis

VAL-vyoo-LAI-tis

valvul / itis

valve / inflammation



Definition inflammation of a heart valve



ventricular septal defect (VSD)

ven-TRIK-yoo-lar SEP-tal DEE-fekt

ventricul / ar sept / al de / fect

ventricle / pertaining to septum / pertaining to bad / made



Definition flaw in the septum that divides the two ventricles of the heart




circulation



Term

Word Analysis


aneurysm
aneurysm

AN-yir-IZ-um

an / eury / sm

up / wide / condition

Definition bulge in a blood vessel

Note: The an- prefix here doesn't meet not; rather, it is short for ana and means up or out. The not meaning is much more common, but there are also a few important examples of the up/out meaning, such as anabolic.

angioedema

AN-jee-oh-eh-DEE-mah

angio / edema

vessel / swelling

Definition swelling of the blood vessels


angioma
angioma

AN-jee-OH-mah

angi / oma

vessel / tumor

Definition blood vessel tumor

aortic aneurysm

ay-OR-tik AN-yir-IZ-um

aort / ic an / eury / sm

aorta / pertaining to up / wide / condition

Definition bulging or swelling of the aorta



aortic regurgitation

ay-OR-tik ree-GIR-jih-TAY-shun

aort / ic re / gurgit / ation

aorta / pertaining to back / bubble / condition



Definition flow of blood backward from the aorta into the heart; caused by a weak heart valve



aortitis

ay-or-TAI-tis

aort / itis

aorta / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the aorta



arteriopathy

ar-TER-ee-AW-pah-thee

arterio / pathy

artery / disease



Definition disease of the arteries



arteritis

AR-ter-AI-tis

arter / itis

artery / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the arteries


deep vein thrombosis
deep vein thrombosis

DEEP VAYN throm-BOH-sis

deep vein thromb / osis

deep vein clot / condition

Definition formation of a blood clot in a vein deep in the body, most commonly the leg

hypertension

HAI-per-TEN-shun

hyper / tens / ion

over / stretch / condition

Definition high blood pressure



hypotension

HAI-poh-TEN-shun

hypo / tens / ion

under / stretch / condition



Definition low blood pressure



normotension

NOR-moh-TEN-shun

normo / tens / ion

normal / stretch / condition



Definition normal blood pressure



phlebitis

fleh-BAI-tis

phleb / itis

vein / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the veins



phlebostenosis

FLEB-oh-sten-OH-sis

phlebo / sten / osis

vein / narrow / condition



Definition narrowing of the veins



thrombophlebitis

THROM-boh-fleh-BAI-tis

thrombo / phleb / itis

clot / vein / inflammation



Definition inflammation of vein caused by a clot



vasculitis

VAS-kyoo-LAI-tis

vascul / itis

vessel / inflammation



Definition inflammation of blood vessels
antianginal

AN-tee-AN-jih-nal

anti / angin / al

against / angina(choke) / agent



Definition drug that prevents or relieves the symptoms of angina pectoris



antiarrhythmic

AN-tee-a-RITH-mik

anti / a / rrhythm / ic

against / no / rhythm / agent



Definition drug that opposes an irregular heartbeat



anticoagulant

AN-tee-koh-AG-yoo-lant

anti / coagul / ant

against / coagulation / agent



Definition drug that opposes the coagulation of the blood



antihypertensive

AN-tee-HAI-per-TEN-siv

anti / hyper / tens / ive

against / over / pressure / agent



Definition drug that opposes high blood pressure



cardiotonic

KAR-dee-oh-TAW-nik

cardio / ton / ic

heart / tone / agent



Definition drug that increases the strength of the heart contractions


thrombolytic
thrombolytic

THROM-boh-LIH-tik

thrombo / lyt / ic

clot / loose / agent

Definition drug that breaks down clots

vasoconstrictor

VAS-oh-kin-STRIK-tor

vaso / constrict / or

vessel / narrowing / agent

Definition drug that constricts or narrows the diameter of a blood vessel



vasodilator

VAS-oh-DAI-lay-tor

vaso / dilat / or

vessel / expanding / agent



Definition drug that causes the relaxation or expansion of a blood vessel



vasopressor

VAY-soh-PRES-or

vaso / press / or

vessel / press / agent



Definition drug that constricts or narrows the diameter of a blood vessel



heart procedures



Term

Word Analysis



cardiomyotomy

KAR-dee-oh-mai-AW-toh-mee

cardio / myo / tomy

heart / muscle / incision


cardiopulmonary bypass
Definition incision into the heart muscle

cardiopulmonary bypass

KAR-dee-oh-PUL-mon-AR-ee BAI-pas

cardio / pulmon / ary bypass

heart / lung / pertaining to

Definition procedure that temporarily circulates and oxygenates a patient's blood during the portion of heart surgery where the heart is stopped

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

KAR-dee-oh-PUL-mon-AR-ee re-SIS-ih-TAY-shun

cardio / pulmon / ary re / suscit / ation

heart / lung / pertaining to again / stir up / procedure


cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Definition basic life support

Note: Despite its name, CPR does not actually resuscitate an unconscious patient. Rather, through artificial breathing and chest compression, an unresponsive patient's blood circulates and is kept oxygenated until further steps can be taken.

cardiothoracic surgery

KAR-dee-oh-thoh-RA-sik SIR-jir-ee

cardio / thorac / ic surgery

heart / chest / pertaining to

Definition surgery that involves cutting through the patient's chest to get to the heart

Note: Remember, a c before an a, o, or u makes a k sound (KAR-dee-oh) but before an i or e, it makes an s sound (thoh-RA-sik).

cardioversion

KAR-dee-oh-VER-zhun

cardio / vers / ion

heart / turn / procedure



Definition returning a heart to normal rhythm



coronary arterectomy

KOR-ah-NAR-ee AR-ter-EK-toh-mee

coron / ary arter / ectomy

heart / pertaining to artery / removal



Definition surgical removal of a coronary artery



coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

KOR-ah-NAR-ee AR-ter-ee BAI-pas GRAFT

coronary artery bypass graft



Definition borrowed piece of blood vessel used to bypass a blocked artery in the heart



coronary artery bypass surgery

KOR-ah-NAR-ee AR-ter-ee BAI-pas SIR-jir-ee

coronary artery bypass surgery



Definition surgery to bypass a blocked artery in the heart



percutaneous coronary intervention

PER-koo-TAY-nee-us KOR-ah-NAR-ee IN-ter-VEN-shun

per / cutane / ous coron / ary

through / skin / pertaining to heart / pertaining to



Definition alternate treatment for a coronary artery that passes instruments up a patient's blood vessels into the heart


pericardiocentesis
pericardiocentesis

PER-ee-KAR-dee-oh-sin-TEE-sis

peri / cardio / centesis

around / heart / puncture

Definition puncture of the tissue around the heart

pericardiotomy

PER-ee-KAR-dee-AW-toh-mee

peri / cardio / tomy

around / heart / incision

Definition incision into the tissue around the heart


valvotomy
valvectomy

val-VEK-toh-mee

valv / ectomy

valve / removal

Definition surgical removal of a heart valve

valvotomy

val-VAW-toh-mee

valvo / tomy

valve / incision

Definition incision into a heart valve

Note: Alternative spelling valvulotomy, using valvulo, is also acceptable.



valvuloplasty

VAL-voo-loh-PLAS-tee

valvulo / plasty

valve / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of a heart valve



ventriculotomy

ven-TRIK-yoo-LAW-toh-mee

ventriculo / tomy

ventricle / incision



Definition incision into a ventricle



circulation procedures



Term

Word Analysis



anastomosis

ah-NAS-tah-moh-sis

ana / stom / osis

up / mouth / condition



Definition creation of an opening between two normally separate structures

Note: The an- prefix here doesn't mean not; rather, it is short for ana and means up or out. The not meaning is much more common, but there are also a few important examples of the up/out meaning, such as anabolic.



aneurysmectomy

AN-yir-IZ-um-EK-toh-mee

an / eury / sm / ectomy

up / wide / condition / removal



Definition surgical removal of an aneurysm



angioplasty

AN-jee-oh-PLAS-tee

angio / plasty

vessel / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of a vessel


angiorrhaphy
angiorrhaphy

AN-jee-OR-ah-fee

angio / rrhaphy

vessel / suture

Definition suture of a vessel

aortorrhaphy

ay-or-TOR-ah-fee

aorto / rrhaphy

aorta / suture

Definition suture of the aorta



aortotomy

ay-or-TAW-toh-mee

aorto / tomy

aorta / incision



Definition incision into the aorta



arteriectomy

ar-TER-ee-EK-toh-mee

arteri / ectomy

artery / removal



Definition surgical removal of an artery


atherectomy
arterioplasty

ar-TER-ee-oh-PLAS-tee

arterio / plasty

artery / reconstruction

Definition surgical reconstruction of an artery

arteriorrhaphy

ar-TER-ee-OR-ah-fee

arterio / rrhaphy

artery / suture

Definition suture of an artery


embolectomy
atherectomy

A-ther-EK-toh-mee

ather / ectomy

fatty plaque / removal

Definition surgical removal of fatty plaque within an artery

embolectomy

EM-boh-LEK-toh-mee

embol / ectomy

embolus / removal

Definition surgical removal of an embolus



endarterectomy

END-ar-ter-EK-toh-me

end / arter / ectomy

inside / artery / removal



Definition surgical removal of the inside of an artery



phlebectomy

fleb- EK-toh-mee

phleb / ectomy

vein / removal



Definition surgical removal of a vein



phlebophlebostomy

FLEB-oh-fleb-AW-stoh-mee

phlebo / phlebo / stomy

vein / vein / opening



Definition procedure to create an opening between two veins



varicotomy

VAR-ih-KAW-toh-mee

varico / tomy

swollen / incision



Definition surgical removal of a varicose vein

Note: Normally, you would expect -ectomy to mean removal, but varicectomy was probably too much of a mouthful.



venectomy

vee-NEK-toh-mee

ven / ectomy

vein / removal



Definition surgical removal of a vein
septum (plural: septa)
root:
sept/o
examples:
septectomy, septoplasty
notes:
Septum comes from a Latin word meaning partition or dividing structure and can refer to any wall dividing two cavities. Of the numerous septa throughout the body, the easiest to find is the nasal septum. If you place your index fingers in each nostril and press them together, you will feel the nasal septum. If your nasal septum leans to one side, you have a deviated septum.
sinus
roots:
sin/o, sinus/o
examples:
sinusitis, sinusotomy
notes:
From a Latin word meaning hollow or cavity, sinus refers generally to any hollow area—specifically, those in bones.
air or lungs
roots:
pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o
examples:
pneumomelanosis, pneumatology, pneumonia
notes:
These roots can mean either lung or air. Context and familiarity will help in determining which to use. For instance, it makes more sense to translate pneumothorax as air in the chest rather than lung in the chest. The term pneumatic can also be found in the construction world. It refers to any tool that moves by forcing air into it (i.e., a pneumatic drill), as opposed to hydraulic tools, which involve the use of water instead of air (i.e., a hydraulic lift).
lungs
root:
pulmon/o
examples:
pulmonologist, pulmonary
notes:
Pulmon/o is listed by itself instead of with the various forms of pneum/o because while pulmon/o means only lung, pneum/o can mean both lung (as in pneumonia) and air (as in pneumothorax).
lobe
root:
lob/o
examples:
lobectomy, lobotomy
notes:
A lobe is a well-defined portion of any organ. The main organs that have lobes are the lungs, brain, and liver.
What is the difference between a lobectomy and a lobotomy?
bronchus
roots:
bronch/o, bronchi/o
examples:
bronchoscope, bronchiostenosis
notes:
The main branches from the trachea into each lung.
bronchiole
root:
bronchiol/o
examples:
bronchiolitis, bronchiolectasis
notes:
The root bronchiole is actually formed by adding a diminutive suffix to another root: bronch/o + iole = little bronchus, which is a smaller subdivision of the bronchial tubes.
alveolus (air sac)
alveol/o
examples:
alveolitis, alveolar
sternum
root:
stern/o
examples:
sternocostal, sternotomy
notes:
The sternum (also known as the breastbone) comes to a point at the bottom called the xiphoid (ZAI-foid) process. The term comes from the Greek word xiphos, meaning sword. Therefore, xiphoid means resembling a sword.
rib
root:
cost/o
examples:
costectomy, costophrenic
notes:
Ribs are sometimes grouped into three categories: true, false, and floating. The top seven ribs are called "true" ribs because they attach to both the spine and the sternum. The next three ribs are called "false" ribs because they connect to the spine and to the lowest true rib instead of the sternum. The lowest two ribs are called "floating" ribs because they attach only to the spine.
chest
roots:
thorac/o, pector/o (also pectus), steth/o
examples:
thoracic, pectoralgia, pectus excavatum, stethoscope
notes:
The root pector/o can also stand as a word by itself. When it does, however, the ending changes slightly, from pectoro to pectus. Hence, pectus excavatum.
The term stethoscope literally means an instrument for looking at the chest, but of course, you do not look with a stethoscope—you listen.
pleura
root:
pleur/o
examples:
pleuritis, pleurectomy
notes:
The pleura is a membrane surrounding the lungs.
diaphragm
root:
phren/o
examples:
phrenospasm, phrenoplegia
notes:
In addition to the diaphragm, phren/o can also refer to the brain (as in the term schizophrenia). The rationale comes from the ancient Greek view of the mind. The Greeks believed that the chest was the seat of emotion and reason. As that view changed and the location of the mind moved from the chest to the brain, the word for mind became applied to both regions of the body.
auscultation

ah-skul-TAY-shun

from the Latin word ausculto, meaning to listen



Definition a health care professional using a stethoscope



cyanosis

sai-an-O-sis

cyan / osis

blue / condition



Definition a bluish color in the skin caused by insufficient oxygen



pectoriloquy

pek-tor-IH-low-kwee

pectori / loquy

chest / speak


pectus carinatum
Definition speaking from the chest; used as a means of finding masses in the lung. A health professional listening to a patient's chest asks the patient to whisper a word. The word will be audible in areas where fluid or a mass is present. Hence the chest "speaks" in those places.

note: A common related word is ventriloquist, a person who makes a puppet appear to talk. Venter means stomach; thus ventriloquist translates as one who speaks from his stomach.

pectus carinatum

PEK-tus car-ee-NAH-tum

pectus carinatum

chest keel

Definition a chest that protrudes like the keel of a ship

pectus excavatum

PEK-tus eks-cuh-VAH-tum

pectus ex / cavatum

chest out / hollowed


pectus excavatum
Definition a chest that is hollowed out

percussion

per-KUH-shun

from the Latin word percussio, meaning to strike

Definition striking the body surface (in this context, to cause vibrations that can help locate fluid build-up in the chest)



pathological findings



Term

Word Analysis



atelectasis

ah-tel-EK-ta-sis

a / tel / ectasis

not / complete / expansion



Definition incomplete expansion



bronchiectasis

bron-key-EK-ta-sis

bronchi / ectasis

bronchus / expansion



Definition expansion of the bronchi



caseous necrosis

KAYZ-ee-us ne-CROW-sis

caseous necr / osis

cheeselike death / condition



Definition the death of tissue with a cheeselike appearance



chylothorax

kai-low-THOR-aks

chylo / thorax

chyle / chest



Definition chyle in the chest

note: Chyle is a milky bodily fluid formed in the small intestine during digestion of fatty foods and carried through the body via lymph vessels.



empyema

em-pie-EE-mah

em / py / ema

in / pus / condition



Definition pus inside the chest


hemothorax
hemothorax

heem-o-THOR-aks

hemo / thorax

blood / chest

Definition blood in the chest

phrenoplegia

fre-no-PLEE-jah

phreno / plegia

diaphragm / paralysis

Definition paralysis of the diaphragm



phrenoptosis

fre-nop-TOE-sis

phreno / ptosis

diaphragm / drooping condition



Definition drooping of the diaphragm


pleural effusion
pleural effusion

PLUR-al ef-YOO-zhun

pleur / al ex / fusion

pleura / pertaining to out / pour

Definition fluid pouring out into the pleura

note: The prefix in effusion is actually ex. The x turns to an f when followed by an f. Why? Say exfusion 10 times. Most people slur exfusion into effusion because it is easier to say.

pneumohemothorax

new-moh-hee-moh-THOR-aks

pneumo / hemo / thorax

air / blood / chest

Definition air and blood in the chest


pneumothorax
pneumothorax

new-moh-THOR-aks

pneumo / thorax

air / chest

Definition air in the chest

pulmonary edema

pul-mon-AIR-ee ah-DEE-ma

pulmon / ary edema

lung / pertaining to swelling

Definition swelling in the lungs


tracheostenosis
pyothorax

pie-oh-THOR-aks

pyo / thorax

pus / chest

Definition pus in the chest

tracheostenosis

tray-kee-oh-sten-OH-sis

tracheo / stenosis

trachea / narrowing

Definition narrowing of the trachea



laboratory data



Term

Word Analysis



hypercapnia

hai-per-CAP-nee-yah

hyper / capn / ia

over / carbon dioxide / condition



Definition excessive carbon dioxide



hypercarbia

hai-per-CAR-bee-yah

hyper / carb / ia

over / carbon dioxide / condition



Definition excessive carbon dioxide



hypocapnia

hai-po-CAP-nee-yah

hypo / capn / ia

under / carbon dioxide / condition



Definition insufficient carbon dioxide



hypocarbia

hai-po-CAR-bee-yah

hypo / carb / ia

under / carbon dioxide / condition



Definition insufficient carbon dioxide



hypoxemia

hai-poks-EEM-ee-yah

hypo / ox / emia

under / oxygen / blood condition



Definition insufficient oxygen in the blood



hypoxia

hai-POKS-ee-yah

hypo / ox / ia

under / oxygen / condition



Definition insufficient oxygen



diagnostic procedures



Term

Word Analysis


bronchoscopy
bronchoscopy

bron-KOS-koh-pee

broncho / scopy

bronchus / looking procedure

Definition procedure to look inside the bronchi

capnography

cap-NAH-gra-fee

capno / graphy

carbon dioxide / writing procedure

Definition procedure to record carbon dioxide levels



capnometer

cap-NOM-eh-ter

capno / meter

carbon dioxide / instrument to measure



Definition instrument to measure carbon dioxide levels



computed tomography

com-PYOO-ted tom-O-grah-fee

computed tomo / graphy

cut / writing procedure



Definition an imaging procedure using a computer to cut

Note: Cut in this context does not mean incision but rather using a computer to view "slices" of a patient's organs.


endoscope
endoscope

EN-doh-SKOHP

endo / scope

inside / instrument to look

Definition instrument to look inside

nasopharyngoscope

nay-zoh-fa-RIN-go-skope

naso / pharyngo / scope

nose / throat / instrument to look

Definition an instrument to look at the nose and throat



oximetry

ok-SIM-ah-tree

oxi / metry

oxygen / measuring procedure



Definition procedure to measure oxygen levels


polysomnography
polysomnography

po-lee-som-NAH-gra-fee

poly / somno / graphy

multiple / sleep / writing procedure

Definition recording multiple aspects of sleep

pulmonary angiography

pul-mon-AIR-ee an-jee-O-grah-fee

pulmon / ary

lung / pertaining to

angio / graphy

vessel / writing procedure

Definition an imaging procedure for recording pulmonary blood vessel activity



pulmonary function testing

pul-mon-AIR-ee funk-shun TES-ting

pulmon / ary function testing

lung / pertaining to



Definition a group of tests used to evaluate the condition and operation of the lungs



spirometry

speer-O-me-tree

spiro / metry

breathing / measuring procedure



Definition procedure to measure breathing



thoracoscopy

thor-a-KOS-koh-pee

thoraco / scopy

chest / looking procedure



Definition examination of the chest

Note: This word is sometimes shortened to thorascopy to make it easier to say.



ventilation-perfusion scan

ven-ti-LAY-shun-per-FYOO-shun skan

ventil / ation - per / fusion

breathing / process - through / pour



Definition a scan that tests whether a problem in the lungs is caused by airflow (ventilation) or blood flow (perfusion)
laryngitis

la-rin-JAI-tis

laryng / itis

larynx / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the larynx



laryngotracheobronchitis

la-rin-go-tray-key-o-bron-KAI-tis

laryngo / tracheo / bronch / itis

larynx / trachea / bronchus / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi



rhinitis

rai-NAI-tis

rhin / itis

nose / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the nasal passages



sinusitis

sai-nus-AI-tis

sinus / itis

sinus / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the sinus



pansinusitis

pan-sai-nus-AI-tis

pan / sinus / itis

all / sinus / inflammation



Definition inflammation of all sinuses



sleep apnea

sleep AP-nee-ah

a / pnea

not / breathing



Definition a condition where the patient ceases to breathe while asleep


tonsillitis
tonsillitis

ton-sil-AI-tis

tonsill / itistonsil / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the tonsils

tracheitis

tray-kee-AI-tis

trache / itis

trachea / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the trachea



tracheomalacia

tray-kee-oh-ma-LAY-shah

tracheo / malacia

trachea / softening



Definition softening of the trachea



lower respiratory



Term

Word Analysis


asthma
asthma

AZ-ma

from the Greek word for panting or gasping

Definition a disease causing episodic narrowing and inflammation of the airway

Note: The name describes the wheezing and shortness of breath that accompanies an attack.

bronchiogenic carcinoma

bron-kee-oh-JEN-ic car-si-NO-ma

bronchio / genic carcin / omabronchus / beginning in cancer / tumor

Definition a cancerous tumor originating in the bronchi


bronchiogenic carcinoma
bronchiolitis

bron-kee-yo-LAI-tis

bronchiol / itis

bronchiole / inflammation

Definition inflammation of a bronchiole

bronchitis

bron-KAI-tis

bronch / itis

bronchus / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the bronchi



chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

KRON-ik ob-STRUKT-iv pul-mon-AIR-ee diz-EEZ

chron / ic ob / struct / ive

time / pertaining to in the way / build / pertaining to

pulmon / ary

lung / pertaining to



Definition a group of lung diseases characterized by the continual blockage of lung passages



diaphragmatocele

dai-a-frag-MAT-o-seel

diaphragmato / cele

diaphragm / pouch / tumor / hernia



Definition hernia of the diaphragm



emphysema

im-fi-ZEE-ma

from the Greek word emphysan, meaning to inflate



Definition a disease that causes the alveoli to lose elasticity; emphysema patients can inhale but have difficulty exhaling


obstructive lung disorder
obstructive lung disorder

ob-STRUKT-iv

ob / struct / ive lung disorder

in the way / build / pertaining to

Definition a lung disorder caused by a blockage

pleuritis

plur-AI-tis

pleur / itis

pleura / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the pleura



pleurisy

PLUR-ih-see

pleur / isy

pleura / inflammation



Definition another word for pleuritis



pneumatocele

new-MAT-o-seel

pneumato / cele

lung / pouch / tumor / hernia



Definition hernia of the lung



pneumoconiosis

new-moh-con-i-O-sis

pneumo / coni / osis

lung / dust / condition



Definition a lung condition caused by dust



pneumonia

new-MOH-nee-yah

pneumon / ia

lung / condition



Definition a lung condition



pneumonitis

new-moh-NAI-tis

pneumon / itis

lung / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the lung



pulmonary embolism

pul-mon-AIR-ee em-bol-IZ-um

pulmon / ary embol / ism

lung / pertaining to embolus / condition



Definition blockage in the pulmonary blood supply


pulmonary neoplasm
pulmonary neoplasm

pul-mon-AIR-ee nee-oh-PLAZ-sum

pulmon / ary neo / plasm

lung / pertaining to new / formation

Definition new growth (tumor) in the lung

restrictive lung disorder

re-STRIKT-iv

re / strict / ive lung disorder

back / bind / tie / pertaining to

Definition a lung disorder caused by the limiting of air into the lungs
adenoidectomy

a-din-oid-EK-toe-mee

adenoid / ectomy

adenoid / removal



Definition removal of the adenoids



laryngectomy

la-rin-JEK-toe-mee

laryng / ectomy

larynx / removal



Definition removal of the larynx



laryngoplasty

la-rin-GO-plas-stee

laryngo / plasty

larynx / reconstruction



Definition reconstruction of the larynx



palatoplasty

pal-e-toe-PLAS-tee

palato / plasty

palate / reconstruction



Definition reconstruction of a palate



septoplasty

sep-toe-PLAS-tee

septo / plasty

septum / reconstruction



Definition reconstruction of a septum



tonsillectomy

ton-sil-EK-toe-mee

tonsill / ectomy

tonsil / removal



Definition removal of the tonsils



tracheostomy

tray-kee-AH-stoh-mee

tracheo / stomy

trachea / opening



Definition creation of an opening in the trachea


tracheotomy
tracheotomy

tray-kee-AH-toe-mee

tracheo / tomy

trachea / incision

Definition incision into the trachea

endotracheal intubation

en-doh-TRAY-kee-al

in-too-BAY-shun

endo / trache / al

inside / trachea / pertaining to

in / tub / ation

in / tube / process

Definition insertion of a tube inside the trachea



lower respiratory



Term

Word Analysis



bronchoplasty

bron-koh-PLAS-tee

broncho / plasty

bronchus / reconstruction



Definition reconstruction of a bronchus


cardiopulmonary resuscitation
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

kar-dee-oh-pul-mon-AIR-ee ree-sus-i-TAY-shun

cardio / pulmon / ary

heart / lung / pertaining to

re / suscit / ation

again / awaken / process

Definition method of artificially maintaining blood flow and airflow when breathing and pulse have stopped

note: Suscit is formed by adding the prefix sub- to the Latin word cito, which means to move. suscit = sub + cito = to move from beneath, and thus to raise or awaken. The cito root is found in other words like excite, incite, and recite.

lobectomy

loh-BEK-toe-mee

lob / ectomy

lobe / removal

Definition removal of a lobe


lobectomy
pleuropexy

ploo-rah-PEK-see

pleuro / pexy

pleura / fixation

Definition reattachment of the pleura

pneumonectomy

new-mon-EK-toe-mee

pneumon / ectomy

lung / removal

Definition removal of a lung


thoracocentesis
thoracocentesis

thor-a-koh-sin-TEE-sis

thoraco / centesis

chest / puncture

Definition puncture of the chest

thoracentesis

thor-a-sin-TEE-sis

thora [co] / centesis

chest / puncture

Definition puncture of the chest

note: This word drops a syllable from thoracocentesis to make it easier to say.



thoracoplasty

thor-a-koh-PLAS-tee

thoraco / plasty

chest / reconstruction



Definition reconstruction of the chest



thoracostomy

thor-a-KOS-toe-mee

thoraco / stomy

chest / opening



Definition creation of an opening in the chest



thoracotomy

thor-a-KAH-toe-mee

thoraco / tomy

chest / incision



Definition incision into the chest



drugs



Term

Word Analysis


antitussive
antitussive

an-tee-TUSS-iv

anti / tuss / ive

against / cough / agent

Definition a drug that prevents coughing

bronchodilator

bron-koh-DAI-lay-tor

broncho / dilator

bronchus / expander

Definition a drug that expands the walls of the bronchi



expectorant

eks-PEK-tor-ant

ex / pector / ant

out / chest / agent



Definition a drug that encourages the expulsion of material from the lungs


nebulizer
mucolytic

myoo-koh-LIT-ik

muco / lytic

mucus / breakdown agent

Definition a drug that aids in the breakdown of mucus

nebulizer

neh-byoo-LAI-zir

from the Latin word nebula,meaning cloud

Definition a machine that administers respiratory medication by creating a "cloud" or mist that is inhaled by the patient
aerodontalgia

ER-oh-dawn-TAL-jah

aer / odont / algia

air / tooth / pain



Definition tooth pain caused by exposure to air



aphagia

a-FAY-jah

a / phagia

no / eat



Definition inability to eat


dentalgia
dentalgia

den-TAL-jah

dent / algia

tooth / pain

Definition tooth pain

dyspepsia

dis-PEP-see-ah

dys / peps / ia

bad / digestion / condition

Definition bad digestion



esophagalgia

eh-SAWF-ah-GAL-jah

esophag / algia

esophagus / pain



Definition pain in the esophagus



eupepsia

yoo-PEP-see-ah

eu / peps / ia

good / digestion / condition



Definition good digestion



gastralgia

gas-TRAL-jah

gastr / algia

stomach / pain



Definition stomach pain



gastrodynia

GAS-troh-DIH-nee-ah

gastro / dynia

stomach / pain



Definition stomach pain



gingivalgia

JIN-jih-VAL-jah

gingiv / algia

gum / pain



Definition gum pain


gingivostomatitis
gingivostomatitis

JIN-jih-voh-STOH-mah-TAI-tis

gingivo / stomat / itis

gum / mouth / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the mouth and gums

hematemesis

HEM-at-EM-eh-sis

hemat / emesis

blood / vomiting

Definition vomiting blood



hyperemesis

HAI-per-EM-eh-sis

hyper / emesis

over / vomiting



Definition excessive vomiting



odontalgia

OH-dawn-TAL-jah

odont / algia

tooth / pain



Definition tooth pain



odontodynia

oh-DAWN-toh-DIH-nee-ah

odonto / dynia

tooth / pain



Definition tooth pain


stomatitis
stomatitis

STOH-mah-TAI-tis

stomat / itis

mouth / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the mouth

stomatodynia

stoh-MAT-oh-DIH-nee-ah

stomato / dynia

mouth / pain

Definition mouth pain



lower gastro tract



Term

Word Analysis



constipation

KAWN-stih-PAY-shun

from Latin, for to crowd together



Definition difficulty passing feces



diarrhea

DAI-ah-REE-ah

dia / rrhea

through / discharge



Definition passing of fluid or unformed feces



dysentery

DIS-en-TER-ee

dys / enter / y

bad / intestine / condition



Definition another name for diarrhea



enterodynia

EN-ter-oh-DIH-nee-ah

entero / dynia

intestine / pain



Definition pain in the intestines


hemorrhoid
hemorrhoid

HEM-oh-ROID

from a Greek word referring to veins likely to discharge blood

Definition inflammation of the veins surrounding the anus

rectalgia

rek-TAL-jah

rect / algia

rectum / pain

Definition rectal pain



supporting organs



Term

Word Analysis



cholecystalgia

KOH-lay-sis-TAL-jah

chole / cyst / algia

bile / bladder / pain



Definition pain in the gallbladder



cholemesis

koh-LEM-eh-sis

chol / emesis

bile / vomiting



Definition vomiting bile


icterus
jaundice

JAWN-dis

from French, meaning yellow

Definition yellowing of skin, tissue, and fluids caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the blood

icterus

IK-ter-us

from Greek, for jaundice


sialorrhea
Definition another name for jaundice

Note: This word has its origins in the name of a bird with a yellow breast; it was once believed that seeing the bird would cure jaundice.

sialorrhea

SAI-ah-loh-REE-ah

sialo / rrhea

saliva / excessive discharge

Definition excessive salivation
gastromalacia

GAS-troh-mah-LAY-shah

gastro / malacia

stomach / softening



Definition softening of the stomach



gastroparesis

GAS-troh-par-EE-sis

gastro / paresis

stomach / partial paralysis



Definition partial paralysis of the stomach


gingivitis
gingivitis

JIN-jih-VAI-tis

gingiv / itis

gum / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the gums

gingivoglossitis

JIN-jih-voh-glaw-SAI-tis

gingivo / gloss / itis

gum / tongue / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the gums and tongue



glossoplegia

GLAW-soh-PLEE-jah

glosso / plegia

tongue / paralysis



Definition paralysis of the tongue


odontoclasis
odontoclasis

OH-dawn-TAWK-lah-sis

odonto / clasis

tooth / break

Definition breaking of a tooth

stomatogastric

stoh-MAH-toh-GAS-trik

stomato / gastr / ic

mouth / stomach / pertaining to

Definition pertaining to the mouth and stomach



stomatosis

STOH-mah-TOH-sis

stomat / osis

mouth / condition



Definition mouth condition



lower gastro tract



Term

Word Analysis



anophony

an-AW-foh-nee

ano / phony

anus / sound



Definition sound from the anus



flatus

FLAH-tus

from Latin, for to blow



Definition medical term for passing gas


hernia
hernia

HER-nee-ah

from Latin, for rupture

Definition rupture or protusion of an organ through the wall that normally contains it

steatorrhea

STAY-at-oh-REE-ah

steato / rrhea

fat / discharge

Definition excessive fat discharged in the feces



supporting organs



Term

Word Analysis



ascites

ah-SAI-teez

from the Greek word askos, referring to a bag made from the skin of a goat that was used to hold wine



Definition retention of fluid in the peritoneum

Note: The name comes from the patient's resemblence to an askos.



biligenesis

bih-lih-JIN-eh-sis

bili / genesis

bile / creation



Definition formation of bile



cholelith

KOH-lay-lith

chole / lith

bile / stone



Definition gallstone; literally, a stone in the bile



hepatomalacia

heh-PAT-oh-mah-LAY-shah

hepato / malacia

liver / softening



Definition softening of the liver


hepatomegaly
hepatomegaly

heh-PAT-oh-MEG-ah-lee

hepato / megaly

liver / enlargement

Definition enlargement of the liver

hepatoptosis

heh-PAT-op-TOH-sis

hepato / ptosis

liver / drooping condition

Definition downward displacement of the liver



pancreatolith

pan-kree-AT-oh-lith

pancreato / lith

pancreas / stone



Definition stone in the pancreas



sialoangiectasis

SAI-ah-loh-AN-jee-EK-tah-sis

sialo / angi / ectasis

saliva / vessel / expansion



Definition overexpansion of the salivary vessels



sialolith

sai-AL-oh-lith

sialo / lith

saliva / stone



Definition stone in the saliva



sialostenosis

SAI-ah-loh-steh-NOH-sis

sialo / sten / osis

saliva / narrowing / condition



Definition narrowing of the salivary glands



diagnostic procedures



Term

Word Analysis



anosigmoidoscopy

AN-oh-SIG-moid-AW-skoh-pee

ano / sigmoido / scopy

anus / sigmoid / looking procedure



Definition procedure for looking at the anus and sigmoid colon



cholangiogram

koh-LAN-jee-oh-gram

cholangio / gram

bile vessels / record



Definition record of the bile vessels (ducts)



cholangiography

koh-LAN-jee-AW-grah-fee

cholangio / graphy

bile vessels / writing procedure



Definition procedure for mapping the bile vessels (ducts)



cholangiopancreatography

koh-LAN-jee-oh-PAN-kree-ah-TAW-grah-fee

cholangio / pancreato / graphy

bile vessels / pancreas / writing procedure



Definition procedure for mapping the bile vessels (ducts) and pancreas



cholecystogram

KOH-lay-SIS-toh-gram

chole / cysto / gram

bile / bladder / record



Definition record of the bile (gall) bladder


colonoscopy
colonoscopy

COH-lon-AW-skoh-pee

colono / scopy

colon / looking procedure

Definition procedure for looking at the colon

endoscope

EN-doh-SKOHP

endo / scope

inside / instrument to look

Definition instrument used to look inside


endoscopy
endoscopy

en-DAW-skoh-pee

endo / scopy

inside / looking procedure

Definition procedure of looking inside

esophagoscopy

eh-SAW-fah-GAW-skoh-pee

esophago / scopy

esophagus / looking procedure

Definition procedure for looking inside the esophagus



esophagogastroduodenoscopy

eh-SAW-fah-goh-GAS-stroh-DOO-aw-den-AW-skoh-pee

esophago / gastro / duodeno / scopy

esophagus / stomach / duodenum / looking procedure



Definition procedure for looking inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum



fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

FEE-kal ah-KULT blud test

fec / al occult blood test

feces / pertaining to hidden



Definition test of feces to discover blood not visibly apparent



gastroscope

GAS-troh-SKOHP

gastro / scope

stomach / instrument to look



Definition instrument for looking at the stomach



gastroscopy

gas-TRAW-skoh-pee

gastro / scopy

stomach / looking procedure



Definition procedure for looking at the stomach


laparoscope
laparoscope

LAP-ah-rohs-kohp

laparo / scope

abdomen / instrument to look

Definition instrument for looking inside the abdomen

laparoscopy

LAP-ah-RAWS-koh-pee

laparo / scopy

abdomen / looking procedure

Definition procedure for looking inside the abdomen


nasogastric tube
nasogastric tube

NAY-soh-GAS-trik TOOB

naso / gastr / ic tube

nose / stomach / pertaining to

Definition tube inserted through the nose into the stomach

pancreatography

PAN-kree-ah-TAW-graw-FEE

pancreato / graphy

pancreas / writing procedure

Definition procedure for mapping the pancreas



peritoneoscopy

PER-ih-TOH-nee-AW-skoh-pee

peritoneo / scopy

peritoneum / looking procedure



Definition procedure for looking at the peritoneum



proctoscope

PRAWK-toh-skohp

procto / scope

anus/rectum / instrument to look



Definition instrument for looking at the anus and rectum



proctoscopy

prawk-TAW-skoh-pee

procto / scopy

anus/rectum / looking procedure



Definition procedure for looking at the anus and rectum



sigmoidoscope

sig-MOY-doh-skohp

sigmoido / scope sigmoid / instrument to look



Definition instrument for looking at the sigmoid colon



sigmoidoscopy

sig-moy-DAW-skoh-pee

sigmoido / scopy

sigmoid / looking procedure



Definition procedure for looking at the sigmoid colon



professional terms



Term

Word Analysis



bariatrics

BAR-ee-at-riks

bar / iatr / ics

heavy / doctor / pertaining to



Definition branch of medicine dealing with weight issues

Note: In weather forecasts, the atmospheric pressure is called barometric pressure.



dentist

DEN-tist

dent / ist

tooth / specialist



Definition specialist in teeth


dentistry
dentistry

DEN-tis-tree

dent / istry

tooth / specialty

Definition branch of medicine dealing with teeth

dentifrice

DEN-ti-fris

denti / frice

tooth / rub

Definition toothpaste

Note: The suffix -frice also gives us the word friction.


dentifrice
gastroenterologist

GAS-troh-EN-ter-AW-loh-jist

gastro / entero / logist

stomach / intestines / specialist

Definition specialist in the stomach and intestines

gastroenterology

GAS-troh-EN-ter-AW-loh-jee

gastro / entero / logy

stomach / intestines / study

Definition study of the stomach and intestines


orthodontics
orthodontics

or-thoh-DAWN-tiks

ortho / dont / ics

straight / teeth / pertaining to

Definition branch of medicine dealing with the straightening of teeth

orthodontist

or-thoh-DAWN-tist

ortho / dont / ist

straight / teeth / specialist

Definition specialist in straightening teeth



proctologist

prok-TAW-loh-jist

procto / logist

anus/rectum / specialist



Definition specialist in the anus, rectum, and colon



proctology

prok-TAW-loh-jee

procto / logy

anus/rectum / study



Definition branch of medicine dealing with the anus, rectum, and colon



anatomical regions



Term

Word Analysis



epigastric

eh-pee-GAS-trik

epi / gastr / ic

upon / stomach / pertaining to



Definition upper center portion of the abdomen



hypochondriac

hai-poh-KON-dree-ak

hypo / chondr / iac

beneath / cartilage / pertaining to



Definition upper side portions of the abdomen



hypogastric

hai-poh-GAS-trik

hypo / gastr / ic

beneath / stomach / pertaining to



Definition lower center portion of the abdomen



inguinal

IN-gwin-al

inguin / al

groin / pertaining to



Definition lower side portions of the abdomen



lumbar

LUM-bar

lumb / ar

loin / pertaining to



Definition middle side portions of the abdomen



umbilical

um-BIL-ih-kal

umbilic / al

belly button / pertaining to



Definition middle center portion of the abdomen
esophagitis

eh-SAWF-ah-JAI-tis

esophag / itis

esophagus / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the esophagus



esophageal carcinoma

eh-SAWF-ah-JEE-al KAR-sih-NOH-mah

esophag / eal carcin / oma

esophagus / pertaining to cancer / tumor



Definition cancerous tumor of the esophagus



gastritis

gas-TRAI-tis

gastr / itis

stomach / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the stomach



gastroenteritis

GAS-troh-EN-ter-AI-tis

gastro / enter / itis

stomach / intestine / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the stomach and intestines



gastroenterocolitis

GAS-troh-EN-ter-oh-coh-LAI-tis

gastro / entero / col / itis

stomach / intestine / colon / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the stomach, intestine, and colon


gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

GAS-troh-eh-SOF-ah-JEE-al REE-fluks dih-ZEEZ

gastro / esophag / eal re / flux stomach / esophagus / pertaining to back / flow

Definition disease in which acid comes up from the stomach and damages the esophagus

gingival hyperplasia

JIN-jih-val HAI-per-PLAY-zhah

gingiv / al hyper / plasia

gum / pertaining to over / formation

Definition overformation of gum tissue



glossopathy

glaws-AW-pah-thee

glosso / pathy

tongue / disease



Definition disease of the tongue



glossotrichia

GLAWS-oh-TRIK-ee-ah

glosso / trich / ia

tongue / hair / condition



Definition overdevelopment of bumps on the tongue, making the tongue appear to be hairy



periodontitis

PER-ee-OH-don-TAI-tis

peri / odont / itis

around / tooth / inflammation



Definition inflammation of region around the teeth


pyloric stenosis
pyloric stenosis

PAI-lor-ik steh-NOH-sis

pylor / ic sten / osis

gatekeeper / pertaining to narrowing / condition

Definition narrowing of the sphincter at the base of the stomach

Note: The body has three muscles called sphincters that open and close to allow the passage of fluid and solids—the esophageal (between the esophagus and the stomach), the pyloric (between the stomach and the intestines), and the anus. Pyloric comes from Greek, for gatekeeper.

stomatomycosis

stoh-MAT-oh-mai-KOH-sis

stomato / myc / osis

mouth / fungus / condition

Definition fungus condition of the mouth



stomatosis

STOH-mah-TOH-sis

stomat / osis

mouth / condition



Definition mouth condition



lower gastro tract



Term

Word Analysis



colitis

coh-LAI-tis

col / itis

colon / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the colon



colorectal carcinoma

COH-loh-REK-tal KAR-sih-NOH-mah

colo / rect / al carcin / oma

colon / rectum / pertaining to cancer / tumor



Definition cancerous tumor of the colon or rectum



duodenitis

doo-AH-den-AI-tis

duoden / itis

duodenum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the duodenum


enterocele
enterocele

EN-ter-oh-seel

entero / cele

intestine / tumor

Definition hernia of the intestines

enteropathy

EN-ter-AW-pah-thee

entero / pathy

intestine / disease

Definition disease of the intestines


fistula
fistula

FIS-tyoo-la

from Latin, for pipe

Definition any abnormal passageway in the body that shouldn't be there

anal fistula

AY-nal FIS-tyoo-la

an / al fistula

anus / pertaining to pipe

Definition abnormal opening between the rectum and the exterior perianal skin



colovaginal fistula

COH-loh-VAJ-in-al FIS-tyoo-la

colo / vagin / al fistula

colon / vagina / pertaining to pipe



Definition abnormal opening between the colon and vagina



ileitis

IH-lee-AI-tis

ile / itis

ileum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the ileum



ileocolitis

IH-lee-oh-koh-LAI-tis

ileocol / itis

ileum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the ileum and colon



jejunitis

JE-joo-NAI-tis

jejun / itis

jejunum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the jejunum



jejunoileitis

je-JOO-noh-IH-lee-AI-tis

jejuno / ile / itis

jejunum / ileum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the jejunum and ileum



proctitis

prok-TAI-tis

proct / itis

anus/rectum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the anus and rectum



proctoptosis

prok-TOP-toh-sis

procto / ptosis

anus/rectum / drooping condition



Definition downward displacement of the rectum and anus



rectitis

rek-TAI-tis

rect / itis

rectum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the rectum



supporting organs



Term

Word Analysis



celiomyositis

SEE-lee-oh-MAI-oh-sai-TOH-sis

celio / myos / itis

abdomen / muscle / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the abdominal muscle



celiopathy

see-lee-AW-pah-thee

celio / pathy

abdomen / disease



Definition disease of the abdomen



cholangioma

koh-lan-jee-OH-mah

cholangi / oma

bile vessels / tumor



Definition tumor of the bile vessels (ducts)



cholangitis

KOH-lan-JAI-tis

cholang / itis

bile vessels / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the bile vessels (ducts)



cholecystitis

KOH-lay-sis-TAI-tis

chole / cyst / itis

bile / bladder / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the bile (gall) bladder



choledochocele

koh-lay-DOH-koh-seel

chole / docho / cele

bile / duct / tumor



Definition hernia of the (common) bile duct



choledocholithiasis

koh-lay-DOH-koh-lith-AI-ah-sis

chole / docho / lith / iasis

bile / duct / stone / presence



Definition presence of a stone in the (common) bile duct


cholelithiasis
cholelithiasis

KOH-lay-lih-THAI-ah-sis

chole / lith / iasis

bile / stone / presence

Definition presence of a gallstone

cirrhosis

sir-OH-sis

from the Greek word cirrho,

for yellow

Definition liver disease named for the change of color in the liver

Note: The standard Greek root for yellow is xantho. This word uses a much rarer root for yellow.


hepatitis
hepatitis

HEH-pah-TAI-tis

hepat / itis

liver / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the liver

hepatocarcinoma

heh-PAT-oh-KAR-sih-NOH-mah

hepato / carcin / oma

liver / cancer / tumor

Definition cancerous tumor of the liver



hepatoma

HEH-pah-TOH-mah

hepat / oma

liver / tumor



Definition tumor of the liver



hepatosclerosis

heh-PAT-oh-skleh-ROH-sis

hepato / scler / osis

liver / hardening / condition



Definition hardening of the liver


laparocele
laparocele

LAP-ar-oh-seel

laparo / cele

abdomen / tumor

Definition abdominal hernia

pancreatitis

PAN-kree-ah-TAI-tis

pancreat / itis

pancreas / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the pancreas



pancreatolithiasis

PAN-kree-AH-toh-lih-THAI-ah-sis

pancreato / lith / iasis

pancreas / stone / presence



Definition presence of a stone in the pancreas



peritonitis

PER-ih-toh-NAI-tis

periton / itis

peritoneum / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the peritoneum



sclerosing cholangitis

skleh-ROH-sing KOH-lan-JAI-tis

scleros / ing cholang / itis

harden / ing bile vessels / inflammation



Definition inflammation and hardening of the bile vessels (ducts)


sialoadenitis
sialoadenitis

sai-AL-oh-AD-en-AI-tis

sialo / aden / itis

saliva / gland / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the salivary glands

sialoadenosis

sai-AL-oh-AD-en-OH-sis

sialo / aden / osis

saliva / gland / condition

Definition a condition of the salivary glands



sialolithiasis

sai-AL-oh-lih-THAI-ah-sis

sialo / lith / iasis

saliva / stone / presence



Definition presence of salivary stones
antacid

ant-AS-id

ant / acid

against / acid

Definition agent that neutralizes acid

antiemetic

AN-tih-EE-met-ik

anti / emet / ic

against / vomiting / pertaining to


antiemetic
Definition agent that prevents or relieves nausea or vomiting

cathartic

kah-THAR-tik

cathart / ic

cleansing / pertaining to

Definition agent that produces bowel movels

sialagogic

sai-AL-ah-GAW-jik

sial / agog / ic

saliva / leading / pertaining to



Definition agent that causes salivation



upper gastro tract



Term

Word Analysis



esophagectomy

eh-SAW-fah-JEK-toh-mee

esophag / ectomy

esophagus / removal



Definition surgical removal of the esophagus



esophagogastroplasty

eh-SAW-fah-goh-GAS-troh-PLAS-tee

esophago / gastro / plasty

esophagus / stomach / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the esophagus and stomach



gastrectomy

gas-TREK-toh-mee

gastr / ectomy

stomach / removal



Definition surgical removal of the stomach



gastroduodenostomy

GAS-troh-doo-AH-den-AW-stoh-mee

gastro / duodeno / stomy

stomach / duodenum / opening



Definition creation of an opening between the stomach and the duodenum



gastroenterostomy

GAS-troh-EN-ter-AW-stoh-mee

gastro / entero / stomy

stomach / intestine / opening



Definition creation of an opening between the stomach and the intestines


gastrojejunostomy
gastrojejunostomy

GAS-troh-JEH-joo-NAW-stoh-mee

gastro / jejuno / stomy

stomach / jejunum / opening

Definition creation of an opening between the stomach and the jejunum

gastropexy

GAS-troh-PEK-see

gastro / pexy

stomach / fixation

Definition surgical fixation of the stomach



gastroplasty

GAS-troh-PLAS-tee

gastro / plasty

stomach / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the stomach



gingivectomy

JIN-jih-VEK-toh-mee

gingiv / ectomy

gum / removal



Definition surgical removal of gum tissue



gingivoplasty

JIN-jih-voh-PLAS-tee

gingivo / plasty

gum / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of gum tissue



glossoplasty

GLAWS-oh-PLAS-tee

glosso / plasty

tongue / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the tongue



glossorrhaphy

glaws-OR-ah-fee

glosso / rrhaphy

tongue / suture



Definition suture of the tongue


odontectomy
glossotomy

glaws-AW-toh-mee

glosso / tomy

tongue / incision

Definition incision into the tongue

odontectomy

oh-dawn-TEK-toh-mee

odont / ectomy

tooth / removal

Definition surgical removal of a tooth



lower gastro tract



Term

Word Analysis


anastomosis
anastomosis

ah-NAS-toh-MOH-sis

ana / stom / osis

up / out / mouth / condition

Definition creation of an opening; a surgical procedure connecting two previously unconnected hollow tubes

Note: The prefix ana- here means out or up instead of no or not. This is the same type of usage as in the word aneurysm.

anoplasty

AN-noh-PLAS-tee

ano / plasty

anus / recontruction

Definition surgical reconstruction of the anus



colectomy

koh-LEK-toh-mee

col / ectomy

colon / removal



Definition surgical removal of the colon


colostomy
colostomy

koh-LAW-stoh-mee

colo / stomy

colon / opening

Definition creation of an opening in the colon

duodenectomy

doo-AW-den-EK-toh-mee

dudoden / ectomy

duodenum / removal

Definition surgical removal of the duodenum



enterectomy

en-ter-EK-toh-mee

enter / ectomy

intestine / removal



Definition surgical removal of the intestines



enterorrhaphy

en-ter-OR-ah-fee

entero / rrhaphy

intestine / suture



Definition suture of the intestines



enterotomy

en-ter-AW-toh-mee

entero / tomy

intestine / incision



Definition incision into the intestines



hemicolectomy

HEH-mee-koh-LEK-toh-mee

hemi / col / ectomy

half / colon / removal



Definition surgical removal of half (a portion) of the colon



hemorrhoidectomy

HEM-oh-roi-DEK-toh-mee

hemorrhoid / ectomy

hemorrhoid / removal



Definition surgical removal of hemorrhoids



herniorrhaphy

her-nee-OR-ah-fee

hernio / rrhaphy

hernia / suture



Definition suture of a hernia


ileocolostomy
ileocolostomy

IHL-ee-oh-koh-LAW-stoh-mee

ileo / colo / stomy

ileum / colon / opening

Definition creation of an opening between the ileum and colon

ileorrhaphy

IHL-ee-OR-ah-fee

ileo / rrhaphy

ileum / suture

Definition suture of the ileum



ileostomy

IHL-ee-AWS-toh-mee

ileo / stomy

ileum / opening



Definition creation of an opening in the ileum



ileotomy

IHL-ee-AW-toh-mee

ileo / tomy

ileum / incision



Definition incision into the ileum



jejunorrhaphy

JE-joo-NOR-ah-fee

jejuno / rrhaphy

jejunum / suture



Definition suture of the jejunum


jejunostomy
jejunostomy

JE-joo-NAW-stoh-mee

jejuno / stomy

jejunum / opening

Definition creation of an opening in the jejunum

jejunotomy

JE-joo-NAW-toh-mee

jejuno / tomy

jejunum / incision

Definition incision into the jejunum



proctoplasty

PROK-toh-PLAS-tee

procto / plasty

anus/rectum / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the anus and rectum



rectopexy

REK-toh-PEK-see

recto / pexy

rectum / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of the rectum



supporting organs



Term

Word Analysis


abdominocentesis
abdominocentesis

ab-DAW-min-oh-sin-TEE-sis

abdomino / centesis

abdomen / puncture

Definition puncture of the abdomen (usually for the purpose of withdrawing fluid)

abdominoplasty

ab-DAW-min-oh-PLAS-tee

abdomino / plasty

abdomen / reconstruction

Definition surgical reconstruction of the abdomen



celiotomy

SEE-lee-AW-toh-mee

celio / tomy

abdomen / incision



Definition incision into the abdomen



cholangiogastrostomy

kohl-AN-jee-oh-gas-TRAWS-toh-mee

cholangio / gastro / stomy

bile vessels / stomach / opening



Definition creation of an opening between the bile vessel (ducts) and the stomach



cholecystectomy

KOH-lay-sis-TEK-toh-me

chole / cyst / ectomy

bile / bladder / removal



Definition surgical removal of the bile (gall) bladder



choledochoenterostomy

KOH-leh-DOH-koh-EN-ter-AW-stoh-mee

chole / docho / entero / stomy

bile / duct / intestine / opening



Definition creation of an opening between (common) bile duct and the intestines



choledocholithectomy

KOH-leh-DOH-koh-lih-THEK-toh-mee

chole / docho / lith / ectomy

bile / duct / stone / removal



Definition surgical removal of a stone from the (common) bile duct


choledochotomy
choledochotomy

KOH-leh-doh-KAW-toh-mee

chole / docho / tomy

bile / duct / incision

Definition incision into the (common) bile duct

cholelithotomy

KOH-lay-lih-THAW-toh-mee

chole / litho / tomy

bile / stone / incision

Definition incision to remove bile (gall) stones



cholelithotripsy

KOH-lay-lih-THOH-trip-see

chole / litho / trips / y

bile / stone / rub / procedure



Definition crushing of bile (gall) stones



hepatectomy

HEP-ah-TEK-toh-me

hepat / ectomy

liver / removal



Definition surgical removal of the liver



hepaticogastrostomy

heh-PAT-ih-koh-gas-TRAW-stoh-me

hepatico / gastro / stomy

liver / stomach / opening



Definition creation of an opening between the liver and the stomach



hepaticotomy

heh-PAT-ih-KAW-toh-me

hepatico / tomy

liver / incision



Definition incision into the liver



hepatopexy

heh-PAT-oh-PEK-see

hepato / pexy

liver / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of the liver



laparoenterostomy

LAP-ah-roh-EN-ter-AWS-toh-me

laparo / entero / stomy

abdomen / intestine / opening



Definition creation of an opening between the abdomen and the intestines



laparoscopic surgery

LAP-ah-roh-SKAW-pik SIR-jir-ee

laparo / scop / ic surgery

abdomen / device to look / pertaining to



Definition the use of a laparscope to perform minimally invasive surgery



laparotomy

LAP-ah-RAW-toh-mee

laparo / tomy

abdomen / incision



Definition incision into the abdomen


pancreatectomy
pancreatectomy

PAN-kree-ah-TEK-toh-mee

pancreat / ectomy

pancreas / removal

Definition surgical removal of the panceas

pancreatoduodenectomy

PAN-kree-at-oh-DOO-aw-den-EK-toh-mee

pancreato / duoden / ectomy

pancreas / duodenum / removal

Definition surgical removal of the pancreas and duodenum



pancreatolithectomy

PAN-kree-at-oh-lih-THECK-toh-mee

pancreato / lith / ectomy

pancreas / stone / removal



Definition surgical removal of stones in the pancreas



sialoadenectomy

sai-AL-oh-AD-en-EK-toh-mee

sialo / aden / ectomy

saliva / gland / removal



Definition surgical removal of a salivary gland



sialolithotomy

sai-AL-oh-lih-THAW-toh-mee

sialo / litho / tomy

saliva / stone / incision



Definition incision to remove salivary stones



stomatoplasty

stoh-MAH-toh-PLAS-tee

stomato / plasty

mouth / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the mouth
glomerulus (plural: glomeruli)
root:
glomerul/o
examples:
glomerulopathy, glomerulonephritis
notes:
Glomerulus comes from a Latin word meaning little ball and refers to the little balls of blood vessels inside the kidney. These serve as the primary place for filtering the blood to form urine.
kidney
roots:
nephr/o, ren/o
examples:
nephrology, nephritis, renal failure
notes:
Kidneys perform the necessary task of filtering the blood—at a rate of 200 quarts per day. If you lose or donate a kidney, your remaining kidney can adjust and perform the work of two by increasing the amount it filters and by increasing in size. If you are born with only one kidney, your kidney may grow to be the size of two normal kidneys.

renal pelvis
root:
pyel/o
examples:
pyelonephritis, pyelitis
notes:
Pyelo is a root meaning pelvis. There are two things that the word pelvis can apply to: the skeletal pelvis, which is where your legs and your spine attach to one another; and the renal pelvis, which is a series of tubes that funnel urine out of the kidneys and into the ureters and on to the bladder. Pyelo is used most commonly for the renal pelvis.

urine
roots:
ur/o, urin/o
examples:
urology, hematuria
notes:
Healthy urine is completely sterile and contains ammonia molecules. This latter fact led the ancient Romans to use urine in two odd ways: to wash clothes (in fact, Romans set up large urinals outside laundries to gather urine free of charge) and to whiten teeth. It served both functions really well ... but gross.

stone
root:
lith/o
examples:
lithiasis, lithotripsy
notes:
Kidney stones aren't "stones"; instead, they are accumulations of mineral salts and calcium. To make sure people don't mistakenly think they are little rocks, health care professionals sometimes translate litho as calculus, a Latin word meaning—you guessed it—little rocks.
bladder
roots:
cyst/o, vesic/o
examples:
cystotomy, cystitis, vesiculotomy, vesiculitis
notes:
When completely full, the urinary bladder is roughly the size of a softball and can hold about 18 ounces of liquid. But it rarely reaches capacity. When the bladder is only about a quarter full, most people can't "hold it" anymore and feel an urgent need to urinate.

urethra
root:
urethr/o
examples:
urethrostenosis, urethritis
notes:
The length of the urethra differs depending on sex. The average male urethra is about 8 inches long, and the average female urethra is 1.5 to 2 inches long. This difference is sometimes mentioned as the reason why kidney stones are more painful for men than women; in fact, some say that the pain of kidney stones is the closest men can come to the pain of giving birth. Others argue that men are just big babies. You be the judge.
ureter
root:
ureter/o
examples:
ureterocele, ureterectomy
notes:
Ureters are the thick-walled tubes about 10 inches in length that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Don't confuse ureters with the urethra, a tube that runs from the bladder to the outside world. You have two ureters, but only one urethra.
opening
root:
meat/o
examples:
meatoscope, meatal stenosis
notes:
Meatus comes from a word meaning to go through; it means opening. The English word permeate comes from the same term. There are meatuses in several places in body: nasal meatuses, aural meatuses, and a urethral meatus.
penis
root:
balan/o
examples:
balanorrhea, balanitis
notes:
The root balano comes from a Greek word meaning acorn; this is an allusion to the shape of the tip of the penis. It was also the word the Greeks used to refer to a deadbolt lock on a door.


epididymis
root:
epididym/o
examples:
epididymotomy, epididymectomy
notes:
The epididymis, an oblong organ that sits on top of each testicle, is the place where sperm cells complete their final level of development and are stored. Interestingly, the root didymis means twins, so the name of this organ is literally upon the twins.

testicle
roots:
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o, testicul/o
examples:
orchitis, orchiopexy, anorchidism, testitis
notes:
You likely noticed right away that one of the main roots for testicle is similar to the word orchid. Believe or not, the flower is named for the organ, and not the other way around. The plant was called an orchid because some believed that its roots looked like a pair of testicles.

prostate
root:
prostat/o
examples:
prostatitis, prostatomegaly
notes:
The prostate is an organ in the male reproductive tract that surrounds the urethra. The name prostate breaks down into pro (before) and state (stand) and literally translates to mean the one that stands before or in front of. It was so named because of its position in front of the urinary bladder.
sperm
roots:
sperm/o, spermat/o, sperm/i
examples:
aspermia, spermicide, spermatocele
notes:
Sperm (from Greek, for seed) is produced in the testicles. It takes roughly 10 weeks to produce a single sperm. Sperm can sit in the epididymis for as long as 2 weeks before being ejaculated. These sperm can survive in the female reproductive tract for as long as 5 days. Because the male's sperm determines the sex of a baby, sperm can be either male or female. Male sperm are faster swimmers, but weaker. Female sperm are slower, but stronger.
anuria

an-YUR-ee-ah

Definition lack of urination

an / ur / ia

no / urine / condition

cystalgia

sis-TAL-jah

Definition pain in the bladder

cyst / algia

bladder / pain

cystodynia

SIS-toh-DAI-nee-ah

Definition pain in the bladder

cysto / dynia

bladder / pain

cystoplegia

SIS-toh-PLEE-jah

Definition bladder paralysis

cysto / plegia

bladder / paralysis

dysuria

dis-YUR-ee-ah

Definition painful urination

dys / ur / ia

bad / urine / condition

enuresis

EN-yur-EE-sis

Definition involutary urination

from Greek, for to urinate

hematuria

HEE-mah-TUR-ee-ah

Definition bloody urination

hemat / ur / ia

blood / urine / condition

incontinence

in-CON-tih-nentz

Definition inability to control urination

in / con / tinence

not / together / hold

nephralgia

neh-FRAL-jah

Definition pain in the kidney

nephr / algia

kidney / pain

nocturnal enuresis

nok-TIR-nal EN-yur-EE-sis

nocturnal enuresis

nighttime involuntary urination

Definition nighttime involuntary urination

nocturia

nok-TUR-ee-ah

Definition nighttime urination

noct / ur / ia

night / urine / condition

oliguria

aw-lih-GYIR-ee-ah

Definition low urine output

olig / ur / ia

few / urine / condition

polydipsia

PAW-lee-DIP-see-ah

Definition excessive thirst

poly / dips / ia

many / thirst / condition

polyuria

PAW-lee-YUR-ee-ah

Definition excessive urination

poly / ur / ia

many / urine / condition

pyuria

pai-YUR-ee-ah

Definition pus in the urine

py / ur / ia

pus / urine / condition

ureteralgia

yur-EE-ter-AL-jah

Definition pain in the ureter

ureter / algia

ureter / pain

urethrodynia

yoo-REE-throh-DAI-nee-ah

Definition pain in the urethra

urethro / dynia

urethra / pain

urethrorrhea

yoo-REE-throh-REE-ah

Definition discharge from the urethra

urethro / rrhea

urethra / discharge

urocyanosis

YUR-oh-SAI-ah-NOH-sis

Definition blue urine

uro / cyan / osis

urine / blue / condition

urodynia

YUR-oh-DAI-nee-ah

Definition painful urination

uro / dynia

urine / pain



male genitalia



Term

Word Analysis



balanorrhea

BAL-ah-noh-REE-ah

Definition discharge from the penis

balano / rrhea

penis / discharge


orchialgia
orchialgia

OR-kee-AL-jah

Definition testicle pain

orchi / algia

testicle / pain

orchichorea

OR-kee-kor-EE-ah

Definition involuntary jerking movement of the testicles

orchi / chorea

testicle / dance

orchidoptosis

OR-kih-dop-TOH-sis

Definition downward displacement of a testicle

xsorchido / ptosis

testicle / drooping condition

orchiodynia

OR-kee-oh-DIH-nee-ah

Definition testicle pain

orchio / dynia

testicle / pain



priapism

PREE-ap-izm

from ancient Greek minor fertility god named Priapus, who is always shown with a large and permanently erect penis



Definition persistent and painful erection
albuminuria

al-byoo-mih-NUR-ee-ah

Definition protein in the urine

albumin / ur / ia

protein / urine / condition



azotemia

AZ-oh-TEE-mee-ah

Definition excess nitrogen in the blood

azot / emia

nitrogen / blood condition



Note: The azot root comes from the two roots a (not) and zo (living). It was applied to nitrogen because things cannot live in it.



azotorrhea

AZ-oh-toh-REE-ah

Definition excessive discharge of nitrogen

azoto / rrhea

nitrogen / discharge



azoturia

AZ-oh-TUR-ee-ah

Definition excess nitrogen in the urine

azot / ur / ia

nitrogen / urine / condition


cystorrhexis
cystorrhexis

SIS-toh-REK-sis

Definition rupture of the bladder

cysto / rrhexis

bladder / rupture

dipsogenic

DIP-soh-JIN-ik

Definition creating thirst

dipso / genic

thirst / creating

glucosuria

GLOO-koh-shur-EE-ah

Definition sugar in the urine

glucos / ur / ia

sugar / urine / condition

glycosuria

GLAI-koh-shur-EE-ah

Definition sugar in the urine

glycos / ur / ia

sugar / urine / condition



hyperkalemia

HAI-per-kah-LEE-mee-ah

Definition excessive potassium in the blood

hyper / kal / emia

over / potassium / blood condition



hyponatremia

HAI-poh-nah-TREE-mee-ah

Definition low sodium in the blood

hypo / natr / emia

under / sodium / blood condition



ketolysis

kee-TAW-lih-sis

Definition breakdown of ketones

keto / lysis

ketones / loose



ketonuria

kee-toh-NUR-ee-ah

Definition presence of ketones in the urine

keton / ur / ia

ketones / urine / condition


nephrosis
meatal stenosis

mee-AY-tal steh-NOH-sis

Definition narrowing of the opening of the urethra

meat / al sten / osis

opening / pertaining to narrow / condition

nephroptosis

nef-rop-TOH-sis

Definition downward displacement of a kidney

nephro / ptosis

kidney / drooping condition

nephrosis

neh-FROH-sis

Definition kidney condition

nephr / osis

kidney / condition


ureterolithiasis
uremia

ur-EE-mee-ah

Definition urine in the blood

ur / emia

urine / blood condition

ureterocele

yoo-REE-ter-oh-SEEL

Definition hernia of a ureter

uretero / cele

ureter / hernia

ureterolithiasis

yoo-REE-ter-oh-lih-THAI-ah-sis

Definition presence of stones in a ureter

uretero / lith / iasis

ureter / stone / presence


urethrostenosis
ureterostenosis

yoo-REE-ter-oh-steh-NOH-sis

Definition narrowing of a ureter

uretero / sten / osis

ureter / narrow / condition

urethrospasm

yoo-REE-throh-SPAZ-um

Definition involuntary contraction of the urethra

urethro / spasm

urethra / involuntary contraction

urethrostenosis

yoo-REE-throh-steh-NOH-sis

Definition narrrowing of the urethra

urethro / sten / osis

urethra / narrowing / condition



diagnostic procedures



Term

Word Analysis



cystogram

SIS-toh-gram

Definition image of the bladder

cysto / gram

bladder / record



cystography

sis-TAW-grah-fee

cysto / graphy

bladder / writing procedure



Definition process for recording/imaging the bladder



cystoscopy

sis-TAWS-koh-pee

cysto / scopy

bladder / looking procedure



Definition process for examining the bladder



meatoscope

mee-AT-oh-SKOHP

meato / scope

opening / instrument to look



Definition instrument for examining the opening of the urethra



meatoscopy

MEE-ah-TAW-skoh-pee

meato / scopy

opening / looking procedure



Definition process for examining the opening of the urethra


nephrogram
nephrogram

NEF-roh-gram

nephro / gram

kidney / record

Definition image of a kidney

nephrography

neh-FRAW-grah-fee

nephro / graphy

kidney / writing procedure

Definition procedure for imaging a kidney



nephroscopy

ne-FRAW-skoh-pee

nephro / scopy

kidney / looking procedure



Definition procedure for examining a kidney



nephrosonography

NEF-roh-soh-NAW-grah-fee

nephro / sono / graphy

kidney / sound / writing procedure



Definition procedure for imaging a kidney using sound waves



pyelogram

PAI-el-oh-GRAM

pyelo / gram

pelvis / record



Definition image of the renal pelvis



renal angiogram

REE-nal AN-jee-oh-GRAM

ren / al angio / gram

kidney / pertaining to vessel / record



Definition image of a kidney blood vessel



renal angiography

REE-nal AN-jee-AW-grah-fee

ren / al angio / graphy

kidney / pertaining to vessel / writing procedure



Definition process of imaging a kidney blood vessel



renal arteriogram

REE-nal ar-TER-ee-oh-GRAM

ren / al arterio / gram

kidney / pertaining to artery / record



Definition image of a kidney artery



resectoscope

rih-SEK-toh-SKOHP

re / secto / scope

back / cut / instrument to look



Definition instrument for examining and cutting (usually the prostate)



retrograde pyelogram

REH-troh-grayd PAI-el-oh-GRAM

retro / grade pyelo / gram

backward / walk pelvis / record



Definition image of the renal pelvis produced by injecting a contrast dye from the bladder to the kidney



Note: The term retrograde is used because the contrast goes in the opposite direction of normal urine flow.



ultrasonography

UL-trah- soh-NAW-grah-fee

ultra / sono / graphy

high / sound / writing procedure



Definition imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves



ureteroscopy

yoo-REE-ter-AW-skoh-pee

uretero / scopy

ureter / looking procedure



Definition process of examining a ureter



urethroscope

yoo-REE-throh-SKOHP

urethro / scope

urethra / instrument to look



Definition instrument for examining the urethra



urethroscopy

yoo-ree-THRAW-skoh-pee

urethro / scopy

urethra / looking procedure



Definition process of examining the urethra


urinalysis
urinalysis (UA)

YUR-ih-NAL-ih-sis

urinalysis is actually a shortened form of urine analysis

Definition analysis of the urine

Note: The -in sound at the end of urine combines with an an- sound at the beginning of analysis to make a single sound.

voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)

VOI-ding SIS-toh-yoo-REE-throh-GRAM

voiding cysto / urethro / gram

urinating bladder / urethra / record



Definition imaging procedure of the bladder and urethra produced during urination



professional terms



Term

Word Analysis



blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

blud yoo-REE-ah NAI-troh-jun

blood urea nitrogen



Definition nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea; it is the product of the breakdown of amino acids for energy



Note: The level of urea in the blood can be an indicator of kidney function.



diuresis

DAI-yur-EE-sis

di / uresis

through / urination



Definition excessive urination



Note: The prefix for this word is actually dia, but when the next word part starts with a vowel (as does uresis), the dia shortens to di.



nephrologist

neh-FRAW-loh-jist

nephro / logist

kidney / specialist



Definition specialist in the kidneys



nephrology

neh-FRAW-loh-jee

nephro / logy

kidney / study



Definition study of the kidneys


urologist
urologist

yur-AW-loh-jist

uro / logist

urine / specialist

Definition specialist in the urinary tract

urology

yur-AW-loh-jee

uro / logy

urine / study

Definition study of the urinary tract



uropoiesis

YUR-oh-poh-EE-sis

uro / poiesis

urine / formation



Definition formation of urine



uroxanthin

YUR-oh-ZAN-thin

uro / xanthin

urine / yellow



Definition substance in urine that makes it yellow



voiding

VOI-ding

from a term meaning empty



Definition another term for urination



male genitalia



Term

Word Analysis


anorchidism
anorchidism

an-OR-kih-DIZ-um

an / orchid / ism

no / testicle / condition

Definition lack of a testicle

aspermia

ay-SPER-mee-ah

a / sperm / ia

no / sperm / condition

Definition condition characterized by lack of sperm



azoospermia

ay-ZOH-aw-SPER-mee-ah

a / zoo / sperm / ia

no / living / sperm / condition



Definition condition characterized by lack of living sperm


cryptorchidism
cryptorchidism

krip-TOR-kih-DIZ-um

crypt / orchid / ism

hidden / testicle / condition

Definition hidden testicle

hydrocele

HAI-droh-SEEL

hydro / cele

water / hernia

Definition fluid-filled mass in a testicle



hypospadias

HAI-poh-SPAY-dee-as

from Greek, for to tear underneath



Definition birth defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside, instead of the end, of the penis



oligospermia

AW-lih-goh-SPER-mee-ah

oligo / sperm / ia

low / sperm / condition



Definition condition characterized by low sperm production


phimosis
phimosis

fih-MOH-sis

from Greek, for muzzle

Definition contraction of the foreskin of the penis, preventing it from being retracted

prostatolith

pros-TAT-oh-lith

prostato / lith

prostate / stone

Definition stone in the prostate



prostatomegaly

PROS-ta-toh-MEH-gah-lee

prostato / megaly

prostate / enlargement



Definition abnormal enlargement of the prostate



prostatorrhea

PROS-ta-toh-REE-ah

prostato / rrhea

prostate / discharge



Definition discharge from the prostate



seminoma

SEM-ih-NOH-mah

semin / oma

sperm / tumor



Definition type of testicular cancer arising from sperm-forming tissue



spermatocele

sper-MAH-toh-SEEL

spermato / cele

sperm / hernia



Definition hernia or distention of the epididymis caused by sperm cells



spermatolysis

SPER-mah-TAW-lih-sis

spermato / lysis

sperm / loose



Definition destruction of sperm cells



diagnostic procedures



Term

Word Analysis


digital rectal exam
digital rectal exam (DRE)

DIJ-ih-tal REK-tal ek-ZAM

digit / al rect / al exam

finger / pertaining to rectum / pertaining to exam

Definition examination of the prostate using a finger inserted into the rectum

transrectal ultrasonography

TRANZ-REK-tal UL-trah-soh-NAW-grah-fee

trans / rect / al ultra / sono / graphy

through / rectum / pertaining to high / sound / writing procedure

Definition procedure using a probe inserted into the rectum using high-frequency sound waves to scan through the rectum to nearby tissue (most commonly, the prostate)



urethrogram

yoo-REE-throh-GRAM

urethro / gram

urethra / record



Definition image of the urethra



professional terms



Term

Word Analysis


ejaculation
ejaculation

ee-JAK-yoo-LAY-shun

e / jacul / ation

out / throw / process

Definition emission of semen from the urethra

gonads

GOH-nadz

gon / ads

creation / pair

Definition pair of organs used for sexual reproduction; in males, they are the testicles, and in females, they are the ovaries



spermatogenesis

sper-MAT-oh-JIN-eh-sis

spermato / genesis

sperm / creation



Definition creation of sperm



vas deferens

VAS DEH-frenz

vas de / ferens

vessel away / carrying



Definition vessel carrying sperm from the testicles



Note: The word "vessel" can cause confusion. Most people hear "vessel" and think "blood vessel." "Vessel" simply means "tube or duct." So the vas deferens is a vessel; it just carries sperm instead of blood.
cystitis

sis-TAI-tis

cyst / itis

bladder / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the bladder


cystocele
cystocele

SIS-toh-seel

cysto / cele

bladder / tumor

Definition hernia of the bladder

cystolith

SIS-toh-lith

cysto / lith

bladder / stone

Definition stone in the bladder


cystoma
cystoma

sis-TOH-mah

cyst / oma

bladder / tumor

Definition tumor of the bladder

cystoptosis

sis-TOP-toh-sis

cysto / ptosis

bladder / drooping condition

Definition downward displacement of the bladder



cystospasm

SIS-toh-SPAZ-um

cysto / spasm

bladder / involuntary contraction



Definition involuntary contraction of the bladder



cystoureteritis

SIS-toh-yoo-REE-ter-AI-tis

cysto / ureter / itis

bladder / ureter / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the bladder and ureter



cystourethrocele

SIS-toh-yoo-REE-throh-seel

cysto / urethro / cele

bladder / urethra / hernia



Definition hernia of the bladder and urethra



glomerulonephritis

gloh-MER-yoo-loh-neh-FRAI-tis

glomerulo / nephr / itis

glomerulus / kidney / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the kidneys involving primarily the glomeruli



glomerulopathy

gloh-MER-yoo-LAW-pah-thee

glomerulo / pathy

glomerulus / disease



Definition disease of the kidney involving primarily the glomeruli



glomerulosclerosis

gloh-MER-yoo-loh-skleh-ROH-sis

glomerulo / sclerosis

glomerulus / hardening



Definition hardening of the glomeruli



hydronephrosis

HAI-droh-neh-FROH-sis

hydro / nephr / osis

water / kidney / condition



Definition kidney condition caused by the obstruction of urine flow



hypernephroma

HAI-per-neh-FROH-mah

hyper / nephr / oma

over / kidney / tumor



Definition another name for renal cell carcinoma



lithonephritis

LIH-thoh-neh-FRAI-tis

litho / nephr / itis

stone / kidney / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the kidneys caused by stones


nephritis
nephritis

neh-FRAI-tis

nephr / itis

kidney / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the kidney

nephrocele

NEH-froh-seel

nephro / cele

kidney / hernia

Definition hernia of a kidney



nephrohypertrophy

NEH-froh-hai-PER-troh-fee

nephro / hyper / trophy

kidney / over / nourishment



Definition overdevelopment of the kidney


nephrolithiasis
nephrolithiasis

NEH-froh-lih-THAI-ah-sis

nephro / lith / iasis

kidney / stone / presence

Definition presence of stones in the kidney

nephroma

neh-FROH-mah

nephr / oma

kidney / tumor

Definition kidney tumor



nephromalacia

NEH-froh-mah-LAY-shah

nephro / malacia

kidney / softening



Definition abnormal softening of a kidney


nephromegaly
nephromegaly

NEH-froh-MEG-ah-lee

nephro / megaly

kidney / enlargement

Definition abnormal enlargement of a kidney

nephropathy

neh-FRAW-pah-thee

nephro / pathy

kidney / disease

Definition any kidney disease



nephroptosis

NEH-frop-TOH-sis

nephro / ptosis

kidney / drooping condition



Definition downward displacement of a kidney



nephrosclerosis

NEH-froh-skleh-ROH-sis

nephro / scler / osis

kidney / hardening / condition



Definition abnormal hardening of a kidney


polycystic kidney disease
polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

PAW-lee-SIS-tik KID-nee dih-ZEEZ

poly / cyst / ic kidney disease

many / cysts / pertaining to

Definition disease characterized by the formation of many fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

pyelitis

PAI-el-AI-tis

pyel / itis

pelvis / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the renal pelvis



pyelocystitis

PAI-el-oh-sis-TAI-tis

pyelo / cyst / itis

pelvis / bladder / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the renal pelvis and bladder



pyelocystostomosis

PAI-el-oh-SIS-toh-staw-MOH-sis

pyelo / cysto / stom / osis

pelvis / bladder / mouth / condition



Definition creation of an opening between the renal pelvis and bladder



pyelonephritis

PAI-el-oh-neh-FRAI-tis

pyelo / nephr / itis

pelvis / kidney / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis



pyelopathy

PAI-el-AW-pah-thee

pyelo / pathy

pelvis / disease



Definition disease of the renal pelvis


pyeloureterectasia
pyeloureterectasia

PAI-el-oh-yoo-REE-ter-ek-TAY-zhah

pyelo / ureter / ectasia

pelvis / ureter / dilation

Definition dilation of the renal pelvis and ureter

pyonephritis

PAI-oh-neh-FRAI-tis

pyo / nephr / itis

pus / kidney / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the kidney caused by pus



pyonephrolithiasis

PAI-oh-NEH-froh-lih-THAI-ah-sis

pyo / nephro / lith / iasis

pus / kidney / stone / presence



Definition presence of pus and stones in the kidney



pyopyeloectasis

PAI-oh-PAI-el-oh-EK-tah-sis

pyo / pyelo / ectasis

pus / pelvis / expansion



Definition pus in a dilated renal pelvis


renal cell carcinoma
renal cell carcinoma

REE-nal SELL KAR-sih-NOH-mah

ren / al cell carcin / oma

kidney / pertaining to cell cancer / tumor

Definition cancer of the kidneys

renal failure

REE-nal FAY-el-yur

ren / al failure

kidney / pertaining to failure

Definition kidney failure



renal ischemia

REE-nal ih-SKEE-mee-ah

ren / al isch / emia

kidney / pertaining to hold back / blood condition



Definition deficiency of blood in a kidney



stress urinary incontinence (SUI)

stress YUR-ih-NAR-ee in-CON-tih-nentz

stress urin / ary in / con / tinence

stress urine / pertaining to not / together / holding



Definition loss of bladder control caused by the application of external pressure



Note: This is the medical term for loss of bladder control due to excessive laughing, a hard cough, or similar motion.



ureteritis

yoo-REE-ter-AI-tis

ureter / itis

ureter / inflammation



Definition inflammation of a ureter



ureteropyelonephritis

yoo-REE-ter-oh-PAI-el-oh-neh-FRAI-tis

uretero / pyelo / nephr / itis

ureter / pelvis / kidney / inflammation



Definition inflammation of a kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter



urethritis

yoo-ree-THRAI-tis

urethr / itis

urethra / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the urethra



urethrocystitis

yoo-REE-throh-sis-TAI-tis

urethro / cyst / itis

urethra / bladder / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the urethra and bladder



urinary tract infection (UTI)

YUR-ih-NAR-ee trakt in-FEK-shun

urinary tract infection



Definition infection of the urinary tract



uropathy

yur-AW-pah-thee

uro / pathy

urine / disease



Definition disease of the urinary tract



vesicocele

VES-ih-koh-SEEL

vesico / cele

bladder / hernia



Definition hernia of the bladder



vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)

VES-ih-koh-yoo-REE-ter-al REE-fluks

vesico / ureter / al re / flux

bladder / ureter / pertaining to back / flow



Definition abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters



ureteropyelitis

yoo-REE-ter-oh-PAI-el-AI-tis

uretero / pyel / itis

ureter / pelvis / inflammation



Definition inflammation of a ureter and renal pelvis



male genitalia



Term

Word Analysis



balanitis

bal-ah-NAI-tis

balan / itis

penis / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the penis


benign prostate hyperplasia
benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

beh-NAIN PROS-tayt HAI-per-PLAY-zhah

benign prostate hyper / plas / ia

friendly prostate over / formation / condition

Definition noncancerous overdevelopment of the prostate, also known as enlarged prostate

benign prostate hypertrophy

beh-NAIN PROS-tayt hai-PER-troh-fee

benign prostate hyper / trophy

friendly prostate over / nourishment

Definition another term for benign prostate hyperplasia



epididymitis

EP-ih-DID-ih-MAI-tis

epididym / itis

epididymis / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the epididymis



epididymo-orchitis

EP-ih-DID-ih-moh-or-KAI-tis

epididymo / orch / itis

epididymis / testicle / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the testicles and epididymis


gonorrhea
gonorrhea

GAW-noh-REE-ah

gono / rrhea

gonad / discharge

Definition discharge from the gonads

orchiditis

OR-kih-DAI-tis

orchid / itis

testicle / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the testicles



orchiepididymitis

OR-kee-EP-ih-DID-ih-MAI-tis

orchi / epididym / itis

testicle / epididymis / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the testicles and epididymis



orchiopathy

OR-kee-AW-pah-thee

orchio / pathy

testicle / disease



Definition disease of the testicles


orchitis
orchitis

or-KAI-tis

orch / itis

testicle / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the testicles

prostatitis

PRAWS-tah-TAI-tis

prostat / itis

prostate / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the prostate



prostatocystitis

PROS-ta-toh-sis-TAI-tis

prostato / cyst / itis

prostate / bladder / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the prostate and bladder


testicular carcinoma
prostatovesiculitis

PROS-ta-toh-veh-SIK-yoo-LAI-tis

prostato / vesicul / itis

prostate / bladder / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the prostate and seminal vesicles

testicular carcinoma

tes-TIK-yoo-lar KAR-sih-NOH-mah

testicul / ar carcin / oma

testicle / pertaining to cancer / tumor

Definition testicular cancer


varicocele
testitis

tes-TAI-tis

test / itis

testicle / inflammation

Definition inflammation of a testicle

varicocele

VAR-ih-koh-SEEL

varico / cele

twisted / hernia

Definition overexpansion of the blood vessels of the testicles, leading to a soft tumor
antispasmodic

AN-tee-spaz-MAWD-ik

anti / spasmod / ic

against / involuntary contraction / pertaining to



Definition drug used to prevent spasms



cystectomy

sis-TEK-toh-mee

cyst / ectomy

bladder / removal


cystolithectomy
Definition surgical removal of the bladder

cystolithectomy

sis-toh-lih-THEK-toh-mee

cysto / lith / ectomy

bladder / stone / removal

Definition surgical removal of a stone in the bladder

cystostomy

sis-TAW-stoh-mee

cysto / stomy

bladder / opening



Definition creation of an opening in the bladder



diuretic

DAI-yur-IT-ik

di / uret / ic

through / urine / pertaining to



Definition agent that causes urination



extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

EKS-trah-cor-POR-ee-al shok wayv LIH-thoh-TRIP-see

extra / corpor / eal

outside / body / pertaining to

shock wave litho / tripsy

shock wave stone / wear down procedure


fulguration
Definition breakdown of kidney stones using sound waves generated outside the body

fulguration

FUL-gur-AY-shun

from Latin, for lightning

Definition use of electric current to destroy tissue

heminephrectomy

HEH-mee-neh-FREK-toh-mee

hemi / nephr / ectomy

half / kidney / removal



Definition surgical removal of half a kidney



heminephroureterectomy

HEH-mee-NEH-froh-yoo-REE-ter-EK-toh-mee

hemi / nephro / ureter / ectomy

half / kidney / ureter / removal



Definition surgical removal of half a kidney and a ureter



hemodialysis

HEE-moh-dai-AL-ah-sis

hemo / dia / lysis

blood / through / loose



Definition procedure for removing waste from the bloodstream



intracorporeal lithotripsy

IN-trah-cor-POR-ee-al LIH-thoh-TRIP-see

intra / corpore / al litho / tripsy

inside / body / pertaining to stone / wear down procedure


kidney dialysis
Definition breakdown of kidney stones using a device placed inside the body

kidney dialysis

KID-nee dai-AL-ah-sis

dia / lysis

through / loose

Definition procedure for removing waste from the blood (a shorter name for hemodialysis)

Note: The name comes from the fact that the procedure separates or loses (lysis) blood from waste by passing it through (dia) an external filter.



laparonephrectomy

LAP-ah-roh-neh-FREK-toh-mee

laparo / nephr / ectomy

abdomen / kidney / removal



Definition surgical removal of a kidney through the abdomen



lithectomy

lih-THEK-toh-mee

lith / ectomy

stone / removal



Definition surgical removal of a stone



lithocystotomy

LIH-thoh-SIS-TAW-toh-mee

litho / cysto / tomy

stone / bladder / incision



Definition incision into the bladder to remove a stone



lithonephrotomy

LIH-thoh-neh-FRAW-toh-mee

litho / nephro / tomy

stone / kidney / incision


lithotripsy
Definition incision into a kidney to remove a stone

lithotripsy

LIH-thoh-TRIP-see

litho / tripsy

stone / wear down procedure

Definition breakdown of a stone

meatoplasty

mee-AT-toh-PLAS-tee

meato / plasty

opening / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the opening of the urethra



meatorrhaphy

MEE-ah-TOR-ah-fee

meato / rrhaphy

opening / suture



Definition suture of the opening of the urethra



meatotomy

MEE-ah-TAW-toh-mee

meato / tomy

opening / incision


nephrectomy
Definition incision into the opening of the urethra

nephrectomy

neh-FREK-toh-mee

nephr / ectomy

kidney / removal

Definition surgical removal of a kidney through the abdomen

nephrocystanastomosis

NEH-froh-SIST-ah-NAS-tah-MOH-sis

nephro / cyst / ana / stom / osis

kidney / bladder / up / mouth / condition


nephrolithotomy
Definition opening of a passageway between a kidney and the bladder

nephrolithotomy

NEH-froh-lih-THAW-toh-mee

nephro / litho / tomy

kidney / stone / incision

Definition incision into a kidney to remove a stone

nephropexy

NEH-froh-PEK-see

nephro / pexy

kidney / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of a kidney



nephrorrhaphy

neh-FROR-ah-fee

nephro / rrhaphy

kidney / suture


nephrostomy
Definition suture of a kidney

nephrostomy

neh-FRAW-stoh-mee

nephro / stomy

kidney / opening

Definition creation of an opening in a kidney

nephrotomy

neh-FRAW-toh-mee

nephro / tomy

kidney / incision



Definition incision into a kidney



nephrotoxin

NEH-froh-TOK-sin

nephro / toxin

kidney / poison



Definition agent poisonous to the kidney



nephroureterectomy

NEH-froh-yoo-REE-ter-EK-toh-mee

nephro / ureter / ectomy

kidney / ureter / removal


pyelolithotomy
Definition surgical removal of a kidney and ureter

pyelolithotomy

PAI-el-oh-lih-THAW-toh-mee

pyelo / litho / tomy

pelvis / stone / incision

Definition incision into a renal pelvis to remove a stone

pyeloplasty

PAI-el-oh-PLAS-tee

pyelo / plasty

pelvis / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of a renal pelvis



pyelostomy

PAI-el-AW-stoh-mee

pyelo / stomy

pelvis / opening



Definition creation of an opening in a renal pelvis



pyelotomy

PAI-el-AW-toh-mee

pyelo / tomy

pelvis / incision



Definition incision into a renal pelvis



renal angioplasty

REE-nal AN-jee-oh-PLAS-tee

ren / al angio / plasty

kidney / pertaining to vessel / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of a kidney blood vessel



ureteroileostomy

yoo-REE-ter-oh-IL-ee-AWS-toh-mee

uretero / ileo / stomy

ureter / ileum / opening


ureteronephrectomy
Definition creation of an opening between a ureter and the ileum (a portion of the small intestine)

ureteronephrectomy

yoo-REE-ter-oh-neh-FREK-toh-mee

uretero / nephr / ectomy

ureter / kidney / removal

Definition surgical removal of a kidney and ureter

ureteroplasty

yoo-REE-ter-oh-PLAS-tee

uretero / plasty

ureter / reconstruction



Definition surgical recontruction of a ureter



ureterorrhaphy

yoo-REE-ter-OR-ah-fee

uretero / rrhaphy

ureter / suture



Definition suture of a ureter



urethrectomy

yoo-ree-THREK-toh-mee

urethr / ectomy

urethra / removal



Definition surgical removal of the urethra



urethropexy

yoo-REE-throh-PEK-see

urethro / pexy

urethra / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of the urethra



urethroplasty

yoo-REE-throh-PLAS-tee

urethro / plasty

urethra / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the urethra



urethrotomy

yoo-ree-THRAW-toh-mee

urethro / tomy

urethra / incision


urinary catheterization
Definition incision into the urethra

urinary catheterization

YUR-ih-NAR-ee KATH-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun

urin / ary catheter / ization

urine / pertaining to catheter / procedure

Definition insertion of a catheter into the bladder to drain urine

Note: The word catheter comes from Greek, for to go inside.



urostomy

yur-AW-stoh-mee

uro /stomy

urine / opening



Definition creation of an opening in the urinary tract, normally to divert urine flow away from a diseased bladder



vesicostomy

VEH-sih-KAWS-toh-mee

vesico / stomy

bladder / opening



Definition creation of an opening in the bladder



vesicotomy

VEH-sih-KAW-toh-mee

vesico / tomy

bladder / incision



Definition incision into the bladder



male genitalia



Term

Word Analysis



balanoplasty

BAL-ah-noh-PLAS-tee

balano / plasty

penis / reconstruction


circumcision
Definition surgical reconstruction of the penis

circumcision

SIR-kum-SIH-zhun

circum / cision

around / cut

Definition surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

epididymectomy

EP-ih-DID-ih-MEK-toh-mee

epididym / ectomy

epididymis / removal



Definition surgical removal of the epididymis



epididymotomy

EP-ih-DID-ih-MAW-toh-mee

epididymo / tomy

epididymis / incision



Definition incision into the epididymis



hydrocelectomy

HAI-droh-seel-EK-toh-mee

hydro / cel / ectomy

water / hernia / removal



Definition surgical removal of a hydrocele



orchidectomy

OR-kid-EK-toh-mee

orchid / ectomy

testicle / removal



Definition surgical removal of a testicle



orchidopexy

OR-kid-oh-PEK-see

orchido / pexy

testicle / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of a testicle



orchidotomy

OR-kid-AW-toh-mee

orchido / tomy

testicle / incision


orchiectomy
Definition incision into a testicle

orchiectomy

kee-EK-mee

orchi / ectomy

testicle / removal

Definition surgical removal of a testicle

orchiopexy

OR-kee-oh-PEK-see

orchio / pexy

testicle / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of a testicle



orchioplasty

OR-kee-oh-PLAS-tee

orchio / plasty

testicle / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of a testicle



prostatectomy

PROS-tah-TEK-toh-mee

prostat / ectomy

prostate / removal



Definition surgical removal of the prostate



prostatolithotomy

pros-TAT-oh-lih-THAW-toh-mee

prostato / litho / tomy

prostate / stone / incision



Definition incision into the prostate to remove a stone



prostatovesiculectomy

pros-TAT-oh-veh-SIK-yoo-LEK-toh-mee

prostato / vesicul / ectomy

prostate / bladder / removal



Definition surgical removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles


spermicide
Note: Here, the root vesicul refers not to the urinary bladder but instead to the small seminal vesicles, or bladders that hold seminal fluid.

spermicide

SPER-mih-sahyd

spermi / cide

sperm / kill

Definition agent that kills sperm

spermolytic

SPER-moh-LIH-tik

spermo / lytic

sperm / breakdown agent



Definition agent that kills sperm



transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

trans / urethr / al re / sect / ion

through / urethra / pertaining to back / cut / procedure


vasectomy
Definition procedure of removing all or part of the prostate by the insertion of a resectoscope into the urethra

vasectomy

vah-SEK-toh-mee

vas / ectomy

vessel / removal

Definition surgical removal of the vas deferens

vasovasostomy

VAS-oh-vah-SAWS-toh-mee

vaso / vaso / stomy

vessel / vessel / opening



Definition creation of an opening between two vessels; this is the technical term for a vasectomy reversal



vesiculectomy

veh-SIK-yoo-LEK-toh-mee

vesicul / ectomy

bladder / removal



Definition surgical removal of the seminal vesicles
vagina
roots:

colp/o, vagin/o

examples:

colposcope, vaginitis

notes:

The word vagina comes from Latin and means the sheath or scabbard of a sword.

vulva
roots:

episi/o, vulv/o

examples:

episiotomy, vulvodynia

notes:

Vulva is the term for the external genital organs of a female.

perineum
root:

perine/o

examples:

perineoplasty, perineorrhaphy

notes:

Perineum is the term for the region between the genital organs and the anus. No one is really sure where the term came from, but one easy way to remember what it means is to think peri (around) + anus = region around the anus. It's not 100 percent accurate, but it's enough to help you remember.

woman
roots:

gynec/o, gyn/o

examples:

gynecology, gynecologist

notes:

This root comes from Greek, for woman. If you are afraid of women, you have gynophobia. Believe it or not, this root is where the English words queen and goon come from.


breast
root:

mast/o, mamm/o

examples:

mastopexy, mastectomy, mammogram

notes:

Believe it or not, the name of the mastodon, a long-extinct type of elephant similar to a mammoth, actually breaks down as mast (breast) and odon (tooth). The mastodon got its name from a scientist who thought that the animal's molar teeth had nipple-like tops, which gave them the appearance of breasts.


milk
root:

lact/o

examples:

lactation, lactorrhea

notes:

The root for milk, lacto, is also the root for the English word galaxy. Have you ever looked at the stars from a really dark spot out in the country? If so, you've seen stars that you'd never be able to see near a city. One thing you can see is the Milky Way, the thick band of stars that makes up our galaxy. It's called the Milky Way because the ancient Greeks thought the dense cloud of stars looked like milk sprayed in the night sky. A Greek myth tells how the hero Hercules, who was breast-fed by the goddess Hera, once bit down so hard that milk sprayed everywhere—creating the Milky Way.

Gynecology, Internal
A woman's inner reproductive system is shaped like a capital "T." On either end of the horizontal part of the "T" rest the ovaries. The ovaries hold all of the woman's eggs (ova). Roughly every 28 to 30 days during a woman's adult years, an ovary will allow an egg to mature and then releases it (ovulation). The ova travel along tubes (fallopian tubes) to the uterus.

The uterus is a pear-shaped organ in the vertical part of the "T," along with the vagina. The uterus is the incubator for growing and developing new life. Every month, the walls of the uterus grow and become rich in blood supply. If the woman's egg is fertilized by a sperm, it travels to the uterus and implants itself in the walls. If a new life is not implanted in the walls of the uterus, the tissues are shed and the process starts all over again. This cycle of building and shedding nutritive tissues in the uterus is known as the menstrual cycle. It is driven by the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Both of these hormones are made in the ovaries.

At the end of the uterus is a connection to the vagina known as the cervix. It is smaller and thicker than the rest of the uterus. Further down the vertical part of the "T" is the vagina, the reproductive system's main point of contact with the outside world. It is the part of a woman's body that is involved in sexual intercourse. Additionally, the opening of the urethra, which drains the bladder, is found in front of the anterior wall of the vagina.



cervix
root:

cervic/o

examples:

cervicodynia, cervicitis

notes:

Cervix means neck and refers not to the neck connecting your head to your body but to the opening between the uterus and the vagina.

remember:

The letter c changes sounds depending on what vowel follows it. Before e or i, the letter c makes an s sound (cervicitis—SER-vih-SAI-tis). Before a, o, or u, the letter c makes a k sound (cervicodynia—SER-vih-koh-DAI-nee-ah).

uterus
root:

hyster/o, metr/o, uter/o

examples:

hysterectomy, endometrium, uterus

notes:

Break down the word hysteria as a medical term. It means a uterus condition, right (hyster + ia)? Believe it or not, that is exactly where the term came from. It was used to refer to a medical condition (usually neurological) occurring in women and caused by a malfunctioning uterus. Think about that the next time you refer to a friend or a movie as "hysterical."


pelvis
root:

pelv/i

examples:

pelvimetry, pelvic sonography

notes:

Pelvis comes from a Latin word meaning basin or washtub and refers to the shape of the bones that make up the pelvis. Another root, pyelo, also means pelvis, but this root is used exclusively for the portion of the kidney called the renal pelvis.

ovary
root:

oophor/o, ovari/o

examples:

oophorectomy, ovariocentesis

notes:

Oophoro can be broken down into two words: oo, meaning egg, and phor, meaning to carry. Thus, oophor literally means the thing that carries the eggs.


menstruation
root:

men/o

examples:

menorrhea, menopause

notes:

Meno comes from Greek, for month, and refers to the standard 28-day recurrence of menstrual cycles. It is no wonder that in ancient Greece, Artemis was both the goddess who watched over young girls entering womanhood and the goddess associated with the moon, which goes through its phases roughly every 28 days.


fallopian tube
root:

salping/o

examples:

salpingectomy, salpingoscope

notes:

Salpingo comes from the Latin word for trumpet. Four sites in the body use this term due to their resemblance to a long, straight Roman trumpet: the ear canals and the fallopian tubes, which connect the ovaries to the uterus. The fallopian tubes are named for Gabriello Fallopio, an Italian specialist in anatomy who first described them in the 1500s.

remember:

The letter g changes sounds depending on what vowel follows it. Before e or i, the letter g makes a j sound (salpingitis—SAL-pin-JAI-tis). Before a, o, or u, the letter g makes a g sound (salpingoscope—sal-PING-goh-SKOHP).


Obstetrics
Pregnancy is the amazing process of a human life growing inside a woman. During pregnancy, a baby is called a fetus. The fetus grows and develops in the mother's uterus. The fetus is connected to the uterus via the placenta. The placenta is an important source for feeding the fetus. There, nutrients provided by the mother's blood vessels cross into the blood vessels of the fetus.

The fetus is attached to the placenta through the umbilical cord, which is cut at birth. This is where the belly button comes from. The fetus is surrounded by a fluid-filled sac (amnion or amniotic sac) that helps act as a shock absorber to protect it. Outside the amnion is another membrane, the chorion, which helps anchor the baby to the walls of the uterus and provides nutrition.

When the fetus is ready for birth, the woman's body goes through the painful process known as labor. During labor, the woman's cervix widens and the muscles of the uterus squeeze to push the baby out.


amnion
root:

amni/o

example:

amniocentesis

notes:

The amnion is the innermost membrane covering the fetus.

pregnancy
suffix:

-cyesis

example:

pseudocyesis

notes:

Although women experience pregnancy firsthand, there is a documented medical condition called Couvade syndrome, or sympathetic pregnancy, in which a man experiences some of the symptoms of pregnancy, including weight gain, morning sickness, and, in some cases, labor "pains."

chorion
root:

chori/o, chorion/o

example:

choriocarcinoma, chorionitis

notes:

The chorion is the outer membrane covering the fetus. It connects the fetus to the wall of the uterus.


labor
root:

toc/o

examples:

dystocia, tocograph

notes:

In the United States, there are more boy babies born than girl babies. For the past 60 years, the ratio has been about the same: 105 male births for every 100 female births. Also, according to some statistics, Tuesday is the most popular day to give birth. One more fun fact: Jimmy Carter was the first U.S. president to be born in a hospital.


fetus
root:

fet/o

example:

fetometry

notes:

Fetus is a Latin word that means offspring. The Greek word is embryo. In current medical usage, a fetus is an unborn child after the eighth week of pregnancy. Before that time, it is referred to as an embryo. Before the fertilization of an egg, the sperm and egg are called gametes (Greek for husband and wife). Once they join, a separate, distinct, and genetically unique creature is created that is called a zygote (Greek for joined together). Once the unborn child becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus, it is called an embryo.


birth
root:

part/o, nat/o

examples:

postpartum, neonatal

notes:

Both roots mean birth, but their focus is different. Parto means more accurately to give birth and therefore focuses on the mother. Nato means more literally to be born and therefore focuses on the baby. Hence, a mother gets postpartum depression and a baby is cared for by a neonatologist.
amenorrhea

AY-men-oh-REE-ah

a / meno / rrhea

no / menstruation / discharge



Definition no menstruation



colpostenosis

KOL-poh-steh-NOH-sis

colpo / sten / osis

vagina / narrow / condition



Definition narrowing in the vaginal opening



dysmenorrhea

DIS-men-oh-REE-ah

dys / meno / rrhea

bad / menstruation / discharge



Definition painful menstruation



dyspareunia

dis-pah-ROO-nee-ah

dys / par / eun / ia

bad / alongside / couch / condition



Definition painful sexual intercourse


gynecomastia
gynecomastia

GAI-neh-koh-MAS-tee-a

gyneco / mast / ia

woman / breast / condition

Definition development of breast tissue in males

Note: This term applies to men and not women, but it is included in this chapter because of the root it uses.

hysteralgia

HIS-ter-AL-jah

hyster / algia

uterus / pain



Definition pain in the uterus



hysterodynia

HIS-ter-oh-DIH-nee-ah

hystero / dynia

uterus / pain



Definition pain in the uterus



leukorrhea

LOO-koh-REE-ah

leuko / rrhea

white / discharge



Definition white vaginal discharge



mastalgia

mas-TAL-jah

mast / algia

breast / pain


mastoptosis
Definition breast pain

mastoptosis

MAS-top-TOH-sis

masto / ptosis

breast / drooping condition

Definition downward displacement (drooping) of the breast

menorrhagia

MEN-oh-RAY-jah

meno / rrhagia

menstruation / excessive discharge



Definition excessive menstrual flow



menorrhalgia

MEN-oh-RAL-jah

meno / rrh / algia

uterus / discharge / pain



Definition painful menstruation

Note: The difference between the last two words is only one letter—but that one letter makes a big difference.



metromenorrhagia

MEH-troh-MEN-oh-RAY-jah

metro / meno / rrhagia

uterus / menstruation / excessive discharge



Definition excessive menstrual bleeding at irregular intervals



metrorrhagia

MEH-troh-RAY-jah

metro / rrhagia

uterus / excessive discharge



Definition menstrual bleeding at irregular times



oligomenorrhea

AW-lih-goh-MEN-oh-REE-ah

oligo / meno / rrhea

few / menstruation / discharge



Definition infrequent or light menstrual periods



ovaralgia

OH-var-AL-jah

ovar / algiaovary / pain



Definition pain of the ovaries



ovarialgia

oh-VAR-ee-AL-jah

ovari / algia

ovary / pain



Definition pain of the ovaries

Note: Both ovaralgia and ovarialgia are acceptable spellings and mean the same thing.


perineocele
perineocele

PER-ih-NEE-oh-seel

perineo / cele

perineum / pouch / tumor / hernia

Definition hernia in the perineal region

polymenorrhea

PAW-lee-MEN-oh-REE-ah

poly / meno / rrhea

many / menstruation / discharge

Definition menstrual periods occurring with greater than normal frequency



vaginodynia

VAJ-ih-noh-DIH-nee-ah

vagino / dynia

vagina / pain



Definition vaginal pain



vulvodynia

VUL-voh-DIH-nee-ah

vulvo / dynia

vulva / pain



Definition pain in the vulva



obstetrics



Term

Word Analysis



amniorrhea

AM-nee-oh-REE-ah

amnio / rrhea

amnion / discharge



Definition discharge of amniotic fluid


amniorrhexis
amniorrhexis

AM-nee-oh-REK-sis

amnio / rrhexis

amnion/ rupture

Definition rupture of the amniotic sac

Braxton Hicks contraction

BRAKS-ton HIKS con-TRAK-shun

named after John Braxton Hicks, the doctor who first noted them, in 1872


contraction
Definition sporadic contractions of the uterine muscles of women not in labor; also known as false labor

contraction

con-TRAK-shun

from Latin, for to draw togetheror shorten

Definition shortening or tightening of a muscle; during labor, the uterine muscles contract
amastia

ay-MAS-tee-ah

a / mast / ia

no/ breast/ condition

Definition absence of breast

cervical dysplasia

SER-vih-kal dis-PLAY-zhah

cervic / al dys / plasia

cervix / pertaining to bad / formation


colpoptosis
Definition bad formation of cervical cells

colpoptosis

KOL-pawp-TOH-sis

colpo / pt / osis

vagina/ droop/ condition

Definition downward displacement of the vagina

episiostenosis

eh-PEE-zee-oh-stih-NOH-sis

episio / sten / osis

vulva/ narrow/ condition



Definition narrowing of the vulvar opening



hematosalpinx

heh-MAT-oh-SAL-pinks

hemato / salpinx

blood/ fallopian tube


hydrosalpinx
Definition blockage in a fallopian tube caused by blood

hydrosalpinx

HAI-droh-SAL-pinks

hydro / salpinx

water/ fallopian tube

Definition blockage in a fallopian tube caused by water (or any clear fluid)


hypermastia
hypermastia

HAI-per-MAS-tee-ah

hyper / mast / ia

over/ breast/ condition

Definition excessively large breasts

Note: This term can also refer to an abnormal number of breasts.

hypomastia

HAI-poh-MAS-tee-ah

hypo / mast / ia

under/ breast/ condition


hypomastia
Definition abnormally small breasts

hysteroptosis

HIS-ter-awp-TOH-sis

hystero / ptosis

uterus / drooping condition

Definition downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina

macromastia

MAK-roh-MAS-tee-ah

macro / mast / ia

big/ breast/ condition



Definition abnormally large breasts



micromastia

MAI-kroh-MAS-tee-ah

micro / mast / ia

small/ breast/ condition



Definition abnormally small breasts



oophorocystosis

OH-aw-FOR-oh-SIS-toh-sis

oophoro / cyst / osis

ovary/ cyst / condition



Definition ovarian cysts



pyosalpinx

PAI-oh-SAL-pinks

pyo / salpinx

pus/ fallopian tube



Definition blockage in a fallopian tube caused by pus



uterine prolapse

YOO-ter-in PROH-laps

uter / ine pro / lapse

uterus/ pertaining to forward / fall



Definition downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina



gynecology—diagnostic procedures



Term

Word Analysis



cervicography

SER-vih-KAW-grah-fee

cervico / graphy

cervix / writing procedure



Definition procedure for imaging the cervix



colposcope

KOL-poh-SKOHP

colpo / scope

vagina/ instrument to look


colposcopy
Definition instrument used to examine the vagina

colposcopy

kol-PAW-skoh-pee

colpo / scopy

vagina / looking procedure

Definition procedure for examining the vagina

hysterosalpingogram

HIS-ter-oh-sal-PING-goh-gram

hystero / salpingo / gram

uterus/ fallopian tube/ record



Definition record of the uterus and fallopian tubes



hysteroscope

HIS-ter-oh-SKOHP

hystero / scope

uterus/ instrument to look



Definition instrument for examining the uterus


mammogram
hysteroscopy

HIS-ter-AW-skoh-pee

hystero / scopy

uterus / looking procedure

Definition procedure for examining the uterus

mammogram

MAM-oh-GRAM

mammo / gram

breast/ record

Definition record of a breast exam


Pap smear
Pap smear

PAP SMEER

named after the inventor of the procedure, Dr. Georgios Papanicolaou

Definition test used to detect cancer cells, most commonly in the cervix

sonohysterography

SOH-noh-HIS-ter-AW-grah-fee

sono / hystero / graphy

sound / uterus / writing procedure

Definition procedure using sound waves to examine the uterus


sonohysterography
transvaginal sonography

TRANZ-VAJ-ih-nal soh-NAW-grah-fee

trans / vagin / al sono / graphy

through / vagina / pertaining to sound / writing procedure

Definition imaging procedure using sound waves emitted from a device inserted in the vagina

vaginoscope

VAJ-ih-noh-SKOHP

vagino / scope

vagina/ instrument to look

Definition instrument used to examine the vagina



gynecology—professional terms


endometrium
Term

Word Analysis

endometrium

EN-doh-MEE-tree-um

endo / metr / ium

inside/ uterus/ tissue

Definition inner layer of uterine tissue


gynecologist
gynecologist

GAI-neh-KAW-loh-jist

gyneco / logist

woman/ specialist

Definition specialist in medical issues specific to women

gynecology

GAI-neh-KAW-loh-jee

gyneco / logy

woman/ study

Definition study of medical issues specific to women



menarche

MEN-ar-kee

men / arche

menstruation/ beginning


myometrium
Definition beginning or first menstruation

myometrium

MAI-oh-MEE-tree-um

myo / metr / ium

muscle/ uterus/ tissue

Definition middle layer of uterine muscle tissue

perimetrium

PER-ee-MEE-tree-um

peri / metr / ium

around/ uterus/ tissue


speculum
Definition tissue on the outside of the uterus, the outer layer of the uterus

speculum

SPEH-kyoo-lum

from Latin, for mirror

Definition device for examining a body cavity, most commonly the vagina



obstetrics



Term

Word Analysis



bradytocia

BRAY-dih-TOH-shee-ah

brady / toc / ia

slow/ birth/ condition



Definition slow labor



cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)

SEE-fah-loh-PEL-vik DIS-proh-POR-shun

cephalo / pelv / ic disproportion

head/ pelvic/ pertaining to



Definition condition characterized by the inability of the mother's pelvis to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal

Note: This can be caused by either a small pelvis or a large baby, or both.



congenital anomaly

con-JIN-ih-tal ah-NAW-moh-lee

con / genit / al anomaly

with/ birth/ pertaining to irregularity



Definition irregular condition that is present at the time of birth



dystocia

dis-TOH-shee-ah

dys / toc / ia

bad/ birth/ condition



Definition difficult labor



eutocia

yoo-TOH-shee-ah

eu / toc / ia

good/ birth/ condition



Definition normal labor



gravida

GRAH-vid-ah

gravidaheavy



Definition another term for pregnant

NOTE: This word, which is also where the word gravity comes from, means heavy and is similar to an old expression about pregnancy that a woman is "great with child."



hysterocele

HIS-ter-oh-SEEL

hystero / cele

uterus/ pouch / tumor / hernia



Definition hernia of the uterus



hysterorrhexis

HIS-ter-oh-REK-sis

hystero / rrhexis

uterus/ rupture



Definition rupture of the uterus



lactogenic

LAK-toh-JIN-ik

lacto / gen / ic

milk/ creation/ pertaining to



Definition causing the formation of milk



lactorrhea

LAK-toh-REE-ah

lacto / rrhea

milk/ discharge



Definition discharge of milk



macrosomia

MAK-roh-SOH-mee-ah

macro / som / ia

large/ body/ condition



Definition baby with a large body



microcephalus

MAI-kroh-SEF-ah-lus

micro / cephalussmall/ head



Definition baby with a small head



oligohydramnios

AW-lih-goh-hai-DRAM-nee-ohs

oligo / hydr / amnios

few/ water/ amnion



Definition not enough amniotic fluid



polyhydramnios

PAW-lee-hai-DRAM-nee-ohs

poly / hydr / amnios

a lot/ water/ amnion



Definition excessive amniotic fluid



teratogenic

TER-ah-toh-JIN-ik

terato / gen / ic

monster/ creation/ pertaining to



Definition causing the formation of birth defects



obstetrics—diagnostic procedures


amniocentesis
Term

Word Analysis

amniocentesis

AM-nee-oh-sin-TEE-sis

amnio / centesis

amnion/ puncture

Definition surgical puncture of the amnion

amnioscope

AM-nee-oh-SKOHP

amnio / scope

amnion/ instrument to look



Definition instrument for examining the amnion



amnioscopy

AM-nee-AWS-koh-pee

amnio / scopy

amnion/ looking procedure


cardiotocograph
Definition procedure for examining the amnion

cardiotocograph

KAR-dee-oh-TOH-koh-GRAF

cardio / toco / graph

heart/ birth/ instrument to record

Definition instrument for recording the baby's heart rate during contractions; also known as a fetal heart monitor

fetometry

fee-TAW-meh-tree

feto / metry

fetus/ measuring process



Definition procedure for measuring the fetus



hysterography

HIS-ter-AW-grah-fee

hystero / graphy

uterus/ writing procedure



Definition procedure for imaging the uterus



pelvic sonograph

PEL-vik SAW-noh-GRAF

pelv / ic sono / graph

pelvis/ pertaining to sound/ instrument to record



Definition instrument for imaging the pelvis using sound waves



pelvicephalometry

PEL-vih-SEF-eh-LAW-meh-tree

pelvi / cephalo / metry

pelvis / head / measuring process


pelvimetry
Definition procedure for measuring the head size of the baby and the pelvis size of the mother

pelvimetry

pel-VIM-eh-tree

pelvi / metry

pelvis / measuring process

Definition procedure for measuring the pelvis

tocodynagraph

TOH-koh-DAI-nah-GRAF

toco / dyna / graph

birth/ power/ instrument to record



Definition instrument for recording the strength of labor contractions



tocography

toh-KAW-grah-fee

toco / graphy

birth/ writing procedure



Definition procedure for recording the strength of labor contractions



obstetrics—professional terms



Term

Word Analysis



antepartum

AN-tee-PAR-tum

ante / partum

before/ birth



Definition time before birth



intrapartum

IN-trah-PAR-tum

intra / partum

during/ birth


lactation
Definition time during birth

lactation

lak-TAY-shun

lact / ation

milk/ formation

Definition production of milk

natal

NAY-tal

nat / al

birth/ pertaining to



Definition pertaining to birth



neonatal

NEE-oh-NAY-tal

neo / nat / al

new/ birth/ pertaining to


neonatology
Definition pertaining to new birth; normally the first 28 days after birth

neonatologist

NEE-oh-nay-TAW-loh-jist

neo / nato / logist

new/ birth/ specialist

Definition specialist in the neonatal period

neonatology

NEE-oh-nay-TAW-loh-jee

neo / nato / logy

new/ birth/ study



Definition study of the neonatal period



obstetrician

OB-steh-TRIH-shun

from Latin, for midwife or literally one who stands beside



Definition specialist in pregnancy, labor, and delivery of newborns



obstetrics

ob-STEH-triks

from Latin, for midwife or literally one who stands beside



Definition branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy, labor, and delivery of newborns



perinatal

PEH-ree-NAY-tal

peri / nat / al

around/ birth/ pertaining to



Definition time around the birth, normally ranging from 28 weeks of pregnancy to 28 days after pregnancy



perinatologist

PEH-ree-nay-TAW-loh-jist

peri / nato / logist

around/ birth/ specialist



Definition specialist in the perinatal period



perinatology

PER-ee-nay-TAW-loh-jee

peri / nato / logy

around/ birth/ study



Definition branch of medicine dealing with the perinatal period



postnatal

post-NAY-tal

post / nat / al

after/ birth/ pertaining to



Definition pertaining to after birth



postpartum

POST-PAR-tum

post / partum

after/ birth



Definition pertaining to after birth

Note: The difference between this word and postnatal is the focus. Normally, nato words focus on the baby and partum words focus on the mother.



prenatal

pree-NAY-tal

pre / natal

before/ birth



Definition pertaining to before birth



teratology

TER-ah-TAW-loh-jee

terato / logy

monster/ study



Definition branch of medicine dealing with the study of birth defects and their causes
adenocarcinoma of the breast

AD-en-oh-KAR-sih-NOH-mah

adeno / carcin / oma of the breast

gland/ cancer/ tumor

Definition glandular tumor in the breast

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

SER-vih-kal IN-trah-EP-ih-THEE-lee-al NEE-oh-PLAY-zhah

cervic /al intra / epithelial neo / plasia

cervix/ pertaining to inside/ epithelial new / formation


cervicitis
Definition abnormal growth of cervical cells

Note: Epithelial cells are a type of tissue that lines the surface of the skin and other membranes.

cervicitis

SER-vih-SAI-tis

cervic / itis

cervix/ inflammation

Definition inflammation of the cervix

cervicocolpitis

SER-vih-koh-kol-PAI-tis

cervico / colp / itis

cervix/ vagina/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the cervix and vagina



cervicovaginitis

SER-vih-koh-VAJ-ih-NAI-tis

cervico / vagin / itis

cervix/ vagina/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the cervix and vagina



colpitis

kol-PAI-tis

colp / itis

vagina/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the vagina



colpocystitis

KOL-poh-sis-TAI-tis

colpo / cyst / itis

vagina/ bladder/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the vagina and urinary bladder



cystocele

SIS-toh-seel

cysto / cele

bladder/ pouch / tumor / hernia


dermoid cyst
Definition hernia of the urinary bladder into the vagina

dermoid cyst

DER-moyd SIST

derm / oid cyst

skin/ resembling cyst

Definition ovarian cyst containing skin and sometimes hair, teeth, bone, or cartilage

teratoma

TER-ah-TOH-mah

terat / oma

monster/ tumor



Definition another term for a dermoid cyst; the name derives from the contents of the cyst



endocervicitis

EN-doh-SER-vih-SAI-tis

endo / cervic / itis

inside/ cervix/ inflammation


endometriosis
Definition inflammation of the inside of the cervix

endometriosis

EN-doh-MEE-tree-OH-sis

endo / metri / osis

inside/ uterus/ condition

Definition condition in which endometrium cells appear and grow outside the uterus

endometritis

EN-doh-meh-TRAI-tis

endo / metr / itis

inside/ uterus/ inflammation


mastitis
Definition inflammation of the endometrium

mastitis

mas-TAI-tis

mast / itis

breast / inflammation

Definition inflammation of the breast

menopause

MEN-oh-pawz

meno / pause

menstruation/ stop



Definition cessation of menstruation



metrocolpocele

MEH-troh-KOL-poh-seel

metro / colpo / cele

uterus/ vagina/ pouch / tumor / hernia



Definition hernia of the uterus and prolapse into the vagina



metrophlebitis

MEH-troh-fleh-BAI-tis

metro / phleb / itis

uterus/ vein / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the blood vessels of the uterus



myometritis

MAI-oh-meh-TRAI-tis

myo / metr / itis

muscle/ uterus/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the myometrium



oophoritis

OH-aw-for-AI-tis

oophor / itis

ovary/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of an ovary



oophoroma

OH-aw-for-OH-mah

oophor / oma

ovary/ tumor


ovariorrhexis
Definition ovarian tumor

ovariorrhexis

oh-VAR-ee-oh-REK-sis

ovario / rrhexis

ovary/ rupture

Definition rupture of an ovary

ovaritis

OH-vah-RAI-tis

ovar / itis

ovary/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of an ovary



perimetritis

PER-ee-meh-TRAI-tis

peri / metr / itis

around/ uterus/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the perimetrium



rectocele

REK-toh-seel

recto / cele

rectum/ pouch / tumor / hernia


salpingitis
Definition hernia or protrusion of the rectum into the vagina

salpingitis

SAL-pin-JAI-tis

salping / itis

tube/ inflammation

Definition inflammation of a fallopian tube

salpingocele

sal-PING-goh-seel

salpingo / cele

fallopian tube / pouch / tumor / hernia



Definition hernia of a fallopian tube



salpingo-oophoritis

sal-PIN-goh- OH-aw-for-AI-tis

salpingo / oophor / itis

fallopian tube / ovary/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of a fallopian tube and ovary



urethrocele

yur-EE-throh-seel

urethro / cele

urethra/ pouch / tumor / hernia



Definition hernia or prolapse of the urethra into the vagina



vaginitis

VAJ-ih-NAI-tis

vagin / itis

vagina/ inflammation


vaginomycosis
Definition inflammation of the vagina

vaginomycosis

VAJ-ih-noh-MAI-koh-sis

vagino / myc / osis

vagina / fungus/ condition

Definition fungal condition of the vagina

vaginosis

VAJ-ih-NOH-sis

vagin / osis

vagina/ condition



Definition condition of the vagina



vesicovaginal fistula

VES-ih-koh-VAJ-ih-nal FIS-tyoo-lah

vesico / vagin / al fistula

bladder/ vagina/ pertaining to pipe



Definition abnormal opening between the urinary bladder and the vagina



vulvitis

vul-VAI-tis

vulv / itis

vulva / inflammation



Definition inflammation of the vulva



vulvovaginitis

VUL-voh-VAJ-ih-NAI-tis

vulvo / vagin / itis

vulva/ vagina/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the vulva and vagina



obstetrics



Term

Word Analysis



abortion

ah-BOR-shun

from Latin, for an untimely birth or miscarriage



Definition termination of pregnancy

Note: There are two general categories of abortion: spontaneous (when the body does it of its own accord) and induced (when there is an external cause). Outside the medical world, many people commonly use the term "miscarriage" to refer to a spontaneous abortion and "abortion" to refer exclusively to an induced abortion.


abruptio placentae
abruptio placentae

ah-BRUP-shee-oh plah-SIN-tee

abruptio placentae

tear away placenta

Definition separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus

chorioamnionitis

KOR-ee-oh-AM-nee-oh-NAI-tis

chorio / amnion / itis

chorion/ amnion/ inflammation

Definition inflammation of the chorion and amnion



chorioangioma

KOR-ee-oh-AN-jee-OH-mah

chorio / angi / oma

chorion/ vessel/ tumor



Definition blood vessel tumor of the chorion



choriocarcinoma

KOR-ee-oh-KAR-sih-NOH-mah

chorio / carcin / oma

chorion/ cancer/ tumor



Definition cancerous tumor of the chorion



chorionitis

KOR-ee-aw-NAI-tis

chorion / itis

chorion/ inflammation



Definition inflammation of the chorion



eclampsia

eh-KLAMP-see-ah

from Greek, for to shine or lightning



Definition severe, life-threatening complication of pregnancy characterized by seizures

Note: The term probably comes from the fact that seizures strike suddenly, like lightning.



ectopic pregnancy

ek-TOP-ik PREG-nan-see

ec / top / ic pregnancy

outside/ place/ pertaining to pregnancy



Definition implantation of a fertilized egg in a place other than the uterus



hyperemesis gravidarum

HAI-per-eh-MEE-sis GRAV-ih-DAR-um

hyper / emesis gravidarum

over/ vomit pregnancy



Definition pregnancy-related vomiting; an extreme form of the more common morning sickness



hysterorrhexis

HIS-ter-oh-REK-sis

hystero / rrhexis

uterus/ rupture



Definition rupture of the uterus



ovariocyesis

oh-VAR-ee-oh-sai-EE-sis

ovario / cyesis

ovary/ pregnancy



Definition ectopic pregnancy in an ovary


placenta previa
placenta previa

plah-SIN-tah PREE-vee-ah

placenta previa

placenta first

Definition condition in which the placenta is attached to the uterus near the cervix

preeclampsia

PREE-eh-KLAMP-see-ah

pre / eclampsia

before/ eclampsia

Definition condition characterized by high blood pressure and high protein in the urine

Note: See eclampsia for the origin of the term. The term comes from the fact that without proper treatment, a patient will develop eclampsia.



pseudocyesis

SOO-doh-sai-EE-sis

pseudo / cyesis

false/ pregnancy



Definition false pregnancy



salpingocyesis

sal-PING-goh-sai-EE-sis

salpingo / cyesis

fallopian tube / pregnancy



Definition ectopic pregnancy in a fallopian tube



spontaneous abortion

spawn-TAY-nee-is ah-BOR-shun



Definition naturally occurring termination of pregnancy; also known as a miscarriage

Note: See abortion for the origin of the term.
cervicectomy

SER-vih-SEK-toh-mee

cervic / ectomy

cervix / removal



Definition surgical removal of the cervix



colpopexy

KOL-poh-PEK-see

colpo / pexy

vagina / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of the vagina



colpoplasty

KOL-poh-PLAS-tee

colpo / plasty

vagina / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the vagina



episiorrhaphy

eh-PEE-zee-OR-ah-fee

episio / rrhaphy

vulva /suture


hysterectomy
Definition suture of the vulva

hysterectomy

HIS-ter-EK-toh-mee

hyster / ectomy

uterus / removal

Definition surgical removal of the uterus

hysteropexy

HIS-ter-oh-PEK-see

hystero / pexy

uterus / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of the uterus



hysterosalpingectomy

HIS-ter-oh-SAL-pin-JEK-toh-mee

hystero / salping / ectomy

uterus / tube / removal


mammoplasty
Definition surgical removal of the uterus and fallopian tube(s)

mammoplasty

MAM-oh-PLAS-tee

mammo / plasty

breast / reconstruction

Definition surgical reconstruction of a breast

mastectomy

mas-TEK-toh-mee

mast / ectomy

breast / removal



Definition surgical removal of a breast



mastopexy

MAS-toh-PEK-see

masto / pexy

breast / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of a breast



myomectomy

MAI-oh-MEK-toh-mee

my / om / ectomy

muscle / tumor



Definition surgical removal of a tumor in the muscle (usually refers to the muscle of the uterine wall)



oophorectomy

OH-aw-for-EK-toh-mee

oophor / ectomy

ovary / removal



Definition surgical removal of an ovary



oophorocystectomy

oh-AW-for-oh-sis-TEK-toh-mee

oophoro / cyst / ectomy

ovary / cyst / removal



Definition surgical removal of an ovarian cyst



oophorotomy

oh-AW-for-AW-toh-mee

oophoro / tomy

ovary / incision


ovarian cystectomy
Definition incision into an ovary

ovarian cystectomy

oh-VEH-ree-an sis-TEK-toh-mee

ovari / an cyst / ectomy

ovary / pertaining to cyst / removal

Definition surgical removal of an ovarian cyst

ovariocentesis

oh-VAW-ree-oh-sin-TEE-sis

ovario / centesis

ovary / puncture



Definition surgical puncture of an ovary



ovariostomy

oh-VAW-ree-AW-stoh-me

ovario / stomy

ovary / opening



Definition creation of an opening into an ovary



perineorrhaphy

PER-ih-nee-OR-ah-fee

perineo / rrhaphy

perineum / suture



Definition suture of the perineum



salpingectomy

SAL-pin-JEK-toh-mee

salping / ectomy

fallopian tube / removal


salpingo-oophorectomy
Definition surgical removal of a fallopian tube

salpingo-oophorectomy

sal-PING-goh-OH-aw-for-EK-toh-mee

salpingo / oophor / ectomy

fallopian tube / ovary / removal

Definition surgical removal of a fallopian tube and ovary

salpingopexy

sal-PING-goh-PEK-see

salpingo / pexy

fallopian tube / fixation



Definition surgical fixation of a fallopian tube



perineoplasty

PER-ih-NEE-oh-PLAS-tee

perineo / plasty

perineum / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the perineum



perineotomy

PER-ih-nee-AW-toh-mee

perineo / tomy

perineum / incision



Definition incision into the perineum



vaginoperineorrhaphy

VAJ-ih-noh-PER-ih-nee-OR-ah-fee

vagino / perineo / rrhaphy

vagina / perineum / suture



Definition suture of the vagina and perineum



vaginoperineoplasty

VAJ-ih-noh-PER-ih-NEE-oh-PLAS-tee

vagino / perineo / plasty

vagina / perineum / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the vagina and perineum



vaginoperineotomy

VAJ-ih-noh-PER-ih-nee-AW-toh-mee

vagino / perineo / tomy

vagina / perineum / incision



Definition incision into the vagina and perineum



vaginoplasty

vah-JI-noh-PLAS-tee

vagino / plasty

vagina / reconstruction



Definition surgical reconstruction of the vagina



obstetrics



Term

Word Analysis



abortifacient

ah-BOR-tih-FAY-shunt

aborti / facient

abortion / do


amniotomy
Definition drug or device that causes the termination of pregnancy

amniotomy

AM-nee-AW-toh-mee

amnio / tomy

amnion / incision

Definition incision into the amnion

cesarean section

sih-SER-ee-an SEK-shun

cesarean section



Definition delivery of a baby through an incision made in the uterus

Note: This term does not refer to Julius Caesar's method of delivery. Rather, it refers to an ancient Roman law that required a child to be cut from a mother's womb if the mother died in childbirth.


episiotomy
episiotomy

eh-PEE-zee-AW-toh-mee

episio / tomy

vulva / incision

Definition incision into the vulva

hysterotomy

HIS-ter-AW-toh-mee

hystero / tomy

uterus / incision

Definition incision into the uterus



induced abortion

in-DOOST ah-BOR-shun

see note on abortion


in vitro fertilization
Definition intentional termination of pregnancy

in vitro fertilization

in VEE-troh FER-tih-lih-ZAY-shun

in vitro fertilization

in glass fertilization

Definition fertilization of an egg done in a test tube

oxytocin

OK-see-TOH-sin

oxy / toc / in

swift / birth / agent



Definition agent that stimulates uterine contractions and accelerates labor



tocolytic

TOH-koh-LIH-tik

toco / lytic

labor / breakdown agent



Definition agent that stops or delays premature labor and contractions