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Terms in this set (100)
Consists of the blood, heart, and blood vessels.
Study of the normal heart and the diseases associated with it.
Between the lungs in the mediastinum with about two-thirds of its mass to the left of the midline.
Membrane that surrounds and protects the heart. Confines the heart to its position in the mediastinum
Two parts of the pericardium
Outer layer- Fibrous pericardium
Inner layer- Serous pericardium
Forms a double layer around the heart:
1) Parietal layer
2) Visceral layer(epicardium)- one of the layers of the heart wall.
Between the parietal and visceral layers.
Filled with pericardial fluid that reduces friction.
Inflammation of the pericardium
List the three layers of the heart wall
-Consists of mesothelium and connective tissue
-Contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and vessels that supply the myocardium
- Composed of cardiac muscle
-Responsible for the pumping action of the heart
- Makes up approx. 95% of the heart wall.
-Consists of endothelium and connective tissue
- provides smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves of the heart.
Inflammation of the myocardium and endocardium
Myocarditis and Endocarditis
Chambers of the heart
Include two upper atria and two lower ventricles.
Small pouches on the anterior surface of each atrium that slightly increase the capacity of each atrium.
Grooves that contain blood vessels and fat and separate the chambers.
Receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus.
An oval depression within the septum, separating the left and right atria. This is a remnant of the foramen ovale.
The valve that allows blood to pass from the right atrium into the right ventricle.
-Also called the right atrioventricular valve
-Forms most of the anterior surface of the heart
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Allows blood to pass from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk.
- Receives blood from the pulmonary veins
Allows blood to pass from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
-Forms the apex of the heart
- Thick walls allow to pump blood to the whole body
Aortic semilunar valve
Allows blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
Fibrous skeleton of the heart
-Forms foundation for which heart valves attach
- Serves as points of insertion for cardiac muscle bundles
- prevents over stretching of the valves
-electrical insulator, preventing direct spread of action potentials from atria to the ventricles.
Valves open and close...
in response to pressure changes as the heart contracts and relaxes
- Valves located between an atrium and a ventricle.
- Tricuspid and bicuspid valves
Atrioventricular valves prevent..
Blood flow from the ventricles back into the atria.
Back flow prevented by?
Contraction of papillary muscles tightening the chordae tendinae, which prevent the valve cusps from everting.
-Aortic and pulmonary valves
- open when pressure in the valves exceeds the pressure in the arteries.
Semilunar valves function
-Allow ejection of blood from the heart into arteries
-Prevent back flow of blood into the ventricles.
The left side of the heart is the pump for the systemic circulation.
Pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs out into the vessels of the body.
The right side of the heart is the pump for the pulmonary circulation.
It receives deoxygenated blood from the body and sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.
The flow of blood through the many vessels that pierce the myocardium of the heart.
Coronary circulation function
Delivers oxygenated blood and nutrients to and removes carbon dioxide and wastes from the myocardium.
Left and right coronary arteries
-The principal arteries
- Branching from the ascending aorta
- Carrying oxygenated blood
Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium primarily via the principal vein, the coronary sinus.
-the action of restoring the flow of blood to an organ or tissue, typically after a heart attack or stroke.
- may damage a tissue further; due to free radicals
- Occurs due to the permeant damage by low levels of oxygen carried to the myocardium.
Cardiac muscle tissue
Compared to skeletal muscle fibers:
1) shorter in length
2) larger in diameter
3) Exhibit branching
Cardiac muscle arrangement
Compared to skeletal muscle fibers:
1) same arrangement of actin and myosin
2) same bands, zones, and z discs
3) less sarcoplasmic reticulum
4) require calcium from ECF for contraction
Atrial and ventricular networks
Two separate functional networks of cardiac muscle within the heart.
Networks connected by?
Intercalated discs, consisting of gap junctions and desomosomes.
Allow fibers in the network to work together so that each network serves as a functional unit.
Cardiac muscle cells
- Autorhythmic; self-excitable
- Act as a pacemaker
- Form conduction system; route for propagating action potentials through the heart muscle
- SA node
- triggers an action potential
- AV node
-bundle of His
-Only site where action potentials can conduct from the atria to the ventricles.
Right and left bundle branches
- Action potential enters both branches which extend through the inter ventricular septum toward the apex of the heart.
-rapidly conduct the action potential beginning at the apex of the heart upward to the remainder of the ventricular myocardium.
"working" atrial and ventricular muscle fibers that are excited by action potentials initiated by the SA node.
Action potential occurs in a contractile fiber by?
1) Rapid depolarization
- time interval when a second contraction can't be triggered.
- longer than the contraction itself
ATP production in cardiac muscle
- relies on aerobic cellular respiration
- Creatine phosphate also helps cardiac muscles produce ATP
-Presence in the blood indicates injury of cardiac muscle usually caused by a myocardial infarction.
A recording of the electrical changes that accompany each cardiac cycle(heartbeat)
- if the conduction pathway is abnormal
- if the heart is enlarged
- if certain areas are damaged
- the cause of chest pain
A normal ECG consists of?
- T Wave
- Spread of impulse from SA node over atria
- Spread of impulse through ventricles
-Also called the PR interval
- Represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation.
-Represents the time when ventricular contractile fibers are fully depolarized, during the plateau phase of the impulse.
-Consists of systole and diastole of both atria and ventricles.
- Atria and ventricles alternately contract and relax forcing blood from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
- lasts about 0.1sec
- atria contract
-lasts about 0.3sec
- Ventricles contract
- lasts about 0.4sec
- Ventricular diastole
- both the atria and ventricles are relaxed
-The act of listening to sounds within the body.
- Usually done with a stethoscope
Comes primarily from the turbulence in blood flow caused by the closure of valves.
First heart sound
-Created by blood turbulence associated with the closing of the atrioventricular valves.
- soon after ventricular systole begins
-louder and longer
Second heart sound
- blood turbulence associated with the closure of the SL valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole.
- shorter, not as loud as S1
- Abnormal sound consisting of a flow noise heard before, between, or after the lubb-dupp.
- may mask the normal sound entirely
- indicate a valve disorder
-Volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle(or the right ventricle) into the aorta(or pulmonary trunk) each minute.
-The volume of blood ejected by the ventricle during each contraction.
Cardiac output equals?
-The stroke volume X Heart rate
-The ratio between the maximum cardiac output a person can achieve and the cardiac output at rest
Name the three factors that regulate stroke volume.
-the degree of stretch in the heart before it contracts
Frank-Starling law of the heart
-Within limits, the more the heart fills with blood during diastole the greater the force of contraction during systole.
-Forcefulness of contraction of individual ventricular muscle fibers.
- strength of contraction at any given preload
- affected by positive and negative inotropic agents.
Positive inotropic agents
Negative inotropic agents
-The pressure that must be exceeded if ejection of the blood from the ventricles is to occur.
Congestive heart failure
-blood begins to remain in the ventricles increasing the preload and ultimately causing an over stretching of the heart and less forceful contraction
Autonomic regulation of heart rate
Nervous system regulation of the heart originates in the cardiovascular centre in the medulla oblongata.
Proprioceptors, baroreceptors, and chemoreceptors
-monitor factors that influence the heart rate.
- increase heart rate and force of contraction
- decrease heart rate
- release acetylcholine
-enhance cardiac contractility and increase heart rate
-Hypothyroidism ; tachycardia- an elevated resting heart rate.
Elevated blood levels of potassium and sodium
-decrease heart rate and contractility
-Blocks calcium inflow during cardiac action potentials, thereby decreasing the force of contraction.
-Blocks generation of action potentials
Increase in calcium
- speeds heart rate and strengthens heartbeat
-20mins, 3-5 times a week
- increase cardiac output
- increase HDL
- decrease triglycerides
- improve lung function
- decrease blood pressure
- weight control
The heart develops from?
- mesoderm on day 18 or 19 following fertilization
-Develop into the four-chambered heart and great vessels of the heart.
Coronary artery disease
-( CAD )or coronary heart disease (CHD)
- condition in which heart muscle receives inadequate amount of blood due to obstruction of its blood supply.
- leading cause of death in the US/year
- A process in which smooth muscle cells proliferate and fatty substances, especially cholesterol and triglycerides, accumulate in the walls of the medium-sized and large arteries in response to certain stimuli.
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