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92 terms

American Study Vocab Final

STUDY
PLAY
Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
New Deal
Term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression
Birth of a Nation
1915, first full length classic. glorified the KKK of reconruction days and defamed both blacks and Northern carpetbaggers
Emergency Banking Relief Act
(FDR) 1933 , gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened., HUNDRED DAYS STARTS
Ku Klux Klan
An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American.
Keynesian economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
National Origins Act (1924)
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
A program in which the United States supplied war supplies to the U.K, Soviet Union, China, France, and other nations in exchange for military bases in Bermuda and the West Indies.
Sacco + Vanzetti Trial
Anti-redism. Convicted 1921 of murder of Mass. paymaster and his guard. Jury and judge prejudiced because defendants were Italian, atheists, anarchist, draft dodgers, etc. Electrocuted 6 years later
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Scopes Trial
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
Japanese Internment
Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 men, women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.
Prohibition, rise of organized crime
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
Rationing
a system of allocating scarce goods and services using criteria other than price
Frederick W. Taylor, Scientific Management
A work published to describe that the application of the scientific method to the management of workers could improve productivity.
John L. Lewis
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Radio
emerged during the 1920s and contained stations such as church services, news, music and sports
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
Flappers
women who abandoned dress and conduct codes of the past; these rebellious girls became the symbol of the Roaring Twenties; shocked their elders with short skits, slang, new dances, heavy makeup, and drinking or smoking in public
A. Philip Randolph + March on Washington
An African American Civil Rights Leader, founded "March on Washington"—designed to influence Congress to desegregate the military
Margaret Sanger + birth control
founded the Planned Parenthood Federation of America and created America's first nearly foolproof oral contraceptive. To women, it opened up the possibility that they could choose when, how, and if to have children, careers, or marriages.
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Created in 1941 by executive order, the FEPC sought to eliminate racial discrimination in jobs; it possessed little power but represented a step toward civil rights for African Americans.
Jazz
a style of dance music popular in the 1920s
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
"Lost Generation"
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Holocaust
(n.) a large-scale destruction, especially by fire; a vast slaughter; a burnt offering
Marcus Garvey
founder of United Negro Improvement Association ;; promotes resettlement of American blacks to own "African homeland", sponsored stores & businesses to keep $ in blacks' pockets ;; inspiration for Nation of Islam
Island Hopping
stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
Charles Lindbergh
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Conservative policies of Harding
Warren Harding awarded cabinet and governmental positions to political supporters. The practice proved to have dire consequences. Long-time political cronies abused their offices for personal gain. Harding's passive style of leadership almost certainly contributed to their wrongdoing.
Stalingrad
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)
Teapot Dome scandal
Secretary of the Interior (Albert Fall) leased government land in California and at Teapot Dome, Wyoming to 2 oil executives- Fall became the first Cabinet official to be sent to prison
Midway
naval battle of World War II (June 1942)
Herbert Hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Andrew Mellon
the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)
Stock Market Crash (1929)
In 1929, the stock market crashed and caused a world wide Depression. As early as March the stock market had mini-crashes, signaling something was seriously wrong. In October 1929, on Black Friday it crashed. The Thursday before 12 mil. stocks had changed hands. The full devestation was not fully realized until the following Tuesday.
Hoovervilles
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.
FDR
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
Sovereign
Kings and Queens
Treaty
a pact
Annex
overthrow
Colonies
overseas territories
Population growth
a population that is getting bigger in a positive rate
Elites
Highly priveleged People
Trade Surplus
Exports are more than imports
Tariffs
a fee on goods
Interest rates
time that was measured and added to how much the borrower has to pay
Debt burden
cost of holding debt
inflation
rising in a general level
Empire
groups of things (civilizations) ruled by one authority
Anglo-Saxons
People decent from the Pilgrims or before the flux of immigrants that came
Territories
land owned by other countries
Partition
Dividing things
Intervention
To get involved in something unneeded
Self-government
own ruling without other countries
investment
put money in a place where there would be future profit
nationalist
people who want to be free of greater rule
economic foundations
a system to support the economy
Protestant denominations
a group of Protestants. Christians other than Catholics
Jingoes
Extreme Nationalism, almost aggressive
Truce
stopping war temporarily
Calvary Regiment
a military unit that usually rides horses
Occupiers
Helf control of something: took possession.
Staing in a land out of country
Archipelago
group of islands
Ratification
the act of agreeing on something; approving
Guerilla
a person of a military unit that works in small bands and likes to surprise raid their enemy
Commonwealth Status
in the state of protection. protected but not having full rights for others. Benefits both sides
Sphere of influence
an area of land, country, or region that is impacted by another country
William Mckinley - Republican
The 25th president that was a lawyer abd sponsered the McKinley Tariff act of 1980. He was Governor of Ohio tice and the Spanish
Theodore Roosevelt - Republican
Served 2 terms. 1900 and 1904. Applied to Assistant Secretary of the NAvy and led the Rough Riders Regiment in Cuba
Grover Cleveland - Democrat
President before McKinley.
Wanted peace not war when Maine exploded, but decided on war.
Opossed the annexation of Hawaii.
Served twice as President
Reverend Josiah Stron
Advocated Protestant values to other nations.
Halled for the US to fight on humanition grounds in Cuba.
Founder of the Social Gospel and was a WASP
Plessy v. Ferguson
A cas how 7/8 White and 1/8 Black man named Horner Plessy was arrested from resisting the moving of a white car to a black car. The Supreme court was protected by federal laws.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Nationalist leader of the Philippines.
Proclaimed himself head of the government that promises elections.
Wanted Spain out of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War.
Was a guerilla warfare person.
Zionism
The national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel
Nationalism
Pride, loyalty, and devotion to one's country
Materialism
The theory or attitude that physical well-being and worldly possessions constitute the greatest good and highest value in life
Collectivism
Any various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and adminsitration of the means of production and distribution of goods
Imperialism
The policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and control of a nation
Socialism
An economic theory advocating collective control especially over production and distribution
Fascism
Politicaly philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition
Anarchism
Political theory holding all forms of governmental autority to be unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups
Humanism
Philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual's dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason
Militarism
The principle or policy of maintaining a large military
Fatalism
The doctorine that all events are predetermined by fate and are therefore unalterable
Communism
A system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitaran state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party
Chauvinism
Belief of zealous and aggressive patriotism or blind enthusiasm for military glory