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130 terms

human bio final

STUDY
PLAY
pelvis
what structure is not part of the axial skeleton
stores fat
yellow marrow does what
compact bone
type of bone that provides the greatest strength for support is
cartilage
in an embryo, the skeleton is originally made of
skeletal system
provides structure, support, and protection for internal organs
bone marrow
blood cells are produced in the
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
the three types of muscle are
lamellae
the mineral rings surrounding haversian canals are called
individual muscle fibers
the total amount of force that a muscle can exert depends on the total number of _______ _________ ________ that have been stimulated
sarcomeres shorten
which of the following happens when a skeletal muscle contracts
pull a bone
a muscle can
chemical messengers
the skin does not produce
melanin
the pigment in skin that protects from UV radiation is
keratin
a waterproof protein in the skin
epidermis
the thin outer layer of the skin is the
cardiac muscle
pumps blood through the body
ligament
holds the bones of a joint in place
extensor
straightens a joint
appendicular skeleton
includes bones in arms and legs
periosteum
tough membrane covering bone
epidermis
cell layers covering body surfaces
tendon
attaches muscle to bone
flexor
bends a joint
sarcomere
the functional unit of a muscle
joint
point where two bones meet
true
t/f: bones grow longer as new bone cells replace cartilage
true
t/f: muscle contraction is an all or nothing response
false
t/f: hair color and skin color are determined by keratin
true
t/f: flexors are muscles that cause a joint to bend; closing the joint
true
t/f: the dermis contains nervous tissue and blood vessels
false
t/f: an example of a ball and socket joint are the wrist bones
false
t/f: the haversian canals of long bones are filled with yellow marrow
true
t/f: bone is a living tissue made of cells that deposit minerals
false
t/f: moving a muscle requires three sets of muscles working in opposition
true
t/f: the distribution of melanin in the epidermis of the skin determines the color of an individual
pathogens
vaccines can be produced from dead or weakened
swelling, heat, redness
the inflammatory response consists of (3)
true
t/f: the skin is the first line of defense against pathogens
true
t/f: pathogens can be transmitted through the air
true
t/f: phagocytes attack and destroy pathogens by surrounding and eating them
false
t/f: fever interferes with the body's natural defense against pathogens
inflammatory response
which of the following is a nonspecific defense against pathogens
bacteria, viruses, worms
pathogens can be (3)
plasma cells
what would not be a participant in cellular mediated immune responses
b and t memory cells
what is not involved in nonspecific immune response
valves and skeletal muscle contractions
one way flow of fluid in lymph vessels is aided by
trapping pathogens
mucus serves as a nonspecific defense to pathogens by
true
t/f: when pathogens enter the body through a wound, they trigger an inflammatory response
true
t/f: cytotoxic t and be cells are activated by interleukin-2 which is secreted by helper t cells
true
t/f: when the body experiences a pathogen for the second time, the immune response is stronger and faster
false
t/f: fevers above 103 F can have beneficial effects when the body is defending itself against pathogens
skin
the ______ acts as a barrier to keep foreign organisms and viruses out of the body
helper t
interleukin 2 is produced by _______ cells
natural killer
immune surveillance by _______ ______ cells is one of the body's most potent defenses against cancer
interleukin 1
an alarm signal is emitted by macrophages in the form of a protein called ________ which activates helper t cells
antibodies
b cells produce proteins called _____________ that can mark pathogens for destruction
veins
vessels that carry blood towards the heart are called
slightly elastic walls
an artery has
deoxygenated
blood entering the right atrium is
refilling of the ventricles
diastolic pressure is caused by
capillaries, arterioles, venules
_____, _______, and _______ are the blood vessels that connect the arteries to the veins
aorta
blood from the left ventricle leaves the heart through the
left atrium
oxygenated blood from the lungs is received by the
plasma
donor blood does not contain antibodies because it has no
respiratory gases
red blood cells transport
hemoglobin
the iron containing molecule in red blood cells is called
atrioventricular valves
the valves located between the atria and ventricles are known as the
pulmonary vein
what blood vessel carries oxygenated blood
right atrium
the sionatrial node is located in the
sa node
the natural pacemaker of the heart is called the
platelets
incomplete cells that form blood clots are known as
true
t/f: the lower chambers of the heart are called the ventricles
false
t/f: when agglutination was present you marked a - on your lab report
true
t/f: arteries carry blood away from the heart
false
t/f: if a blood vessel has valves it probably is an artery
false
t/f: erythrocytes help defend the body from disease
true
t/f: red blood cells have a short life span; they live for about 120 days
false
t/f: the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood
true
t/f: the tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle
false
t/f: the systemic circulatory system carries blood to the lungs and back to the heart
true
t/f: blood is composed of both solids and liquids
aorta
main artery leaving the left ventricle going to the body
blood pressure
measurement of the pressure of blood on walls of arteries
capillary
smallest blood vessel in the body; one cell thick
diastole
heartbeat phase when ventricles relax and blood flows from atria
pacemaker
regulates the contraction of the heart
pulmonary circulation
the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs
sl valves
valves that separate ventricles and arteries
septum
wall dividing oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the heart
systemic circulation
movement of blood between the heart and body
vein
vessels that carry blood towards the heart
trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris
what is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity
toward the throat/mouth to be swallowed or spat out
cilia of the trachea that beat continually propel contaminated mucus
epiglottis
the flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the
exchange the air
the respiratory conducting passageways perform all of the following functions except
diffusion
exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by
high blood co2 level
nerve cells that trigger an increase in breathing rate are stimulated by
speak
following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to
trachea
the _____ is a long straight tube that carries air from the back of the throat to the lungs.
bronchi
when oxygen enters the respiratory system, what is the next structure to which it travels immediately upon leaving the trachea
pancreas
which of the following is not an organ found in the urinary system
lungs and skin
the kidneys are aided in the excretion of fluids by the
bowman's capsule
the enlarged cup shaped closed end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is called the
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule
starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule region is
urea
what is not a substance typically reabsorbed by the tubules under normal healthy conditions
external sphincter
the voluntarily controlled sphincter found in the urinary system is called the
excretion
___ is the process of removing metabolic wastes from the body
urethra
urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the
salts, amino acids, glucose, urea
the filtrate removed from the blood by the kidneys might contain (4)
collecting duct
which of the following is not part of the nephron.
trachea
the mucus lined windpipe that extends from the pharynx to the bronchi is the
carbon dioxide
the most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the body's need to rid itself of the blood gas called
bronchioles
the smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are called
hydrogen
the kidneys can help maintain a rising blood pH by secreting ______ ions
internal respiration
gas exchange between the blood and tissue cells is called
epiglottis
the flap of elastic cartilage that moves when swallowing is the
internal sphincter
the involuntary sphincter that keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed is called the
renal cortex
there are three regions of the kidney; the outermost region is known as the
alveoli
the air sacs of the lungs are called
diaphragm
the inspiratory muscles that contract so we can inspire air are the rib muscles and
ureter
tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder
trachea
windpipe
external sphincter
a muscle that you have learned voluntary control over
excretion
the removal of metabolic wastes from the body within the lungs
diaphragm
a sheet of muscle that controls inspiration
larynx
voice box
bladder
muscular sac suitable for temporary urine storage
bronchi
the trachea branches into these tubes
pharynx
throat
alveoli
air sacs