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Balancing Chemical Equations
Terms in this set (54)
Before you begin
Review Chemical reaction and what the signs of chemical reactions are and what a chemical formula and equation is
a substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction (to make it happen faster) without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change in the process
True or false: the catalyst participates in the reaction
False: The catalyst does not actually participate in the reaction, meaning it isn't part of the matter that is being rearranged.
Rust (iron (III) oxide) is formed when iron reacts with oxygen.
Iron + oxygen → iron (III) oxide
each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element.
A chemical equation that does not indicated the relative amounts of the reactants and products.
Hydrogen and oxygen react to form dihydrogen monoxide.
2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O
two or more substances react to form one product.
Ex. 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s)
A combination reaction between a metal and a nonmetal produces an
one substance breaks down into two or more substances.
Ex. CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
Metal Cabonate ->
metal oxides + carbon dioxide
example : Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2
metal oxides + water
example: Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O
metal chloride + oxygen
example: 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2
rapid reactions that produce a flame (usually blue in color) because they are a burning of a hydrocarbon compound in the presence of oxygen
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)
a reaction that occurs between a hydrocarbon and oxygen if there is a limited supply of oxygen added to the reaction
the products carbon monoxide, water, and elemental carbon are produced.
Soot and orange flame
Example: 4CH4 + 5O2 → 2CO + 8H2O + 2C
the sum of the atomic weights for the atoms in a formula unit (chemical formula for ionic compounds)
the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecular formula (chemical formula for covalent compounds).
ex. C2H6 molecular weight
Hypothesized that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles
Jean Baptiste Perrin
estimated the number of particles within the same quantity of gas.
6.02 x 10^23 atoms/molecules
Charge of one mole of electrons divided by the charge on one electron
the mass of one mole of a substance (i.e., g/mol).
Cl has an atomic mass of 35.5 amu, therefore 1 mol of Cl has a mass of
true or false: The formula weight (in amu's) will be the same number as the molar mass (in g/mol).
1 mole of Cu =
6.02 X 1023 atoms of Cu
How many atoms are in 3.00 Moles of Carbon
1.81 X 1024 atoms C
How many moles are in 10.0g of oxygen
0.313 mol O2
How many liters are in 5.00 moles of CO2?
112 L Co2
standard temperature and pressure (0 oC and101.3Pka)
1 mol of any gas at STP occupies
How many grams are in 33 L of chlorine at STP?
1.0 x 102 g Cl2
the percent by mass (relative amount) of each element in a compound, or part of a mixture
How to solve percent composition when given the mass of each element
1. Add the grams together to get the total mass of the compound
2. Each element's percentage =
element mass/ total compound mass x 100%
How to solve percent composition when given only the formula
1. Using the formula, multiply the subscript (# of moles of that element) by the MOLAR MASS
2. Add the total gram amounts together to get the formula mass.
3. Divide each element mass by total formula mass and multiply by 100%
How to solve percent composition when given the total mass of the compound (with formula) and asked to calculate the mass (not percent) of an element in that compound
1. Follow Type 2
2. Change percent into grams
3. Multiply given mass of compound by mass % of desired element
The lowest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound
Steps to calculate emperial formula
Since you have percentages of the elements in your compound, assume the total compound is out of 100 grams
Convert each element % (we've changed this to grams) to moles of that element
Divide by smaller mole number to set up a ratio
If not a whole number (or REALLY close, within a 10th—ex. 1.99 mols, which is basically 2 mols) multiply by 2 or 3 to get a whole number
These numbers are the subscripts for each element in the compound
The actual numbers of atoms of each element that occur in the smallest freely existing unit or molecule of the compound
calculating the amounts of substances in reactions
The process of converting from amount of one substance to amount of another substance using the proportion of moles in a chemical reaction
How many grams of O2 are needed to make 6.4 grams of SO3?
3.8 g O2
the reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric amount. (use this to solve for the products)
If your conversion results in MORE substance B than you have, then substance B is the limiting reactant
If you conversion results in LESS substance B than you have, then substance A is the limiting reactant.
If you combine 60 g of nitrogen with 10 g of hydrogen, which would be the limiting reactant?
What is the maximum number of grams of PH3 that can be formed when 6.2 grams of phosphorus reacts with 4.0 g of hydrogen to form PH3
the maximum amount of product that can be made
(the amount of product possible as calculated through the stoichiometry problem)
actual (experimental) yield
the amount one actually produces and measures during an experiment.
(experimental yield/theoretical yield) x 100
10.0g of silver nitrate is supplied to this reaction and the experiment yield 4.75g of copper nitrate. What is the percent yield of copper nitrate?
18.95g of water is supplied to this reaction and the reaction yields 10.52 liters of oxygen gas. What is the percent yield of oxygen?
Actual - Experimental/actual x 100%
You complete a lab that is suppose to yield 24.8g of NaCl but you are only able to produce 18.9g of NaCl. What is the percent error of your experiment?
This set is often in folders with...
EF MF and Percent Comp Quiz
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