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Biology 102 Exam 4 study guide
Terms in this set (50)
Sexual reproduction is a superior method of reproduction for all animals. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
no, axesual reproduction has advantages in stable environments and healthy parents produce offspring
Though amphibians were the first terrestrial vertebrates, they are still bound to water for reproduction. Why?
They are considered as amniods and require water for reproduction because their eggs do not have shells
Why are reptiles not bound to water for reproduction?
amniotic, they have shelled amniotic egg and internal fertilization
The shelled amniotic egg consists of the amnion, chorion, allantois and yolk sac. Which of those structures is responsible for storing waste produced by the developing embryo?
The shelled amniotic egg consists of the amnion, chorion, allantois and yolk sac. Which of those structures is responsible for providing nutrients to the developing embryo?
The diagnostic characteristics of the mammals are that they give birth to live young, produce milk via mammary glands, and have hair. Many mammals have some form of a placenta. The exception to this "rule" is the monotremes; they are a group of mammals that do not produce milk. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
produce milk but no live young
What are the component of mammalian milk?
antibodies, water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats
The paired testes are the male reproductive organ (gonads) that produce sperm. Each testis contains over eight hundred tightly coiled seminiferous tubules which produce thousands of sperm each second in healthy young men. The walls of the seminiferous tubules are lined with certain cells, what are they and what do they do?
1. spermatogenic cells: give rise to sperm with presence of FSH and testosterone
2. sustentacula cells: nourish sperm
A system of tubes carries the sperm that the testes produce to the penis. The seminiferous tubules merge into a network of tiny tubules called the rete testis, which merge into a coiled tube called the epididymis. The epididymis has three main functions. What are they?
1. stores sperm
2. connection between vas 3. deferent and testes
The ductus (vas) deferens is the dilated continuation of the epididymis. Its main role is that it serves as an ejaculatory duct (after it passes the ampulla). Is this statement correct, if not, why?
false, vas deferent lead to the ampulla and it is before the ampulla
After the ductus deferens passes around the urinary bladder, several accessory glands add their secretions to the sperm as they are propelled through the ducts. These accessory glands are the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. What do the paired seminal vesicles secrete?
water, fructose, vitamin C, prostaglandin
Seminal vesicle secretions provide an energy source for the motile sperm and help to neutralize the natural protective acidity of the vagina. Vaginal pH is naturally 3-4, so sperm motility and fertility are enhanced because the vaginal pH increases to about 6. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
The prostate glands' function is to secrete water, enzymes, cholesterol, buffering salts and phospholipids. These secretions also help neutralize the acidity of the vagina and prolong the lifespan of the sperm. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
The bulbourethral glands secrete a clear, alkaline fluid that lubricates the urethra prior to sexual intercourse, which helps to keep the sperm alive while in the urethra, prior to ejaculation. The fluid that results from the combination of sperm and the various glandular secretions is called semen. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
When has the fetus developed sufficiently (with respect to circulatory and respiratory systems) such that it can potentially survive if born prematurely?
Where is the placenta located in placental mammals?
In humans, where does fertilization occur?
upper 1/3 fallopian tubes
In humans, where does implantation occur?
In humans, where does fetal development occur?
During parturition (birth, which is somewhere around 266 days after fertilization), the mom's uterine muscles begin to contract, and the cervix begins to dilate or open. This process is regulated by the neuroendocrine system and its various hormones. What is one of the first events that causes the uterine contractions?
baby pituitary gland secretes ACTH and then leads to prostaglandins triggered contractions
What is one of the roles of the hormone relaxin in parturition?
dilation of the cervix, pelvic bones separate
What is the role of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during parturition?
causes baby to secrete steroid hormones
What is the role of placental prostaglandins during parturition?
There is a positive feedback loop that occurs during parturition. What is it?
oxytocin and contractions
When it is said that a woman's water breaks, what is happening exactly?
amnionic sac ruptures
Testosterone is a hormone that is involved with spermatogenesis, but it generally has nothing to do with growth and repair. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
false involves both
In the human male, what do interstitial cells in the testes secrete?
Sperm production occurs because of a specific endocrine pathway. What are the specific feedback loops?
hypothalamus secretes GnRH then anterior pituitary gland secrets FSH and LH casing the interstitial cells and spermatogenic cells to produce sperms
In the human male how is spermatogenesis and inhibin related?
inhibin stops production of GnRH thus stops spermegenisis
As testosterone levels increase, so does GnRH. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
false it is a negative feedback loop
The acrosome allows penetration of the zona. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
Which of the following structures contains a sperm cell's mitochondria?
midpiece of sperm
How does the blastula form in humans (pattern of cleavage)?
radial indeterdimetal cleavage
Generally speaking, the body cavity of deuterostomes forms from outpockets of endoderm. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
Which characteristics are common to all chordates?
noto cord, nerve, post pharangial
In humans, which cavity contains lungs?
When does ossification and apoptosis to form the eyes and hands occur?
6 months, second trimester
When does fetal weight double?
In dueterostomes, the embryonic blastopore becomes:
How many embryonic tissue layers does an early gastrula have:
Endoderm becomes the:
Skin, hair, nails and teeth are derived from:
What becomes of the mesoderm?
blood, bone, muscles, tendon, organs
In the adjacent image what is the structure lab
d- post anal tract
c- noto cord
b- nerve cord
a- post pharyngeal slits
In humans, the morula contains cells that become extraembryonic membranes and the cells that develop into the blastula. When it implants, it is known as the blastocyst. Is this statement correct, if not, why?
In humans, the outer layer of the trophoblast invades the endometrium. As it's invading it digests a portion of the endometrium. The result of this action provides _________________ to the developing embryo.
In humans, the outer layer of the trophoblast eventually forms:
An outpouching of the yolk sac called the allantois becomes the _______________________ in humans.
An extraembryonic membrane called the _____________________ keeps specialized protective fluid around the developing embryo and fetus until just before birth.
Describe endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis, the menstrual cycle, birth, and milk production and secretion.
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