In 1686, James II attempted to restructure the entire New England area, including New York, by creating the_____
Dominion of New England
The Frenchman who travelled deep into the North American interior in search of furs were known as__
coureurs de bois
What sixteenth-century European upheaval had a profound impact upon England's settlement of the New World?
At the time of Columbus's first voyage in 1492,
most educated Europeans did not believe the earth was flat
In their relations with the Native Americans, the French
tended to cultivate good relations because of the Native Americans' knowledge of fur trapping
By the end of the seventeenth century, Virginia could best be described as
a plantation society, dominated by a slave holding aristocracy
Anne Hutchinson's skillful self-defense at her trial before the magistrates of Massachusetts bay was ruined by
her claim of personal revelation.
The shifting patterns of the eighteenth-century colonial trade helped to
"anglicize" American culture
Although women arrived in Jamestown as early as 1608, the majority of immigrants to the colony were
young, single males who came as indentured servants
Puritans viewed which of the following as essential to their New England commonwealth?
a healthy family life
All of the following contributed to the rise of nation-states in Europe in the fifteenth century EXCEPT
From the begining of colonization, Spain regarded her New World domain as primarily
a source of precious metal
In 1636, authorities in Massachusetts Bay banished Roger Williams because
of his defense of Native American rights and demand for separation of church and state
Of the estimated 11 million African slaves carried to America, the great majority were sent to
Brazil and the Caribbean
Which of the following revolutionized early Native American cultures?
the development of agriculture
Which of the following individuals was responsible for starting the Protestant Revolt in Europe?
The explanation for the tremendous population growth of seventeenth-century New England can be found in the
long lives of New England settlers
Which of the following was NOT a possible cause of the Salem witchcraft histeria
Salem's history of engaging in occult practices
Which of the following wars between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America?
the seven years' war (also called the "French and Indian War")
Upon arriving in the New World, English settlers
generally adapted old beliefs to the new environment
The Pilgrims, who left Holland to settle in AMerica,
did so because they believed that their way of life was being undermined by the ways of their Dutch hosts.
Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Seven Years' War?
It lead to the creation of a new colony
The document in which the Pilgrims established a civil government for their Plymouth colony has become known as the
The joint-stock company
encouragaed investment in colonial enterprises, which "limited liability" for the investors
The individual who did the most to promote English colonization of North America was
The term____was used in Spanish America to describe people of mixed European and Indian ancestry
Unlike Virginia, Maryland was established
as a religious sanctuary for persecuted Catholics from England
The Great Awakening
took places in many regions of the colonies over several decades of the eighteenth century
Which one of the following was NOT a factor that stimulated English migration to the New World?
government lawss that forced the migration of the poorer classes
What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade, and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common?
they all contibuted to a growing sense of shared indentity
The Half-Way Covenant of the seventeenth-century New ENgland
lessened, shomewhat, the requirments for baptism as a Congregationalist
Which of the following was NOT an important effect of the Great Awakening?
It strengthened the authority of the old colonial religions
Which rebellion was an outgrowth of tensions between the older Dutch patrons and the new Anglo-Dutch elite?
Which one of the following individuals was not a prominent preacher during the Great Awakening
All of the following provided a basis for the Reformation in England EXCEPT
a literate and devout clergy
The attitude of King James I toward tobacco
showed that, in the end, he valued revenue more than good health.
The one American who, more than anyone else, symbolized the spirit of the Enlightenment was
Under the "headright" system in VIrginia,
all new arrivals who had paid their trans-Atlantic fares received fifty-acre land grants
THe single greatest factor that caused the destruction of Native Americans after contact with Europeans was
The aggressive Native American people who occupied the valley of Mexico when the Spanish arrived were the
Jamestown might have gone the way of Roanoke had it not been for the perseverance of
Captin John Smith
The major source of Anglo-French conflict in the colonies was
control of the MIssissippi and Ohio Valleys
Unlike their southern counterparts, the first Englishmen who came to New England were
According to the religious philosophy of John Calvin and his followers,
God controlled who would receive salvation
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe Bacon's purposes during the rebellion that bears his name
to abolish slavery and make Virginia a more deomcratice society
The two most important leaders of the Great Awakening in colonial America were
Johnathan Edwards and George Whitfield
Which one of the following individuals is INCORRECTLY associated with the colony he established
The factor most responsible for the growth in the American colonies bewtween 1700 and 1770 was the
natural reproduction of colonial families
Which one of the following was NOT a power possessed by royal governors in the American colonies
the right to dismiss elected members of the colonial assemblies
In order to better control the conquistadores in the New World, the Spanish government created
Which of the following wars between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America?
the Seven Years' War(also called the "French and Indian War")
The major source of Anglo-French conflict in the colonies was
the control of the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys
Which of the following was NOT a consquence of the Seven Years' War?
It led to the creation of a new colony
American colonists, in the years just after the conclusion of the Seven Years' War, could be characterized best as
optimistic about the future
In the 1760s and 1770s, most member of Parliament
had little understanding and knowledge of colonial affairs.
The central element in the Anglo-American debate over governance was known as
Central to the colonists' position in the Anglo-American debate over parliamentary powers was
their strong belief in the powers of their own provincial assemblies
Aggravating the problems created by the Seven Years' War debt was
George III's desire to maintain a large standing army.
The _______extended Canadian boundaries into the Ohio Valley and recognized civil rights for Roman Catholics.
A major difficulty that confronted the Frist Continental Congress was
the fact that the delegates from different regions were unfamiliar with one another.
The most important responsiblity facing the Second Continental Congress was to
organize the colonies for war
The Declaration of Independence
stated that all men "are created equal" and blamed George III for much of the impasse( both A and B)
Which of the following explains why England lost the war?
British strategists did not understand how to fight the war.
The radical American group which first emerged during the Stamp Act crisis was known as
the Sons of Liberty
In 1779, military strategists predicted that Britain's last chance for victory over the colonies lay in
a successful campaign in the American south
Which of the following was NOT a task facing the new nation.
how to deal with harassment from the British
Which of the following prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian mountains
Proclamation of 1763
The Pamphlet _______presented justification to the Americans for their break with Great Britian
The tensions leading to the Boston Massacre were caused by
the presence of several thousand British soldiers in Boston.
Essential to the establishment of a colonial alliance with the French was the work of
The American Revolution
was an essentially conservative movement that did not drastically alter the colonists' way of life
Under the Articles of Confederation, power in the states began to shift to the hands of
middle-class farmers and craft workers
A small band of farmers in western Massachusetts took up arms in what is remembered as
After the Revolution, James Madison observed that "the most common and durable source of faction has been
the various and unequal divisions of property"
What was the significance of the Annapolis meeting?
it issued the original call for the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
Those who met at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 were
wealthy planters, lawyers, and merchants
What was the original, sole, and express purpose of the convention in Philadelphia?
revise the Articles of Confederation
What view of human nature did the delegates at the Consitutional Convention have?
cynical-human beings are selfish and greedy
The______, offered as one possible scheme at the Consitutional Convention, called for each state to be equally represented in Congress
New Jersey Plan
Which of these was NOT one of the big three disagreements at the Constitutional Convention?
whether the courts should have the power of judicial reivew
As originally established by the Consitution, the House of Representatives had how many members from each state?
it depended on the state's population
The Connecticut Compromise at the Constitutional Convention
resolved the impass between those who favored the New Jersey Plan and those who preferred the Virginia Plan
In determining congressinal representation and taxation the Constitution
counted slaves as three-fifths of a person
Regarding the right to vote in national elections, the framers of the Constitution
decided to leave it up to the individual states to determine voter qualifications in their own states.
Which of the following was NOT one of the economic difficulties the writers of the COnstitution attempted to address?
lack of unemployment compensation and welfare payments
The Constitution prohibited the states from doing each of the following EXCEPT
establishing a republican form of government
Two key elements of the Madisonian model were to
keep most of the government beyond the control of a popular majority and separate the powers of different institutions
The system of checks and balances in the Constitution means that
change usually comes slowly, if at all, and moderation and compromise are typical in our political system
Which of the following statements about the Anti-Federalists is False?
The Anti Federalists were basically unpatriotic and un -American
The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution
after the ratification process was complete, and partly to fulfill a promise to those who supported ratification
How has the electoral college changed from the original intent of the framers?
Almsot all electors now vote for the presidential candidate who wins the most popular votes in the states
The Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) asserted the power of the Court to
check the actions of the other branches through judicial review.
The_________is the final interpreter of the content and scope of Americans' civil liberties
The Bill of Rights was adopted primarily in response to
British abuses of the colonists' civil liberties
In the case of___________, the Supreme Court ruled that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not states and cities.
Barron v. Baltimore
The____includes the clause "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"
Thomas Jefferson argued that the First Amendment created a "wall of separation" between
church and state
The significance of Gitlow v. New York (1925) was that
a provision of the Bill of RIghts was applied to the states for the first time
In Lemon v. Kurtzman, the Supreme Court established that aid to church -related schools must do all of the following EXCEPT
The abridgment of citizens' freedom to worship, or not to worship, as they please is prohibited by the
free exercise clause
In the Engel v. Vitale case of 1962, the Supreme Court ruled that_______was (were) unconstitutional
prayers done as classroom exercises in public schools
The Supreme Court has interpreted the establishment clause of the the First Amendment as
prohibiting school-organized Bible-reading and prayer in public schools
The Supreme Court has ruled that government aid to church -related schoools
is permited when the aid is for non-religious purpose
In regard to the free exercise clause, the Supreme Court has made each of the following rulings EXCEPT,
polygamy may be justified for Mormons on religious grounds
The Pentagon Papers dealt with
a documented history of United States involvement in Vietnam War which the government wanted kept secret
In the case of New York Times v. United States in 1971, the SUpreme Court ruled
against prior restraint in the case of the Pentagon Papers, which allowed them to be published
In Schenck v. United States (1919), Justice Homes said that speech can be restricted when it
provokes a "clear and present danger" to people
At the urging of feminists and conservative Christains, some cities have banned pornography on the ground it dehumanizes and endangers women. How have the courts dealt with these bands?
They have struck them down as violations of the First Amendments
The publication of statements known to be false that are malicious and tend to damage a person's reputation is called
Wearing an arm band and burning a flag are examples of_____:actions that do not consist of speaking or writing but that express an opinion.
In the case of Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court ruled that
police must inform any suspect of a series of rights, including the constitutional right to remain silent
In the 1963 case of_______, the Supreme Court ruled that defendants in all felony cases had a right to counsel, and if they could not afford to hire a lawyer one must be provided
Gideon v. Wainwright
In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that in the third trimester of pregnancy
states can ban abortion except when the mother's health is in danger
The idea that the Constitution guarantees a right to privacy was first enunciated in
Griswold v. Connecticut
Under the______, manufactureers provided raw materials to people in their own homes and then picked up the finished products for distribution.
putting out system
Which one of the following was NOT a factor in making the South the world's greatest producers of cotton?
the discovery of new more productive species of cotton
The question of admitting Misouri to the Union in 1819
stirred southern fears regarding the balance of power between North and South
As chief justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall
emphasized the primacy of property and property rights
The "American System" called for
high tariffs, a national bank, agicultural protection, and internal improvements (all of the above)
The foreign policy initiative calling for an end to all European colonization effots in the Western Hemisphre was known as the
Slavery would not have lasted as long as it did except for
the place it held in the southern economy
The invention in the 1790s that permitted the great expansion of cotton cultivation was teh
Which one of the following individuals tried to convince southern yeoman farmers that slavery actually reduced their standard of living
Hinton R. Helper
Good physical conditions for slaves wer necessary to
ensure that they could work hard and bear children
Nonslaveholders followed the leadership of slave owners because
of their desire to become slave owners
Slaveholders continually indoctrinated thier slaves with the idea of
the God-ordained supremacy of whites.
Perhaps the most prominent free African American in the United States in 1860 was
Which one of the following was NOT a prominent American writer of the pre-Civil War era?
Martin Van Buren regarded a two-party system as essential to democratic government because
it provided a check on the temptation to abuse power.
In 1829, the social scandal in Washington, D.C. that resulted in shuffling of ANdrew Jackson's cabinet involved
Andrew Jackson's attitude toward Native Americans was that
they should be removed to areas beyond white expansion
From Jackson's response to the nullification crisis, one can conclude that he
believed in the limited use of federal power, but also that states were not truly sovereign
Who was the president of the national bank and Andrew Jackson's chief opponent in the "bank war"
A major criticism of the national bank was that
it concentrated too much power in the hands of the privileged
The strategic blunder made by Nicholas Biddle was
his decision to seek the bank's charter renewal four years early
Belief in a national bank, high tariffs, and federally-financed internal improvements best describes the policies of which party in the 1830s
The slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler, TOO" refers to William Hnery Harrison's invoement in
a western battle with Native Americans
Typically, imigrants, Catholics, freethinkers, and backwoods farmers of the 1840s would be members of the the
New management in the reagan White House operated on each of the followin gprinciples EXCEPT
expand reporters' access to the president
The first president to manipulate media politics with many press conferences and fireside chats successsfully was
The cozy relationship between politicians and the press in the twentieth centrury lasted until
The Vietnam War and Watergate
The use of detective -like reporting methods to unearth scandals is known as
Following the first Nixon-Kennedy presidential debate of 1960, opinion polls showed that
Thos who wateched on television thought kennedy had won while those who listened over the radio though Nixon won
Richard Nixon believed he lost the 1960 presidential election because
He was sweating and had ugly beard stubble during a debate with Kennedy.
Television became especially important in bringing the reality of__home to America as its first heavily televised war
The Vietnam War
Cable New Network(CNN)
had brought television into a new era of bringing new to the people and political leaders as it happens
Individuals aged 24 and under are
less likely than older individuals to follow the news using television, newspapers, or radio
To a large extent, commercial telecision newtworks define news as what is _______to viewers
Most news organizations assign their best reporters to particular___, which are specific locatino swhere new frequently emanates
Newspaper magnates Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst tried to oudo one another in sensatinoal reportin go wars, violence, corruption, and gossip around the turn of the twentieth century in what is now remembered as the era of
The bottom line that shapes how journalists define the news, where they get the news, and how they present it is
A trial balloon is a
method used by public figures of leaking cretain stories to reporters to see what the political reaction will be
During the first Persian Gulf War reporters
were denied freedom of movement and had only limited access to accurate military information on a timely basis
The average amount of airtime that a presidential canidate has been given to talk uninterrupted on the TV news
has declined dramaticallly since the 1960s
Which of the following statements about television inews is FALSE?
Television analysis of news events has been rapidly increasing
A 2002 survey of 1,149 journalists found that, compared to the general public, journalists were twice as likely to consider themselves
The news does not mirror reality because
journalists must select stories taht will draw the largest audience
Critics of the "minimal effects hypothesis" about the media's effect on public opinion point to the media's role in
shaping what priotiry Americans attach to problems
Agenda-setting effects on public opinion are an example of how
the media cue individuals about what political issues are important to think about
The policy agenda is
a list of priorities to which government officials adress their time and energies
The media usually report on AMerica's social problems in a manner that
encourages government to take on more and more tasks
Regarding the amount of news coverage each gets on the network news,
the president receives almost twice as much coverage as Congress
Which of the following individuals is innocrrectly matched with his position in George Washington's first cabinet?
James Madison-Secretary of War
Which of the following would ALexander Hamilton have proposed?
providing government subsideies to manufacturers
Hamilton's Report On The Public Credit recommended
that the federal government assume remaining state debts
The Genet affair involved
France's use of American ships in violation of United states pledge of neutrality.
Washington's Farewell Address
advised against permanent alliances with nations that weren't interested in promoting American security.
According to the Kentucky Resolutions,
states had the right to nullify federal law under certain circumstances.
Jffersonians' fear of strong financial institutions was based on
their belief that they were the root of corruption in the British government
Which rebellion provided Washington with an opportunity to show the strength of the new nations?
The chief function of AMerican cities during the Jeffersonian era was as
depots for international trade
Which of the following statements is NOT true of President THomas Jefferson?
He loved the military and saw it as America's greatest asset
Which of the following factors contributed to Thomas Jefferson's decision to make the Louisiana Purchase?
Spain closing the port of New Orleans to AMerican commerce
What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory?
the constitutionality of his actions
The decision in Marbury v. Madison was the first time the Supreme Court
ruled on the constitutionality of federal laws
Which of the following authorized American trade with all nations except Britain and France?
Which of the followign wa NOT a major British strategic objective in the War of 1812?
occumpation of New York City