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76 terms

Clinical Procedures I Mrs. McDaniel

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Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Means of Transmission:
Direct or indirect contact
Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Incubation:
1-7 days
Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Symptoms:
Fever, red and sore throat, pus spots on back of throat, tender and swollen glands of neck, strawberry tongue, rash of skin and inside mouth, high fever, nausea, and vomiting
Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Treatment:
Antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics, increase fluid intake, and bed rest
Strep throat Means of Transmission:
Direct contact
Strep throat Incubation:
1-3 days
Strep throat Symptoms:
Fever, red and sore throat, pus spots on back of throat, tender and swollen glands of neck
Strep throat Treatment:
Antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics, increase fluid intake
Scabies Means of Transmission:
Direct contact or indirect contact with infested clothing/bedding
Scabies Incubation:
2-6 weeks
Scabies Symptoms:
Intense itching of small, raised areas of skin that contain fluid or tiny burrows under the skin, resembling a line-may be anywhere on the body
Scabies Treatment:
Topical scabicide, oral antihistamines, and salicylates to reduce itching
Pneumonia Means of Transmission:
Direct and indirect contact
Pneumonia Incubation:
Abrupt onset
Pneumonia Symptoms:
High fever, shaking, chills, productive cough
Pneumonia Treatment:
Antibiotics, liquids, rest, antipyretics
Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Means of Transmission:
Direct transfer of eggs from anus to mouth; indirect contact with eggs in clothing, bedding
Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Incubation:
3 weeks-3months
Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Symptoms:
Anal itching, insomnia, irritability
Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Treatment:
Anthelmintics, initiate scrupulous personal hygiene, shorten fingernails; launder washable items in hottest or boiled water
Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Means of Transmission:
Direct or indirect contact with discharge from eyes or upper respiratory tract of infected person
Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Incubation:
Viral: 24 hours to days; bacterial: 24-72 hours
Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Symptoms:
Redness of eyes, itching burning of eyes, matted eyelashes
Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Treatment:
Antibacterial agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids depending on causative agent
Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Means of Transmission:
Direct contact and droplet infection from respiratory tract
Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Incubation:
1-10 days, usually 3-4 days
Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Symptoms:
Sudden onset of fever, intense headache, nausea, vomiting; sometimes petechial rash, irritability, sluggishness (possible seizures or coma)
Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Treatment:
Hospitalization, bed rest, increased fluid intake, antipyretics, analgesics, antibiotics, by intravenous and/or oral administration
Meningitis (aseptic) Means of Transmission:
Direct contact, fecal-oral route, and respiratory secretions
Meningitis (aseptic) Incubation:
2-21 days
Meningitis (aseptic) Symptoms:
Sudden or gradual fever, intense headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, irritability, sluggishness
Meningitis (aseptic) Treatment:
Hospitalization, bed rest, increased fluid intake, antipyretics, analgesics
Influenza Means of Transmission:
Direct and indirect contact and by airborne secretions
Influenza Incubation:
1-3 days
Influenza Symptoms:
Sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, sore muscles, malaise (commonly runny nose, sore throat, and cough)
Influenza Treatment:
Bed rest, increased fluid intake, antipyretics
Impetigo Means of Transmission:
Direct contact with draining sores
Impetigo Incubation:
2-10 days
Impetigo Symptoms:
Blister like lesions (later become crusted), itching
Impetigo Treatment:
Cleansing of areas with antibacterial soap and water, topical and/or oral antibiotics
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Means of Transmission:
Direct contact with infected person
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Incubation:
2-14 days, usually 4-6 days
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Symptoms:
Painful blister on lips, which turn pustular and then form crusted scabs; oral lesions are small ulcerated areas
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Treatment:
Topical applications of drying medications; antibiotics for secondary infections
Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Means of Transmission:
Direct contact with blood, contaminated needles
Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Incubation:
14-50 days acute onset
Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Symptoms:
Onset is rapid and acute, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, weakness, dark urine, whitish stool
Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Treatment:
Bed rest, increased fluid intake, proper nourishment (no fats or alcohol)
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Means of Transmission:
Contaminated serum in blood transfusion or by use of contaminated needles or instruments
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Incubation:
14-50 days
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Symptoms:
Onset is rapid and acute, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, weakness, dark urine, whitish stool
Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Treatment:
Bed rest, increased fluid intake, proper nourishment (no fats or alcohol)
Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Means of Transmission:
Direct contact or by fecal-contaminated food or water
Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Incubation:
14-50 days, average 25-30 days
Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Symptoms:
Slow onset, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, weakness, dark urine, whitish stool
Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Treatment:
Bed rest, increased fluid intake, proper nourishment (no fats or alcohol)
Head lice (pediculosis) Means of Transmission:
direct contact with infested person; indirect contact is rare
Head lice (pediculosis) Incubation:
1 week (nits, or eggs, hatch in 1 week, mature in 2 weeks)
Head lice (pediculosis) Symptoms:
Itching of scalp; presence of small, light gray lice and nits (eggs) at the base of hairs
Head lice (pediculosis) Treatment:
Topical use of 1% lindane shampoo, lotion, or cream (7-10 days); comb nits from hair; launder washable items in hot water with hottest drying cycle, dry-clean or seal in plastic bags non washable items (2 weeks); thoroughly vacuum the environment
Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Means of Transmission:
Direct and indirect contact and droplet infection from respiratory tract
Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Incubation:
3+ days
Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Symptoms:
URI symptoms, fever, aches, sleepiness, no appetite; as disease progresses, child is irritable and fussy
Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Treatment:
Antibiotics, increased fluid intake, antipyretics, rest, analgesics
Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Means of Transmission:
Direct or indirect contact with infected person
Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Incubation:
12-72 hours (some viruses 2-7 days), usually 24 hours
Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Symptoms:
Slight sore throat, watery eyes, runny nose, sneezing, chills, malaise, low-grade fever
Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Treatment:
Rest, decongestant, mild analgesics, increased fluid intake
Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Means of Transmission:
Direct or indirect contact, droplet, or airborne secretion of infected person
Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Incubation:
2-3 weeks, usually 13-17 days
Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Symptoms:
Crops of pruritic vesicular eruptions on the skin, slight fever and headache, malaise
Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Treatment:
Bed rest, topical antipruritics
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Means of Transmission:
Direct contact: sexual, anal, or vaginal intercourse, sharing IV drug needles, infected mother to child (childbirth), blood to blood (from cuts, scrapes, punctures of skin). Indirect contact: blood transfusions.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Incubation:
Onset of AIDS following infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from 6 months to 10+ years.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Symptoms:
Early-loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, skin rashes, diarrhea, fatigue, poor resistance to infections, swollen lymph nodes. Later-cough, fever, shortness of breath, dyspnea, purple blothches on the skin.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Treatment:
Research and new developments continue in the search for a cure and a vaccine. The current treatment most commonly used is zidovudine (AZT).