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19 terms

Chemistry Chs. 7/8 vocab

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Valence Electrons
The electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atom
Cation
Formed when metal loses electrons (positive charge)...more protons than electrons
Anion
Formed when nonmetal gains electrons (negative charge)... more electrons than protons
Ionic Compounds
Composed of Cations and anions.
Ionic Compound
Compound is electrically neutral
Ionic Bonds
Opposite Charges attract(cation/anion)
Alloy
mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
Covalent Bond
a bond in which atoms are held together due to the sharing of electrons
Coordinate Covalent Bond
Bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
Molecule
Neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
Molecular Compound
A compound composed of molecules
Structural Formula
Represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms
Unshared Pair
a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between two atoms
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
when the atoms in the bond equally share the bonding electrons
Polar Covalent Bond
when the atoms in the bond unequally share more strongly and gains a slight negative charge. The electronegative atoms gains a slightly positive charge.
Dipole Interactions
When polar bonds are attracted to one another (positive end to negative end)
Van der Waals Froces
2 weakest attractions
Dispersion Forces
caused by the motion of electrons
Hydrogen Bonds
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom.